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IHE VEGETATION 

OF 

THE SIBERIAN-MONGOLIAN FRONTIERS 



Of the ])icsenl series 

CONTHIBUTIONES AD FLORAM ASIAE INTERIORIS PP:RTINENTES 

EDIDIT HEMilK I'RINTZ 

has previously l)eeii publislied : 

I. Meniuk PiuNTz, Die (^hlorophycecn dcs siidliclwn Sibiriens mid dfs l'rjiink(nlaii(les. 

— Del K(jl. Norske Vidcn.sk(d>ers Sclskcdjs Skrifier 1913, Ni: 't. 

II. 15, Kaai.aas, Einifje Brijophijlcu aiis dcin siidltchslcn SUnricn iu)d dcin I'ljankcdldirdc. 

— Ibid. 1918. Nr. 2. 



COXTHllU'TIONKS AD I'I.()KAM ASIAK INTi:i{K)l{l.S I'KUTlNKNTliS 

i;i)ll)IT IIKNHIK PKINT/ 
III 



THE VEGETATION 



OF 



THE SIBERIAN-MONGOLIAN FRONTIERS 



(THE SAYANSK REGION) 



BY 



HENRIK PRINTZ 





PUBLISHED BY DET KON'C.EI.IGE NORSKE VIDENSKABERS SELSKAB 



UK 
375 



AKTIETRYKKERIET I TRONDH.IHM 

1921 



•> 



( Oiitents. 

Page 

I'icfare 1 

General Phytogeographic Helalions oi' the Regions Traversed <) 

The Abakan Region and Adjacent Sleppe Areas !) 

The ^'egelalion of the Islets and River-Banks 14 

The Steppe Vegetation 23 

The Siberian Taiga Territory and the Urjankai Country 29 

The Transition Zone between the Ste[)pes and the Primeval Forest 29 

The Sayansk Mountains and the I'rjankai ("ountry 35 

Natural Conditions ?,5 

Summary of the Floral Conditions in the Sayansk Mountains and the Urjankai 

Country 43 

The Subalpine Taiga or Forest Territory 44 

The Alpine Region 73 

The Wooded Steppe Region 76 

The Lower Steppe Area about the Ulu kem 94 

Elnumeration of Vascular Plants Observed in the Regions Traversed 102 

Pteridophyta 102 

Gymnospermae 110 

Angiosperniae 11:'. 

Index of Genera and Families, Mentioned in the Systematical Part of the Book 444 

List of Botanical Literature Concerning the Government of Yeniseisk and the Urjankai 

(Country (the Southern Yenisei Valley) 448 

Corrections and Additions 456 

Explanation of Plates 407 

Ma]) of Northern Eurasia, Showing the Travelling Route of the Expedition. 
Draught of the Urjankai Country (After Rodewitsch). 
Phytogeographical Map of the Southern ^'enisei Valley. 
Plates. 



Profaee. 

In the present publication, vol. Ill of the series Coiitrilnitioncs A({ i'lomm Aside. 
Interioris Perlinenles. is given an account of the vascular plants I collected and observed 
on my journey in liic suiiinier of 1914 in southern Siberia and north-western Mongolia, 
in the so-called Urjankai country, a tract of land about the sources of the Yenisei, as 
yet almost entirely unknown. 

As to the travelling route of the expedition, the nature of the field of operations and 
our journey on the whole, Orjan (Ji.skx has given a detailed account in his book, 
77/ Jeniseis Kilder. Den riorske Sibirie-ekspedilions Rcisc 191 'i (Christiania 
1915). I have, moreover, in a previous woik. Die dliloruphi^ceen de.s SiUUichen 
Sibiriens and des Urjankdildndcs. the fii-st publication of the botanical results of the 
expedition, also given a brief sunmiary of our journey. 

The original plan of the expedition of exploring only in southern Siberia, was some- 
what altered, owing to a work published some months before our departure by Douglas 
C-ARRUTHERs, the English geographer. In this work, which was entitled [Uiknown 
Mongolia (London 1914), the author, without entering into further details, relates of a 
strange tribe of Soyote reindeer-nomads he had met with in the isolated wooded regions 
near the sources of the Yenisei, being till then practically quite unknown. On account 
of this sensational information, it was agreed, at the last moment, that the expedition 
should also try to penetrate, if possible, to this interesting race for the purpose of 
procuring further particulars. 

Consequently, the expedition came to traverse one of the regions in every respect 
least known in the interior of Asia, an out-of-the-way, isolated country, quite hidden 
by the impassable, wild Sayansk mountains and the waste mountain steppes of Mongolia, 
where the natives of the country have been able to preserve their original stamp, leading 
this very day a primitive life, altogether uninfluenced by any foreign culture, ('ariuthkhs 
expresses himself in the following way about this country: «This birthplace of one of 
Asia's greatest rivers, the region of the sources of the Yenisei, has hitherto escaped the 
discerning eye and eager foot of the traveller. The existing maps of this country are 
much at fault, certain have never even been mapped, and no attempt has been made to 
describe the wild stretches of dense forest and rugged ranges on the Siberian-Mongol 
frontier, or the strange tribes of shy, forest-dwelling Urjankhai inhabiting them.» 



It may be useful, in view of the localities mentioned later on and the following 
general survey of the character of the vegetation, to give in the sequel a brief account 
of the travelling route of the expedition. On the annexed map (2), only to be regarded 
as a rough and very imperfect sketch, the route is marked out by a red line. This 
sketch has been drawn from a Russian map in all essentials based only upon the state- 
ments of the natives. This country being mostly uninhabited and unknown, there are only 
few geographical names to which the local designations are referable. 

The four Norwegian members of the expedition, at the begining of May 
1914, proceeded by the Siberian railway to Krasnoyarsk, on the Yenisei, 
and further on up the river in a ferry-boat about 500 wersts southwards, to 
the small town of Minusinsk, where we arrived on the 29tli of May. 
Minusinsk, the outpost of civilization in those regions, where the last post- 
office and the last telegraph station are to be found, became the real starting- 
point of the expedition. At that time of the year, however, it was quite impossible to 
advance further southwards owing to the masses of snow in the Sayansk mountains, and 
the immense areas of swamp formed during the melting-time in the subalpine virgin 
forests in the lower ranges of those mountains, utterly prevented any attempt to pene- 
trate into these desolate, uninhabited and pathless wooded regions. During the first 
month, while we were waiting for the Sayansk range growing passable after the spring 
thaw, we made an excursion into the steppes along the river Abakan, one of the 
largest tributaries of the Yenisei in those regions. We started from Minusinsk on June 
2iid in a couple of canoes, in which we had packed up what was needed for the journey, 
the rest of our luggage being left behind. In order to lighten the transport, we intended 
to stick to the rivers and undertake from these shorter and longer lateral excursions into 
the steppes. 

According to our programme we were carried down the Yenisei as far as the 
small village of U s t A b a k a n s k\ near the junction of the Abakan with 
the Yenisei, from where we meant to make our way further to the south, upwards 
along the river. Our original plan, to row up the river against the stream, had to be 
abandoned, as the river was found to be swollen by the melting snows in the moun- 
tains, making it nearly impossible for us to master the rapid current. To save time we 
determined rather to have our boats and luggage driven up the large, flat steppes sur- 
rounding the river, and then to set them afloat again at a convenient place higher up. 
After driving in this way about 120 wersts southwards from Ust Abakansk, we set the 
boats afloat again in the neighbourhood of the Abakan-Tartarian establishment of Askys, 
and were from there carried back down-stream. \\^e encamped for some length of time 
on some of the numerous islets in the river, from where excursions were made over the 
steppes for botanical, zoological, geological, archaeological and anthropological purposes. 
On this journey we passed the rivers K a m u i s h t o and U z u i k, tributaries of the 
Abakan, and were, as planned, back again at Minusinsk on the 1st of July. During a short 

' usl (Russian) " mouth. 



stay there, we made excursions into the neighbourhood of llie town, lor instance to 
B u i s t r a y a and Ilic salt lake T a g a r s k i o s c r o', and then left Minusinsk to set 
out on our ^Yay to the south-cast into the Urjankai country. During the first days the 
route lay as shown on the map, direct easlwards through a hilly slcpi)o-land, leading jjast 
the villages of T a s k i n a and K a r a t u s to K u s h a h a r. the last settlement 
ill these jiarts. Ilcrt", the rich, open plain-lands of Siberia come to an end, and before 
us extended immense areas of primeval forest. A kind of i)alh or route rather indistinctly 
marked out leads from the said village through the Sayansk range into Mongolia, only 
rarely availed of by some lonely fur-trader or by gold-diggers from the mines among 
the mountains. This route, however, being very difficult, and at any rate impracticable 
with heavily loaded pack-horses, which would make us run great risks and waste time, 
we hired at Kushabar a number of boatmen, who poled our luggage in flat-bottomed 
canoes southwards up the A m y 1 Rive r. While a couple of the members of the expe- 
dition had to join the boatmen to look after the luggage, the rest set off on horseback 
through the <;,Taiga», accompanied by some guides. As a botanist, wishing to study the 
vegetation and the forest more closely, I chose to join the latter party. The Amyl River is 
passable in canoes about 120 wersts southwards up to K a 1 n a, a lonely Russian settle- 
ment on the U p p e r A m y 1. Here both parties met again, and from here all our 
luggage was carried by pack-horses through the Algiac Pass, forming the boundary 
between Siberia and Mongolia. Here we left Russian territory, and passed over into 
Chinese Mongolia, and on the 20fi» of July we arrived at U s t Algiac, on the south 
side of the Sayansk mountains. Ust Algiac is situated on the river S i s t i - k e m', 
a tributary of the B e i - k e m. From Ust Algiac, serving as our head- 
quarters, we made shorter and longer excursions into the surrounding country, 
for instance to a Soyote camp on the river T s h e r n o r e t s k a, and to a snowy 
mountain, to the north, where we had an opportunity to study the alpine flora and 
fauna and make collections. In a sketch in the above-mentioned book by 
Carruthers, these mountains are only reported as «White Mountains». According to 
the designation of the natives, I have, in the following, applied the name of «A 1 1 a i a n» 
to this mountain mass. After more than a fortnight's stay in this rather rainy tract, we 
floated with our luggage on the 5tii of August down the Sisti-kem in a raft made for the 
purpose, as our collections had added to the impediments, and arrived at Ust 
Sisti-kem on the Bei-kem in the evening the 9tii of August. 

After making several excursions from here, we left most of our luggage behind and 
travelled further on southwards past Ust K a m s a r a, S a i m k a L o b a n o w a, 
and the river I i to K o k u s and S a f i a n o w on Ust Do r a - k e m, and right south 
to the centre of the Soyotes on the D o r a s t e p p e, near T o d s h i - k u 1,' the sacred 
lake of the Soyotes. After about a week's stay here, during which we also visited the 



osero (Russian) = lake. 

Kem is a Soyote word, meaning river; Sisti is also a Soyote word, meaning small in contradistinc- 
tion from b e i = large. Bei-kem — the large river — is the name given to the Yenisei by the natives. 
Kill is a Soyote word, meaning lake. 



Buddhistic temple <,K u r e e» in this place, we descended on the 21st of August, in two 
canoes, the Bei-kem. running here at an average rate of 16 wersts an hour. At Ust 
Sisti-kem we took along with us the luggage left there, and floated down the river. At 
the rapids, the so-called p o r o g s, formed by the river near U t i n s k i. we had to 
disembark all our luggage and carry it downwards on the banks along the river, the 
boats being towed down-stream, or here and there, where the rapids were too powerful, 
•dragged over land. Under such circumstances the day's journeys became rather short, 
not exceeding from Y: to 1 werst. but for the rest, this boat expedition on the rapid stream 
was very quick, our day's journeys varying from 100 to 150 wersts. Here and there on 
our wav, in favourable situations, we made shorter stays to make collections. We passed 
on this journey the rivers S e b i, U 1 1, U j u k, T a p s a, and C h u a - k e m or C h a- 
k e m. After the junction with the last-mentioned stream at B j e 1 o s a r s k, the river 
runs under the name of the U 1 u - k e m through a rugged mountain steppe about 300 
wersts westwards to C h a - k u 1. The small village of Cha-kul, where we arrived on 
September 2uti, is the extreme station of the caravans coming through Mongolia, whence 
the Chinese and Mongolian goods are conveyed down the stream on immense rafts to 
Minusinsk and Krasnoyarsk. From merchants who happened to pass the place, we 
learnt of the European conflict having bioken out during our stay in the large wooded 
regions about the sources of the Yenisei. The river further on downwards was difficult 
or even dangerous to pass in our small canoes, large and swift as it had grown, with 
many rapids. As a large raft loaded with Mongolian bales of wool was just to start on 
its way northwards on the following day, we therefore determined to take this oppor- 
tunity. At K e m c h i k - b o m' the river runs through narrow clefts with 
high, vertical, rocky walls on either side, at the furious rate of about 40 wersts an hour, 
forming shining and whirling rapids, which it would have been most dangerous to 
attempt to pass in our small boats. In these clefts the boundary between Mongolia and 
Siberia was passed, and eventually we arrived at Minusinsk again towards the middle 
of September. An autumn excursion we had intended to make into the steppes in the 
adjoining district of the town, had to be given up owing to difficulties caused by the 
great war. 

It appears from the above survey and the following account that, our travelling 
route being so long and the regions traversed so untrodden, we had to force the journey 
to the utmost in order to be able to finish it in due time. In this way the journey itself 
took an excessively long time, and only fe\\' spare days I could wholly use for botanical 
investigations. On a journey of this kind there was, as a matter of course, no opportu- 
nity whatever for plant-oecological or statistical researches. Accordingly, the information 
I am able to give in the following chapter concerning the general character of the vege- 
tation in the tracts traversed, only make pretence to be a general phytogeographic 
survey. The journey was also mostly undertaken in boats or rafts on the 
rivers, and only during the short intervals for meals on the banks, could 
' bom = pass. 



any botanizing be pursued. On the journeys over land we were generally on 
the move from suniise till nightfall, and the caravans advancing quickly, 
a botanist would soon have been left behind if he had attempted to gather 
other plants than those growing quite near the route. Nor was it advisable to be left 
loo far behind, as a straggler in many cases might easily lose liis wa)% straying into one 
of the many paths made by wandering wild beasts in the process of time. The traveller 
is also as a rule under the necessity of following these paths on a journey through this 
country. The plants which might be collected in this way in Ihe course of the day, had 
to be subjected to pressure, and shifted into dry paper in the evening, in a narrow tent 
only sparingly lighted up by means of a tallow-candle. Especially in Ihe higher and 
nioister regions it was often rather difficult to gel the sheets of paper dried, and preserve 
the plants already prepared, in spite of careful packing in canvas bags. 

A foreign botanist may also meet with unlooked for difficulties here on the part 
of the natives. According to their superstition the earth is sacred, and any digging in 
it is considered to be a great sin, and such a violation is therefore very severely punished. 
This circumstance may also possibly account for the fact that they do not bury their 
dead in the ground. Accordingly, a short time after my arrival, the natives began to 
look upon my botanical undertakings with suspicion. Knowing nothing about this, I 
used every now and then my long Russian knife for rooting out plants in the presence 
of the whole tribe. It was therefore no wonder that the natives got excited, and for the 
bad weather and other calamities occurring just at thai lime. I was held I'esponsible, 
In spite of their respect for ourselves and our weapons, 1 was finally, when at last my 
misdoing had passed beyond all bounds to such an extent that 1 had not even shrunk 
from violating one of their holy plants, in a very defiant manner, summoned before 
the great chief of the tribe — the «Nojon» — and requested for an explanation. At 
the same time the great old shaman of the place threatened to let loose against 
us all the evil spirits, if we were not willing to apologize at once and do 
everything in our power to reconcile the great spirits. Under these circumstances it 
would have been unadvisable to stir up the public opinion any longer, the more so one 
of the chief objects of our expedition also being to procure ethnographical material and 
information concerning this interesting race, for which reason it was necessary to gain 
their confidence. There was accordinly no alternative but making amends for my 
crime, promising to adopt a better line of conduct for the future. After this adventure 
there was some difficulty for me to make my appearance with my disreputable bota- 
nical case, and when undertaking botanical excursions later on,I had to steal out secretly, 
and gather plants in my pockets, in paper bags, telescope cases, etc. We were also 
several times afterwards followed by natives, who had evidently been charged by their 
dignitaries to watch our conduct. Other travellers in central Asia also tell of having been 
escorted in a similar way by the natives. 

As a matter of course it is out of the question to give here an exhaustive botanical 
survey, and only a contribution to the knowledge of the vegetation of these regions is 

5 



aimed at, of which the existing literature hitherto contains only so little. It appears from 
what follows that the flora here, except the drier and hotter steppes, has an arctic, suh- 
artic and boreal character, bearing in its main features a close and interesting resem- 
blance to the flora of northern Europe. The resemblance was really frequently so striking, 
above all in the hydrophytic plant-associations, that a Scandinavian botanist might won- 
der at being in quite another part of the world. The vegetation here consists, in a great 
measure, or even mostly, of the same species as in Scandinavia or of types very near the 
European ones in systematical respects. Above all, it is the flora of northern Scandinavia 
with which the vegetation of these regions seems to agree. It might have been inter- 
esting, in the present paper, to enter into the question concerning the connection 
between the flora of central Asia and that of Scandinavia, at a greater length, taking into 
account the relations of land and sea, the migrations of the plants, etc, immediately 
after the last glacial period. This, however, I will have to postpone until new and more 
complete observations have been made by me during another journey to these regions, 
which I hope to be able to undertake according to my plan. 

It appears from the exact examination I have made of the Asiatic species 
that at times they differ slightly from the corresponding Scandinavian ones, 
the species occurring here — as it seems — frequently in other geographical 
races. It is, however, often impossible to determine exactly the systematical 
value of these small variations, which are in part only of a relative charac- 
ter, on the basis of a material so scarce and so accidentally brought together as must 
needs be the case in expeditions of this kind. In order to be able to arrive at trust- 
worthy results concerning this question, a very close study is required, based upon a far 
richer material than the one I have had at my disposal. In order not to confuse any more 
the systematical nomenclature, I have therefore — as long as I have not settled the syste- 
matical value of the aberrations —chosen not to describe new types founded on these 
dubious characters. Only in cases of real difference in point of organization, of undoubted- 
ly genotypical nature, have I found it right to distinguish the form in question as a new 
systematical type. The systematical value of these characters may perhaps also be viewed 
in a different way by future researches based upon a richer material, but in cases where 
the Asiatic forms are closely connected with well defined species, with which they 
have hitherto been united or confounded, I have generally thought it right to refer the 
forms only as new varieties or subspecies of these ones. The Asiatic specimens also 
sometimes seemed to be intermediate between types distinctly separated in Scandinavia. 
Especially in modern genera, rather rich in species, it is often difficult to decide whether 
a specimen ought to be referred to one or to anolhei- oi' Iwo nearly related species, 
which are from the first created only upon European material, since the specimens in 
question appear to combine characters from both of them. 

Unfortunately, the collections of the expedition have not yet all arrived, 
among which there is also likely to be found some botanical material that is 
missing, consisting of a number of vascular plants as well as of mosses and lichens 



from till.' rrjiinUai louiilrv. Owing lo tlic exliaordiiuuy stale of affairs in the 
autunin of lUll, \vc were unaljlf lo Iniiig our collcclioiis liomc, but had to leave 
llieiii in various phices in Silioria. Most of these articles have arrived afterwards via 
IIh' Art'lic Ocean, across liic nioulh of Ihc Vi'nisci, in ships belonging to the Norwegian- 
Siberian Trading Company, but sonic arc slill missing. All inquiries have, of course, 
luulci- the present circumstances, been (juite in vain, and not knowing what has become 
of the collections, 1 have thonglil it right not lo [nit oft any longer the publication of 
this paper. 

As to previous investigations of the vegetation of these regions, I refer to the 
complete list of lili'ralure inserted al Ihc end of liiis paper, also com])rising all works on 
the adjacent regions and liic w hole Yenisei valley, right up to the Arctic Sea. A survey of 
the literature only concerning the territory traversed would not be very extensive, these 
regions being some of the least known of central Asia. The region about Minusinsk 
is the one best known, and has especially been explored by Maht.ianow. The Urjankai 
country, on the other hand, has remained, to the very last, a real Icini incognita, 
nol only in point of botany, but also in every other respect. The meagre botanical infor- 
mation of this country is to be found in works by Kivilow (1903), Schiscmkin (1909), 
as well as by Prick and Simpson (1913). 

All that is put down in the following pages, 1 have collected and observed myself 
on my journey in 1914, and all of the photographs and other illustrations are likewise 
original. I have, in the following, annexed a series of photographs, as these are rather 
instructive, and likely to convey a good idea of the general character of the country. 

Nearly all the determinations have been undertaken by myself, partly here at 
Trondhjem, partly during stays at the Botanical Museum of the Christiania University, 
and during a stay in Petrograd in the summer and autumn of 1916, with a grant from the 
University at Christiania. In Petrograd I had the opportunity of examining the rich 
botanical collections from Siberia in the herbarium of the Imperial Botanical Gardens of 
Peter the Great, and in the Imperial Scientific Academy. A series of the authentic speci- 
mens of TuaczANiNOW, Hegel, Ledehour, Meyer and other explorers of Siberia, which are 
to be found here, have e.specially been of great interest to me. I am, moreover, also 
indebted to the Museum of Bergen and the Botanical Museum of the Scientific Academy 
at Stockholm for loan of material for comparison. 

I have, however, occasionally been able to profit by the advice and suggestions 
of some specialists, such as in Petrograd: Professor Dr. W. Komarow, Professor Dr. 
B. Fedschenko, Dr. B. Boschewitz, Dr N. Shipszinskv and Dr.W.SuKATCzEW, to all of whom 
I tender my sincerest thanks. Moreover, I call to mind with especial thankfulness my 
friend Dr. Iwan Nowopokrowsky for the kind assistance he rendered me at a time when 
so many difficulties were thrown in the way of foreigners in Petrograd, thus enabling me, 
under the existing condition of things, to profit richly by my stay there. During the sub- 
sequent composition of my manuscript here at Trondhjem, he has also been kind enough 
to lend me from his jirivate library a series of very useful books, which are no more in the 



nuukcl, and wliicii 1 luive also searched lor in vain in all the Scandinavian puhlic 
libraries. 

Among Scandinavian botanists, who have kindly lent me assistance in different 
ways, for instance in the denomination of critical species, in procuring literature 
etc., I am glad to acknowledge my indebtedness to Rector L. M. Neumann, Docent 
Dr. GuNNAR Samuelsson, 1)i-. H. Dahlstedt, the Rev. S. K. Enandek, Piolessor 
Dr. N. WiLLE, Gustos Ove Dahl, School-manager A. Notg, c.r. E. Jorgensen, and 
School-manager K. Traaen. 

To Dr. B. Lysholm. Trondhjem, who has liberally defrayed the expense of the 
illustrating plates, I beg to return here my sincere thanks. 

Trondhjem, January 16tli 1919. 

Henrik Printz. 



(it'iicral IMiy(oi»ro<!;ijipliic KelaHoiis ot the K('<>;ioiis Traversed. 



The Abjikiiii Hcnioii and AdjjUTiil St«'i>iM' Areas. 

The small town of Minusinsk, from where the ex]K'(li[i()n was started, is situated on 
the eastern bank of tlie Yenisei Hiver, in about 92 east louijilude, and 54"^ north 
latitude. The traveller a])|)roarliing Minusinsk from liie norlli l)y the river-ferry from 
Krasnoyarsk by the Siberian railway, will ratlier soon ol)seive, in liie general charac- 
ter of the vegetation, when going southwards, a gradually increasing dryness of the 
climate. The river-banks are at first rather steep and rocky, reaching from 100 to 150 
m. above the surface of the water. The eastern river-side is markedly higher and steeper 
than the western, a strange fact, w'hich may be accounted for by the rotation of the earth. 




--3 




Fig. 1. View of tlic river Yenist-i nortliwariis. The Ijnnk on the riglil (cnst) side of the illustration 
markedly higlier and steeper than on the lett west) side. I!et\veen Minusinsk and Krasnojarsk. 



The steep and rocky slopes are more or less naked, most of the soil being carried away, 
and the vegetation here mostly consists of mosses and lichens. In places which are not too 
steep for the heaping up of earth, the declivities exhibit various conifers and foliage 
trees, especially Reliila vcrmcosa, Popiiliis laiirifolia. Popuhis nigni. Populiis Iremiila. 
Pniiiiis Pddiis, several species of Salix. ant! Rosa, etc. 

Of conifers occur Abies sibirica. Picea obovata. Pinus siliwstris. more rarely 
Laiix sibirica and Pinus Cembm vai: sibirica. The eye of the traveller, however, is 
especially caught by the fine, white-stemmed birches with their fresh, green leaves, and 
— at this time, in the second half of May — by the flowering bird-cherries, filling the air 
with delicious, sweet odour. The trees here did not seem to attain any considerable 
height, being most of them comparatively small and medium-sized, recurved and crooked. 
Farther southwards the banks become gradually less steep and rocky. It 
appears from the luxuriant vegetation that the soil here is very fertile, but 
only here and there, at long intervals, are seen some few and small patches of culti- 
vated ground, constituting only a minimal portion of the land. The very scattered 
population seemed, by the way. to live mostly by breeding of cattle, and every now and 
then the traveller passes herds of cattle, especially of cows, sheep, goats, and horses. 

Further south the river becomes broader and shallower, here and there almost 
resembling a lake with numerous low islets; the valley widens, and the river-banks 
successively become lower. The traveller is no>v approaching the extensive south-Siberian 
steppes about Minusinsk; the climate becomes drier, and the wood gradually disap- 
pears. The cedar, spruce, and silver-fir, requiring much moisture, disappear first, then 
the fir, and last the larch, which seems most enabled to stand the drying wind prevalent in 
these tracts. Thus the character of the scenery is gradually changed from that of wooded 
country into a dry, open, brownish steppe, here and there with grey, reeking, and barren 
areas of sand, or with scattered larger and smaller salt lakes, some of which were already 
quite dried up, glittering in the sun. Along the river-banks and on the low islets are espe- 
cially to be found several species ol Salix. Populiis nigra and Primus Padus, with a luxuiiant 
undergrowth. This luxuriant belt, however, is quite narrow, only covering the immediate 
neighbourhood of the river. 

The environs of Minusinsk are, accordingly, a slightly undulating, open steppe- 
land, from where the snow-clad peaks of the Sayansk mountains may be seen gleam- 
ing forth, limiting the steppe to the south. In the northern part of the Minusinsk region, 
the soil is genei'ally sandy and too dry for farming, while, on the other hand, the southern 
parts mostly consist of of the well-known Russian black earth — «t s c h o r n a j a 
s e m 1 j a». Here the climate is moister and the country accordingly very rich. This 
southern and soutli-eastern district is really considered to be the richest and most 
luxuriant one in all Asiatic Russia, and is for this reason also named the Italy of 
Siberia. The towns along the Siberian railway are, for a great part, supplied with corn 
and other victuals from this region. 



10 



As compared willi ollici- parts of Siberia, the Minusinsk region has a very 
mild and pleasant clinialo, witliout the sudden transitions frequently so charac- 
teristic of the open Siberian steppes. It is, of course, markedly continental, with 
very hot summei's and cold winters, in summer with hot days and rather cold 
nights. In June, a maximum temperature of the day of 40° C. was not unfrequently 
recorded by us, while the nights were, in return, comparatively cold, now and then with 
only some few degrees of heat — from 5 to 6° C. — and with an exceedingly heavy 
dew-fall. At that time of the year, the dew began to appear already before sunset, and 
was later in the evening so heavy as to i-esemble a fine rain dripping from the trees. This 
was often observed during our stay on the islets in the river Abakan. The rivers 
here are free from ice at the end of April or the beginning of May. 

According to (".aiuuithkus the mean annual temperature and rain-fall at Minu- 
sinsk are: 

Winter: temperature -^ 14,4' C. (January is the coldest month), amount of lain 
15,2 mm. 

Spring: temperature + 6,1° C, amount of rain 54,8 mm. 

Summer: temperature + 19,4° C. (July is the hottest month), amount of rain 
141,2 mm. 

Autumn: temperature + 5,6° C, amount of rain 67 mm. 

The most important quantity of rain is seen to fall in summer and in the autumn, 
amounting to 200 mm. or slightly more, while the snow-fall in winter is rather insigni- 
ficant. Thus the total average rain-fall at Minusinsk is 278,2 mm., but varies rather much 
even in neighbouring localities. It increases rapidly southwards and eastwards, towards 
the Sayansk mountains, being nearly doubled, and reaching 538,5 mm. yearly, at a 
distance of only 68 wersts from Minusinsk. The character of the scenery is therefore 
rather suddenly changed, passing into a more rugged and richer tract of land, with a 
more luxuriant and varying vegetation, with various trees and shrubs. The most northern 
and western part of the Minusinsk Steppe, where the steppe-land predominates, is 
accordingly the driest. 

Between the Yenisei to the east and the river Abakan to the west, there extends 
a large, flat, nearly barren and depopulated steppe, the so-called Abakan Steppe. 
As I have only traversed a rather small part of it myself, especially the portions about 
the river Abakan itself and the tracts of land west of it, I shall, in the following, only treat 
of these parts. It may be added that I have never visited the large steppes towards the 
Yenisei. The Abakan Steppe itself is certainly more arid than the surroundings of 
Minusinsk, but there is a total absence of observations as to the meteorological condi- 
tions of these regions nearly uninhabited. In this di.strict, both the Yenisei and the Abakan 
are very bi'oad, widening in places so as to form veritable small lakes with a great 
variety of rather low-lying islets, always exposed to the erosion of the current, so that 
the borders are generally steep. Frequently larger and smaller quantities of earth slide 
down when the river has dug out sufficiently to remove the support of the higher strata. 

11 



In llic monlli of June these islets lay at a level of from 1 to 1,5 m. above the surface of 
the water, that is, on a level with the low steppe itself. To judge from all the drift 
wood, however, washed upon the islets, they are completely or partially submerged in 
spring when the river-water is at its highest. 'I'his circumstance may, moreover, account 
for the nearly total absence of quadrupeds and reptiles, especially snakes, abounding on 
the steppes, but never observed by us in these localities. Chiefly in the lower part of the 
river some of the islets lie at a considerably higher level, the whole steppe as well lying 
somewhat higher, frequently from 3 to 6 m. above the surface of the river. The stream 
constantly erodes this loose material on the sides, and the steppe, as well as frequently 
also the islets, generally rises abruptly from the water. 




V']<!,. 2. From the lower coLirse ol' the rivir Ab.iUan. Tlic v\\cv 
erodes, so Hint the steppe falls abrupt towards the river. 

In the neighbourhood of the river the soil of the steppe chiefly consists 
of brown clay, at a greater distance from the river of black earth, and here and there 
of sand or very sandy earth. In many places the soil is saline, salt lakes and salt 
marshes being widely distributed. In places where the solid rock lies bare, it turns out 
to consist of red Devonian sandstone cliffs with scattered coal-fields. The steppe floor 
proper lies at an altitude of from 250 to 300 m. above sea-level, which is markedly low, 
making proper allowance for the fact that it is situated so far into the great continent. 

There is now, practically speaking, a complete absence of tree vegetation 
in the traversed parts of the Abakan Steppe, save in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the rivers. There was, however, evidence that the climate had once been 
moister, and the steppe, at least partially, covered with woods, for tree-roots are to be 
found in the ground in several places. Some lonely larches, straggling at long intervals, 
frequently on the summits of the Devonian sandstone cliffs, are now the last remains of 
the woods covering these tracts of land in former times. Now there is not even sufficient 



12 



fii('-\v()()(l, and llie lra\ cllcr, wlu'ii iiiHlerlakiii}^ a journey licro, will iiave to carry with 
liim (he necessary fuel. Already previous travellers through the steppe regions of Asia 
have ol)servcd llial the tree vegetation occurring at all on the stcjipcs. is especially to 
be found on the hilly ranges. ■1'ani-ii..ii.\v and others, who have .studied this more closely, 
are. as is known, of opinion that one reason of the steppes wanting trees is the 
salinity of the soil, and liial the forest will advance in ])roportion as the .soil is being 
washed out. .\s this washing out of salt must be supposed to be going on first on the 
height.s, at the watershed, the pioneers of the forest will accordingly find reasonable terms 
and appear first in these places. .Mthough this supposition may possibly agree in some 
cases, it cannot, however, be adopted for all, and for instance not for the yVbakan Steppe, 
where, as mentioned above, formerly, in a moistcr period, the steppe was wooded. On 
the contrary, from my own experience in other regions, I consider lliese lonely larches 
on the ridges as the last remains of those forests in former times also extending over the 
lower parts. 

There are, on the other hand, indications that the Ireelessness of the steppe is not 
always due to the long-continued drought only, for trees are also wanting in places on 
the steppe where the soil is moist or even swampy all the year round, and where the 
water — to judge from the general character of the vegetation — is ([uite fresh. 

During my stay on the Abakan Sleppc, I collected a number of tree-samples in the 
ground, and after my return home I have subjected them to an investigation with the 
microscope. As the structure of these samples, thousands of years old, was, as. might also 
be expected, somewhat decayed, I have not been able to settle definitely w'hether they 
originate from spruce or larch, the microscopic wood structures of which, as is well- 
known, resemble each other so much that it is difficult to distinguish them, even in fresh 
material. There are, however, features indicative of the samples consisting of larch 
wood. 



'r^^r ^' 




Fig. 3 I-'rom the .\bakan Sleppc near Ust .\bakansk. 



13 



The Abakan Steppe is now, in the main, a dry, grassy steppe, most of the vegetation 
being made up of a thin cover of plants, chiefly composed of various species of grass, 
averaging from 20 to 30 cm. in height, above all Festiica ovina siibspec. sulcnla and 
Koeleria gracilis, growing so kn apart as to expose the th-v, naked soil. For tlie rest, the 
plants occurring sparsely in admixture with these species ol i^rass, vary accordiuif lo Uil" 
conditions of moisture and Ihe character ot the soil. In these regions, the character of the 
vegetation is, above all, dependent on Ihe conditions ot moisture On the islets in the ri- 
ver and along the banks, hydrophile and mesophile plants are to be found, but, only 
at a short distance from the river these conditions are changed, and the xerophile 
typical steppe vegetation predominates. 

In point of the floristic conditions, the region here may therefore, for the purpose of a 
general view, most conveniently be divided into the vegetation oft he islets 
and the r i v e r - b a n k s, and the vegetation of the steppe p r o- 
p e r, the former chiefly with mesophile and hydrophile plants, the latter in the main 
consisting of xerophile ones. 

The Vegetation of the Islets and River-Banks. 

The river Abakan, like the Yenisei, here in the plain-land divides into numerous 
branches, the so-called «protoks». so as to form a great variety of larger and smaller moist 




Fig. 4. Typical scenery from an i.slet in Uu- river Abaliiui near L'ibat. Natural meadow 
14 with scattered bushes ot' Salix daphnoidcs. 



i.slots, llic soil of wliirli is generally very fertile, consisting ol' hhick cinlli, oi here ;in(l 
there of more sandy cailii. Some of these islets are pretty large, up to several wersts in 
length, and their surface is roughly on a level with the low steppe along the river, and, 
like the steppe, quite flat and smooth. There is in these islets moisture enough to con- 
tribute to the growth of an exceptionally luxuriant vegetation, really constituting small 
oases in the waste, where are to be found numerous species of plants which have 
nothing in common with the vegetation of the surrounding steppes. The vegetation is 
in the main composed of boreal and subboreal species of jilanls. Several trees and shrubs 
are to be found here as well, forming here end there dense thickets, from 2 to .5 m. high, 
for instance of various species of Salix. along the banks, but elsewhere scattered over the 
islands, interspersed with larger and smaller open, rich, natural meadows, giving the land 
an open, park-like appearance. In June the vegetation of the meadows was very luxu- 
riant, averaging about 75 cm. in height. The flora on a small islet of this description. 




Fig. 5. Naluriil nioiidow on an islul in the river Abalvaii near L'st Kainiiishto. Tlio vegetation 

consists mainly of Thaliclniiu minus. TlniUclmm simplex, Onobriichis vicidcfolici. Ilcmcrocalia /lai'ti. 

Pleurospcrmiim (iiislri<iriim besides various grasses ami sedges. In llie l)ael<.nrouriil 

speeies o\' Salix. 

about .4 werst long, and 'i(K) to 'ifiD m. broad, situated near Ust Abakansk, and visited by 
me at the beginning of June, may be mentioned here as an instance of the vegetation in 
such localities. The soil here consi.sted of common black earth with smaller fields of 



15 



drier and sandy material farther inland. Of shruljs and trees the following were to be 
found:') 

Salix Diminalis ixir. (imelini f. iii/escens, Salix ciiierea X S. vinunali.'^ uar. Gmelini. 
Salix tiiandra. Salix daphnoides, Corniis alba. Primus Padus, Populus laurifoUa. Belida 
verrucosa. Rosa cinnamomca, Rosa acicularis, and yhjrkaiia damirica (amoni^ pebidcs 
on sandv rivpr-l)aiiUs). 




Fig. G. Islet ill the river Abuknn. Thicket ol' .Sa//.i- riminalis far. Gmelini 

In thickets a ground flora was to be found chiefly consisting of the following 
species: 

Vicia sepiiim, Primula palens, Pohjgonatum officinale, Cacalia hastala. Hamulus 
Lupulus, lAimium album, Galium boreale. Veronica pseudolongif'olia nan. spec, Galium 
Molugo, Polentilla lernala, Chelidonium majus var. grandi floras, Valciiana officinalis. 
Lysimachia vulgaris and Care.v Arnelli. 

The islets, of course, mostly consisted of natural meadows, densely clothed with a 
luxuriant growth of various species of grass, of which, however, only comparatively few- 
were flowering at that time. Among the plants characterizing the meadows was, above all, 
predominant the pretty, white, large-flowered Anemone silvesliis. occurring here in 
abundance, and, moreover the following appeared: 

Glecoma hederacea, Taraxacum officinale. Taraxcuiim Piinlzii Dahlst. nov. spec, 
Taraxacum laevigalum, Polentilla ternata. Polentilla anserina, Rume.v Acetosa, Rumex 



In this etiiimeratioii as well as usually also in the fullowiuK ones, I have aivcu the i)laiits in sne- 
eessiou, as put dawn in my iliarios. This Kives, at least to some degree, an idea of the domi- 
nance of the various species. In order to illustrate the composition of the vegetation I generally give, 
as far as possible, complete lists of plants for each locality, and accordingly not only of the most cha- 
racteristic ones. I do not consider the said method to be superfluous in this connection involving 
tracts of land which in point of botany are so unknown as in the present ease. 



16 



Arrlosd ixir. Iiiiliiliis. lyimic.v llnirsifloriis, [Irlicu dioica, Trifolimi} rrpciis. IHcintago media, 
('.(imcliiut microcdrpd. I'litnUuio mcijoi. I'liuaiia I'ilipcndula, CJrsiiim arvense, Sanguisorbd 
ojficiiudis (oiilv leaves), Tludiclnim minus. Tludiclnim simf)le.v. Slclldiid discolor, (iaiium 
hoicdlc. Hemriocdlis fidixi. PiimuUi fdiinnsd. Ihlfigald coiudstim forntd. Artemisia spec.. 
SlelUirid Iviif/ijolid. Mi/usulis siliHilicd. Bdrlntrra dicudla. Alopecuriis pr(densis, Equiselum 
prdlensc. Rdiiimculiis dcer /'. s<iiidrrosiis. ami /'. Slevenii, Planlago media var. Uroilleana. 
In sliohtly moister liahitals, iieai' river banks, etc, are to be found: 
lldiniiunlus icpeus. (iaiium uliginosum. Polenlilla dnscriiui. Sciipus idj>inus var. 
oligdulhus. Hdnumulus. replans. Ranunculus suh.similis nor. spec. Mgo.solis paluslri.'i 
ixir. nemoio.'«i. Viola pumila. Rume.v agualicus. Vlmdria penhipeldld. Rod lrii>idlis 
rar. mulli/iord. Care.v lepoiina. lupiiselum arvense. Hierochloe odorala f. puhescens. and 
in muddy and pailially inundated places Cicala virosa. Scirpus paluslris. Lgsimachia 
Ihgrsiflora. Alisma Planlago. Lgcopus europaeus. Polggonum Hgdropiper. Polygonum 
amphibiumf.aqualicum. Scirpus silimlicus, Pelasileslaevigalus, Equiselum Heleocharis,Care.t 
cdcspilosa, Carex vesicaria, Callha p<duslris. Me.nganlhes Irifoliala. and Calliliiche vrrna 
are llie mosi eonspieuous 




Fig. 7. From one of the small islets in tlie river Yenisei near 
Ust Abakansk. Grassy field with Salix. 

In drier and sandy soil farther inland, the same xerophilous plants partly occm- 
which are to be lound on the surrounding steppes, viz: 

Hordeum secalinum vat. brevisubulalum. Libanolis monlann var. sibirica. Auena 
planiculmis, Anagallidium dicholomum, Draba nemorosa var. leiocarpa, Gentiana 
humilis, Ulmaria Filipendula. Hgpochaeris maculala, Senecio campeslris. Androsaces 
seplenlrionale. Lgclwis .sibirica. Ailemisia sericea. Carex pedifoimis. Carex slenophglla. 
Carum Carvi. and Mgosolis inlermedia. 

As an instance of the flora of a somewhat larger islet with a rather strongly marked 
humus soil may be memtioned an islet in the river Abakan, between the village of 

17 



Askys and Ust Kamuishto. The islet was sevei-al wersts in length, but its highest point 
was only a couple of meters above the surface of the river. The vegetation was very 
luxuriant, and over 100 different species were collected here by me. In places along 




Fig. 8. Small islet in the river Abakan. The bank of the river 
grown with shrubbery of Salix and species of Carex. 

the banks where the ground was not too much exposed to the erosion of the river, 
there was generally a dense jungle, from 2 to 5 m. high, consisting of various species of 
Salix. above all Salix viminalis var. splendens, Salix viminalis var. Gmelini f. rufescens , 
Salix daphnoides, Salix daphnoides var. rorida, Salix livida subspec. cinerascens var. 
occidenialis, and Sali.r triandra. 

These species were scattered, besides along the river-banks, all over the islet, 
accompanying Populus nigra — the latter here and there forming high, old trees — 
moreover of Populus lamifolia, Populus Iremula. Belula verrucosa, Rosa acicularis. Rosa 




Fig. 9. Islet in the river Abakan, Salix viminalis var. Gmelini 
and Populus nigra. 



18 



cinnamomea, ('.rtiUictiux s(tn(/iiiric<i, (juiiiis tiUxt. and Laii.isihiricd. Of llu' hisl mentioned 
one only a few specimens were to be found in the interior of the islet, in a rather drier 
and gravelly meadow. 

The meadows here were generally somewhat moist and very luxnriant, with a 
vegetation in places reaching nearly shoulder-high. Here is a list of the most important 
species belonging to such localities: 

Valeriana officinalis. Archangelica decurrens, Pleurospermum auslriacuni, Veralruin 
album (leaves) Heracleiuu (lissccliun. Onobrychis viciae folia. Tii folium Lupinaster. 
Lalhijrus pralcn.ti.s. Lallujiiis lubeio.'tus. Ilemerocalis jlava, Vicia amocna. Tlialictrum 
minus. Tlialirlrum simplr.v. Polijf/onum undulalum rar. alpinum. and Cuscuta euiopaeu. 




Fig. 10. From an islet in the river Abakan near UstAbakansk. Meadow with 

Plcurospeimum aiislruiciim. Onobrychis viciaefoUa. Sanguisorba 

officiniilis. Orobus lubcrosii.'!. 

Where the vegetation was less dense and lower, were to be found: 
Medicago falcata. Vicia teirasperma, Medicago lupulina. Ranunculus acris, Ranun- 
culus polganthemos. Hoideum secalinum. Poa alpeslris. Poa iriviulis, Poa palustiis. 
Alopecurus pratensis. Avena pubescens, Avena pubescens i>ar. alpina. Bronms inermis. 
Bronms inermis var. arislaius. Daciglis glomeraia. Carex curaica. .Juncus compressus. 
Mentha aruensis. Polygonum riviparum. Polygonum aviculare. Polygonum Bistorta, 
Euphrasia Jaeschkei. Galium boieale. Galium Aparinc. Slellaria crassifolia subspec. 
paludosa. Slellaria discolor. Anemone silvesti is. Myosotis paluslris var. nemorosa. Lathy r us 
palustris, Trifolium repens, Tragopogon pratensis var. orientalis. Cirsium arvense. 
Herminium Monorchis, Planta go major, Plantago media var. Urvilleana. Potentilla anserina, 
Halenia sibirica. Geranium pratense, Camelina microcaipa. Sisymbrium Sophia. Vina 
cracca. Vicia amoena. Potentilla flagellaris, Taraxacum Bessarabicum. Taraxacum 
laevigatum. Cypripedilum macranthon. Cypripedilum gullalum. and Rumex Acetosa. 

19 



In slightly moister meadows were to be found Ijesides some of the above-mentioned: 

Jiinciis biifoniiis. Beckmannin criiciformis. Carex leporina. Poliif/oniim (tmphibiiim 

f. terrestre. Androsaccs Gmelini, Pediciiliiris pnluslris, Geranium sibiriciim. Nasturtium 

palustre, Cirsium palustre, and in muddy, swampy places, especially in still creeks and 

in pools with stagnant water the most conspicuous species are: 




Fig. 11. From an islet in the liver Abakan near Ust Kaimii.sclito. 

Hemerocalis flava, Tluilictnim minus. Thaliclnun simplex and various 

species of grasses. In llie background Sali.v and Rosci. 



Scirpus palustris, Alisma Plantago, Batiachium fhwiatile, Cicuta virosa, Armoracia 
sisijmbrioides, Cenolophium Fischeri. Carex orthnstachys, Carex intermedia, Scirpus 
acicularis. Utricularia vulgaris, Sium cicutae folium, Phragmites communis, Bulliarda 
aqualica, Petasiles laevigatas, Lgsimachia Ihgisiflora, lA/simachia Ihyrsiflora var. davurica, 
Polggonum amphibium f. aquaticum, Potamogeion peifoliatus. Polygonum Hydiopiper. 
Carex vesicaria, Carex vesicaria var. alpina, Carex giacilis var. erecla, Equisetum 
Heleocharis, Hippuris vulgaris, Bidens tripartita. Ranunculus sceleratus, and Eriophorum 
(tngustifolium. 

In rather dry meadows also here a flora predominates with many species in com- 
mon with that of the surrounding steppes: 

Galium verum. Thesium refraclum. Peucedanum vaginatum, Poa attenuata. 
Anagallidium dichotomum, Hypochaeris maculata, Stellaria dichoioma, Erodium 
Stephaniannm, Erysimum hieracifolium, Crepis tectorum, Arabis hirsula, Vincetoxicum 
sibiricum. Carum Carvi, Libanolis montana var. sibirica, Senecio ,Jacobaea, Donloslemon 
micranthus, Festuca rubra, Fesluca rubra var. arenaria, Carex diluta, Carex heterostachya. 

20 



Till' sIkuIv space in lliickols is occupied l)y a vc^clalioii coiisislino mosllv oi': 

Vkia lunovna. Vivid sepiiiiu. Vicia cinccd, Viria iinijuf/a, Tn/oliiim Liipinaslcr. ('.acdliu 
hdsldhi. I.iisiiuarhid luilijiiris. Tdiidrrluin luilgdir. I'oliifiondlitiu offirindli'. Prinuild jxilnts. 
Siiilclldriii sconliijolid. Veronicd psrudoloniji/olid noi>. spec lUmdiia pcntdpcldld. 
Polf'niilld sibiricd odr. (jeniiiiid. liubiis sdxdlilis. Rnbiis i(liirus. I'cdicttldris resiipinald. 
Soldiuim nulcdiiuird ixir. pcisicuni. liiiihi saliciiid. Arleiitisid vuUpiris. Pli'urospermum 
duxlridcdm. and Cdhtindgrostis cpicjeios. 

Aiiioiii^ sand on the nver-l)anks MclHoliis dllnis. Ptilsdtilld luiU/aris, Tlwsiuni 
rejrdctiim. Rimie.v Accloselld. Vidcelo.ricuin sihiriruin. and Iris rulhcnicd Irefiiienlly 
occurred. 

The above plants fiom these two locaUlies constitute llie ordinaiv vci^elalion oi all 
llic islets examined b^' me in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, hi some places a few other 
species may also occur. Thus, in thickets of Populus laiirifolid. Populus nigrd. PopuUis 
Ircnriild. and various species of Sdli.r on an islel near Ust Ahakansk, were lurtheiinore to 
be Ibund Aqrimonid pilosd. Geiiin Aleppicum, Meldndryuni dlbuni. and in moist meadows 
Cnidiuni venosiiin. 

Larger and smaller banks and shoals formed by copple-stoncs are very common 
in llu' river, and wliere the stream is not too 'rapid, thev are i^rown with Peldsiles 

m 

lnei>i(jaliis\\\'h\ch is a i)lant very typical of similar localities. 



.j^ifSSfy^^ 




i^,^., 




Fifj. 12. Low islets witli tliickets of SnHx in llic river Ab;iU:iii. In Uif bacUj^rounil lIuMliy. barren slcppe 

The nearest surroundings of the rivers are also, as mentioned above, covered with 
various trees and shrubs of '.he same kind as those to be found in the islets. The ground 



21 



flora of the first-nienlioned localities as well, agrees perfectly with that of the islets. But 
only at a short distance from the river, the character of the vegetation is changed. The 
moisture of the soil decreases rather quickly, and the brownish-grey steppe appears, 
with a poor and rather monotonous vegetation. In depressions on the steppe not far 
from the river, there is frequently moisture enough for forming small, shallow swamps 
witli a richer flora. In such a depression on tlic Ahakaii Steppe, not far from the village 
of Askys, I have observed the following plants: 

Poa pralensis, Poa alpina, Poa irrigala. Poa alpestiis, Poa palustiis f. stolonifera, 
Carex capillaiis subspec. densi flora nov. siibspec. Carer panicea, Carex atro-fusca var. 
coriopboia. Carex tomenlosa. Carex gracilis. Carex Goodenoiighii, Carex vesicaria, Carex 
intermedia, Carex orthoslachgs imr. tgpica. Hordeum secalinum var. brevisiibulaliim. 
Scirpus alpiruLS var. oliganthus. Scirpiis Tabernaemoniani. Scirpiis paliisiris. Glyceria 
aquatica, var. ariindinacea, Phragmites communis, Phalaris arundinacea, Agrostis 
canina, Junciis bufonins, Junciis Gerardi, Androsaces Gmelini, Orchis mililaris X ^• 
simia, Orchis angustif alius. Orchis simia. Orchis lalifolius var. tenuior, Orchis 
anguslifolius vai. Fiiesii, Oichis incarnaius. Cypripedilum macranthon, Herminium 
Monorchis, Polggonum amphibium. Ranunculus acris. Caliha palustris, Trollius asiaticus. 
Anemone silveslris. Potentilla anserina. Cardamine pralensis var. parvifolia. Primula 
sibirica var. brevicalgx, Pedicularis palustris. Lysimachia thyrsiflora, Triglochin palustre. 
Plantago major, Petasites laevigatas, and Equisetum Heleocharis var. fluviatile. 

In other places, in similar depressions with more sandy earth, for instance about 
the river U i b a t. the steppe was observed in the flowering season to resemble a large 
blue sea nearly exclusively consisting of Iris ensata. Farther into the steppe are 
also to be found a number of larger or smaller lakes and swamps, but the water here is 
salt, and the plant life in and about them is therefore quite differing and will be entered 
into at a greater length in the following survey of the vegetation of the steppe. 

The Steppe Vegetation. 

Ihe Abakan Steppe appcrs to be one large, continuous plain extending for hundreds 
of wersts in every direction, almost entirely smooth and flat, like a floor. The vegetation 
differs somewhat in the various places according to the conditions of the soil, which, 
in some places, is almost quite dry and waste. In the main, however, it may be said 
to be a typical grass-steppe with some few predominating species, above all Koeleria 
gracilis and Fesluca ovina var. sulcata covering the ground with a vegetation so sparse 
as to lay open to the view the greyish-brown or greyish-yellow earth. These species of 
grass are themselves not of a fresh green either, but of a more greyish-green or yellowish- 
green colour, thus giving the whole steppe, even early in summer, a monotonous, withe- 
red, and dry appearance. The composition of the vegetation may, however, differ con- 
siderably according to the character of the soil. As instances of the vegetation of the 
steppe I shall therefore in the following mention the different species occurring in the 



various pretty typical situations 1 have met willi 
of course yraduallv into each other. 



Tiie different phml-societies merge 




i.if*.- .^v4 



Fig. 13. Fiom tlie Abakan Steppe near Askys. Typical gras.s steppe 

mainly with Koclcria gracilis and Fesliica ovimi siihspcc. sulcata In 

the background reddish-grey Devonian sandstone bills reaching 

100—150 m. above the ground. 

On sandy steppes near Ust Abakansk on the eastern bank of the river, I have 
collected the following plants at the beginning of June: 

Koeleiia gracilis. Fesliica ovina var. sulcata. Carex siipina. Cairx pediformis. Carer 
stenophylla. Stipa pennata var. Joannis, Triliciim cristaliim var. imbricatiim, Erilrichium 
pectinaliim, (especially commom on the «Kurgans») Androsaces inaxin^a, Echinospermum 
Lappula var. anisacanthiim. Astragalus stenoceras, Polentilla soongorica subspec. glandiiloso 
nov.siibspec.Leplopyrnmfumarioides, Thermopsis lanceolata, Algssiim alpeslre, Astragalus 
testiciilatus, Onosina echioides var. Gmelini (some few scattered specimens here and 
there somewhat overtopping the common low steppe vegetation, are visible at a great 
distance because of Iheir gaudy light yellowish colour), Iris flavissima, and Cotyledon 
spinosa (in June only found rosettes). 

In rather stony places, on declivities, elc, are here to he found Lychnis sibirica, 
Polentilla subacaulis. Thymus Serpyllum var. angiistifoliiim. Thalictriim petaloideum. 
Oxytropis pilosa, Scrophularia incisa. and Dracocephahiin nutans. 

Here and there on the steppe are to be found some slightly moister slopes with 
open brushwood consisting chiefly of Caragana arboiescens and Cotoneaster melanocarpa, 
and with the following plants characteristic of these habitats: 

Spiraea hyperici folia, Scorzonera radiata, Solidago Virgaurea, Aster alpinus, 
Genliana humilis. Iris ruthenica. Iris ensala, Hesperis matronalis var. sibirica, Mgosotis 



23 



silvnticn. Polijgala roinosiim forma. Slellarin Biingeana var. lolifnlid. Slellnria gmminea, 
Cerastiiini arnensc. and Frogarin viridis. 

Near Askys, along the western bank of the river, there extends a dry steppe, up to 
several wersts broad, within which ridges rise to an altitude of from 100 to 150 m. The 
soil of the steppe itself seemed to consist here mostly of sand, here and there in 
admixture with black earth, which is too diy, however, for successful agriculture. 
Nearer the hills, the ground becomes gradually more stony, passing by degrees into the 
dry sandstone cliffs themselves, making the sides of the hills. From the summits of 
these hills may be surveyed westwards an enormous, rugged rock-steppe, of a dry and 
l)rown, almost desert-like, appearance, consisting of reddish-brown hills of Devonian 




Fijj. 14. View over the Abakan Steppe westwards. liock steppe, con sisting o l' Devonian sandstone, 
almost (leserl-like. One the ridge in the foreground may l)e observed three lonely hirches. 

sandstone, with dried up river-beds. The soil is accordingly very poor, the rocky 
ground is either cjuite bare or only covered by a thin layer of earth, and with ait 
extremely sparing and monotonous flora, which, however, I had no opportunity of 
examining more closely. To the east, the Abakan Steppe itself may be viewed, exten- 
ding as far as the eye reaches, level and smooth, of a uniform, brownish-grey colour, the 
river-bed being marked out as a green stripe on this monotonous plain. The steppe is 
here a typical grass-steppe. To illustrate the composition of the vegetation here, I 
give the following list of plants found by me: 

Koeleria gracilis, Festiica ovina var. sulcata, Festuca rubra, Fesluca rubra i>ar. 
arenaria. Tiiticum caninuru var. geniculalum. Agropgrum pseudo-Agropgrum. Plileum 
Bnehmeri sabsppc. derurtatnm nov. subspec, Avena Schelliana, Avena pratensis, Slipa 



•24 



(■(if)ill(il(t ixtr. Jodiinis. rriliciim icju-ns. I'lxi (itlrminia, Aqmslis taiiiiui. Curcx pnlifoiinis. 
Carex stcnophijlla. Cobrcsid siicc. Ai>ci}<i (Icscrlorum. Avenu jualcnsis. Difilciclinc sfjiuirrosa: 
more iiiti'is|)CTse(l tlicro also ociui' licie Ihr i)ii'lly. hrinisloiie coloiiied lirijsimuin 
aHniniiJi and Silcnc .Icinsrd. ('.ijinh<ui(t ddi'iuivn. Hujilfui inn iiiiilliiii'ri'r. Onosiiui vcluoidrs 
i>(ii. (iiiK'lini. (IcKisliiim <iri>ciis('. ScorzDiicrii nidiiila. (jinvdlviiliis Ainiiunii. csix'cialK' on 
llie «Kurgans» (generally accompanying liic ijreceding oiu'i. Ilclichiiistim niciKiiiiim. 
(idliiim vcrum. Echinospetnmm Ijippulit ixu: iinisiiranUiiim. f.ilhosprnuiim o/firiiiiilc. 
and Liiuim peicniic. .Moreover, on more sLony grouiKl. and on Ihe Devonian cliiis 
of sandstone there occur: 

Stclldiin pclnicd. Poli'iililld srriccd var. (p'luiiiui. ('.dinpimula sihirivd. Pithinin 
sibiricd. (Uudtjana pi/gmdcd. Vrmiiicd rriicriiini. rhjinius ScrpiiUun) niir. diifiuslifolius. 
Alfissdin Irncnsc, Drdaxcpbdliiiu discolor. SerrcduUi iiilidd ixir. gluiicd, Polcniilla bi/urcd. 
I'olfigdld sibiricd, PIdoinis tuberosd, Alliuni rldUiKduiu. Allidin trniiissiiniun. Thcsiiiii} 
irfrdcluin. Crcpis tcnnifolid. Liliuin Mdiidgon. Spinwa Irilohd. Aslnupdds slenoccnis. 
Aslragdlus miilliraiilis. Thaliclriim foelidiim. Liiuiria odora uar. iiuijor /'. diigiislifoliu. 
Aiiemisid vomiunUild, and Sibbdldui ddprcssd. 

Hardly any vegetation whatever was to he found in Uic especially dry and hot places Vegetation on 

on the declivities of the rocks. Here the ground is either quite hare or covered onlv hy extremely dry 

iuui liot rocks, 
a thin layer of earth, delicient ni organic mould and chielly lormed hy dismtegration ol 

Ihe rock itself. Onlv a verv scallercd floi-a was ohserved in the chinks of the rocks, 

such as Epliedid uulgdris, Aliriphdxis frulcscens. Arclogerron grnmincds, Tluinius 

Serpglluin luir. dngusiifoliiis. Plielipden Idiiuginosd. and Oxglropis sicnophglld subs])ec. 

cdulescens nov. sdbsper. 

These seemed to he the only plants occuring here in such extremely dry and hoi pla- 
ces. The soil is loo dry and shallow, Ihe sun loo hurning for the thriving of oilier i)lanls. 

On the mountain sides, in gravel, etc., along dried up river-beds I have noted 
the following species: 

Galium veriim, Glgcgnhiza iinilcnsis, Alrdphaxis frutcsrens. Aster alpinus. Cnragnna 
pggiuaea. Thymus Serpyllum. Polentilla dnserina. (a very densely silver-hairy form) 
Lamium album. Coloneasler meldiwrdrpa. (jimpanula glomenila. Alyssum Icnensr, 
Thdliclnim pelaloideum. Thaliclrum foclidum, Slellaiia peiraca, (Ajnoglossum offivimde. 
Spiraea triloba, Polygala comosum forma. 

About Ust Kamuishto, the steppe itself seemed to be nol quite so dry as in liie said 
localities, giving rise to a considerably greater amount of other plants besides some of 
the above-mentioned grasses, which here are not so predominant either as regards 
quantity or quality. A mumber of .\bakan Tatars have settled here in peculiar eight- 
sided wooden huts, the so-called Uluses, finding sufficient grazing-grounds for their 
herds of cattle near by. 

The most important species generally occuring in llu^ slepjies here arc: 

Koeleria gravilis. Fe^lucd oviua var. .•<ulrald. Phleinu Boehmeri subspec. decurlatum 
nov. subspec.. Pod (dicnudld. Elgmus dasiisldchys luir. sdlsuginosus. Cdre.v pediformis- 

25 



Dinnthiis chincnsis. I'olciilillct iniillifidu. PolrnlilUi bifuira. Aiicniisia sacroriun. Aiicnusia 
sropaiia, Achillrn Millrfoliiim. Achillea Millefolium ixir. setacea, Cordiiiis rrispiis. 
Eri trie hi II in pectinalum. Echinospermum Lappiila ixii. anisdcnnthiim. Arahis inc(irnat(i. 
Thesiiim refractnni . Liniini perenne. Allium anisopodiuni. I'liica canrudnna. Uitira dioica. 
i'rtica urens, Veronica pinnnta. Veronica incana. Alriplex palulum. Sisiimbrium junceum. 
Chjcifrrhiza uralensis. Dracocephalum Ruiischiana. Silene .lenixea. Chenupodium rubrum, 
Ci/mhaiia dmniiica. Linaria odora var. major f. angusli/olia. Bupleurum falcatum subspec. 
bicaule oar. anguslifolium. Iris ensala. niul somcNvluil more rarely, Poa liansciianica, 
Koeleria Delaviqnei. and Euphorbia Esula. 

In somewhat more stony places about I'st Kanuiishto, among sand, on rocky 
slopes, etc., the dominant species are: 

Ephedra indgaiis. Airaphaxis frutescens. (iiipsuphila Gmrlini. Thalidram foelidum. 
Thaliclrum pelaloideum. Silene chlorantha subspec gluiinosa nou. subspec. Silene Otites 
var. parviflora. Libanotis monlana var. sibirica. Leonurus lataiicus. Diacocephalam 
nulans, Panzeria lanala. Mepela lavandulacea. Veronica Teuciiam. Slatice speciosa, 
Adenophora liliifolui var. genuina modif. nana. Carduus ciispus subspec. monocephalus 
nov. subspec. Serralula nitida var. glauca. Spiraea media. Aster alpinus. Achillea impaliens. 

Quite near the Uluses the following herbs arc the most important: Hgoscgamus 
niger, Urtica cannabina. I'rtica urens. L'rlica dioica, Chenopodium lubrum. Plantago 
media, Polggonum aviculare, and Carduus crispus. 

In some places here the soil proved to be slightly saline, which was also found to 
be the case in other places on the Abakan Steppe. In such habitats were frequently to 
be found: Potenlilla bifurca, Potenlilla mulli/ida, Arabis incainala. Astragalus sulcatus 
subspec Turczaninoivi nov. subspec, Veronica incana, Xepeta lavandulacea, Stalice 
speciosa, Artemisia scoparia. and some few others. 

Near Ust Karrfuishto occur large areas of swamps, partly with fresh or nearly fi'esh 

water, paiily with brackish or salt water. There is no outlet to the water, which is 

fresh near the mouth of the small river flowing into the swamps, but at some distance 

from the mouth, the water gradually becomes more saline, with a typical halophilous 

vegetation. Thus, near the mouth of the river, there occur the following plants: Bidens 

tripartitus, Hippuris vulgaris. Ranunculus sceleralus, Eriophoruni angnsiifolium, Veronica 

Anagallis, Utricularia vulgaris, Atropis dislans. Aliopis tenuiflora. ;uul others. Here 

also occurs Chaia crinita. coveiing in abundance the bottom of shallow water. 

,. . ,. In and about the more saliferous marshes, the following plants occur: 

\cgclation in ^ ' 

more or less Carex diluta, Care.r displodens nov. spec. Zannichellia pedicellata var. peduncuUda. 

saliferous soil. (Uaux maritima subspec. pedunculala nov. subspec. Suaeda n}(irilima, S(dicornia herhacea 
var. stricta, Atriplex httorale, Juncus Gerardi var. alrifuscus and vat. salsuginosus. 
Ranunculus plantaginifolius, Potenlilla anserina. Sisgmbrium satsugineum, Plantago 
maritima subspec. ciliata subspec. nov., Lepidium cordatum. Lepidium tali folium. Lepidium 
crassifolium, Saussurea crassifolia, Tiiglochin marilimum. Primula longiscapa. Taraxacum 
leucanthum. Taraxacum Bes.saiabicum, and Scirpus rufus subspec e.vilis nov. subspec. 

26 



Here aiul llu'ic llic inaislics wi-ir ([iiilc drii-d uj), and llic gm\, loaiiiv, fissiiicd 
f^roiiiid c'oviTcd willi while sall-c r\ stals. Here was an almost romplclc absence oT vej^e- 
taticm, or only a |)()or flora consisting of some few scallered s])e(imens of Sdiisstiii'd 
cnissi/hlid. Lc/ii(liiini crdssifoliinn. lUiniiiiciiliis phinldfiiiii/hliiis. and more rarelw /Va/i/ar/o 




FifJ 15. Tlie Al):il<;ni Slepjjc. I.ooii out on the s;ill sw:ini])S ;it Ust Kiimuislilo. In llu' I'orfurouncl 

nn Abal<;ni T;il;iri;in Inirial jjround. 



lUdiilinui siihspcc. rilidld nov. subspec constilnting the only vegetation. 

In that territory of the .Xhakan Steppe, saliferous soil is very frequent, hui the 
iisnal halophilons flora here did not seem to he very rich as regards the number of spe- 
cies. In the main, the same flora as mentioned above is met with in nearly all similar 
habitats, here and there, however, together with sonic others, as Aliiphw pdluluiu. 
Korliid pioslnitd vdt . oiicscens. Alriplc.v sihiricuii}. Sdlsold rolliud. Aiinnisid SieixTsidiid, 
and Atirinisid mdrilimd. 

On the borders of Tagarski osero. a rather large salt lake to the south of 
Minusinsk. I have, in addition, collected .-t.s/c/' I'ripoliuiii. Sddcdii corniriildld . and I'ldiiUu/o 
C.ornuli. 

Due to the dryness of the climate, the Al)akan Steppe is at present almost entireh' 
uninhabited. Thus, drinking-water is to be found only in the rivers and the nearest 
surroundings, while the water not unfrequently to be met with in cavities on the steppe. 
is alw ays more or less saliferous, and. accordingly, unsuitable for drinking. In man\ 



])lacc's, liowevcr, Ihe soil is deep and good, consisting of the same kind of l^lacic eartii 
as occurs in the fertile territories further to the south-east. Only along the rivers there is 
moisture enough to constitute grazing-grounds, where no doubt, large areas, if culti- 
vated, would give rich harvests. Accordingly, only in some few of the said places along 
the rivers there is a population, few in number, chiefly consisting of Abakan Tatars, the 
al)()riginals of the country, living by breeding of cattle. Besides, here and there a few 
Russians are to be met with. The steppe being nearly unaffected by human culture and 
thus preserving its original stamp, there occur only here and there along the patches of 
field belonging to the scattered Russian population some weeds introduced by human 
agency. Thus, about the small, cultivated fields at Askys, I have found the following 
Noxious weeds, plants occuring as weeds: 

Thiaspi arveme, Sinapis alba. Linaria vulgaris. Alectorolophits major. Sonchus 
oleraceiis. Sonchus arvensis. Cannabis salina. Chennpodium album. Brn.s.sica Napus. 
Euphorbia Esula. Sisymbiinm Sophia. Convolvulus arvensis. Atriplt'.v sibiricnm. ollen 
associated with Asler altaicus. and Linum perenne. 

There is also further evidence that the earth of the steppe is fertile enough in 
itself, for in limes long past when the climate was moister, there lived here a numerous 
and might V Irilje, which is no longer in existence. Thousands of burial-mounds, the 




Fig. IG. The Al);ik;iii Steppe near Ask\N. Tvpieal grass steppe 
witli Tscluidiaii iiionumental stones witti inscMiptions. 

so-called <<,Kurgans», bear witness to the former greatness of the steppe, when inhabited 
by the Tschudes, an expatriated and extinct race having reached a comparatively advan- 
ced stage of civilization already at a time when the darkness of barbarism was still broo- 
ding over Europe. The inscriptions on the tomb-stones, and tools to be found 
inside the graves, are indications that the said Tschudes mostly lived by farming and 
by breeding of cattle, their domestic animals consi-sting of species now extinct liere or 



•_'S 



wliicli would no more Ix' ;il)l(' lo slaii;! Ilic (Irvncss ol llic sU'|)|)e.s. I'Ih iciiKiiiis 
of llio . I'scliiuliaii canals,, Ihrout^h wIikIi walcr was cH)n(luoli'(l into llicii liclds, bear 
witness to tlu' fact thai already this primitive peojjle here had dilfieulties in proenriii^ the 
necessary supply of water. 

Apart from llic inscci, llie animal life- of the steppe is now |)oor, and the stillness 
is here only rarely broken by the melancholy piping of some lonelv biid of the desert 
or the scratching of a lizard in the dry grass. .\nd the sepulchral mounds that we also 
meet with here, enhance, as it were, the serenity and (juiel of this dying nature. 

The iSilMM'iaii Taij;ji Territory jiihI fln' rrjankai (Omitry. 

Tlie Transition Zone hehvecn the Steppes and the Primeval Forest. 

As mentioned above, the southern and south-ea.stern parts of the Minusinsk district 
are nioister. Only at a rather short distance from iVIinusinsk the scenery is changed, the 
steppe becoming gradually more rugged, and the rather small areas of wood frequently to 
be met with — generally consisting of pine, birch, and aspen — bear an unmistakable 
evidence to a greater moisture. Many of the subboreal ])lants characterizing the wester- 
ly steppe regions, here gradually dissappear, giving way to a vegetation mainly compo- 
sed of boreal species of plants together with subarctic ones; the latter element especially 
being successively more frequent when going southwards to the Sayansk mountains, where 
the subalpine wooded tracts as to floristic conditions bear a markedly subarctic stamp. 

In dry wood ol' Piiuis silncstris. IVeciuenlly in sandy .soil, there occurs here a ground 
flora especially characterized by the pretty azure Delphinium (irandiflonim. tlu- yellow 
Scabiosa ochioleiicd, Riime.r Acelosella. Erigeron (tcer var. clnnqalus, Onosiua 
simplicissimiim. (Ihamaerliodos ererld. and on decliyities [{tipciiciiin rlrfjans. and in 
thickets Vicitt imijiifja. 

The tract of land traversed during the fir.st three or ioui- days may really be con- 
sidered as a transition zone between the steppe and the virgin forest further south; it 
Ibrms, what is called by the lUissians wooded steppes (jitcocTenb) slielches 
with dry open woods, composed chiefly of various foliage trees — birches, poplars and 
others, partly also of larch — diversified by larger or smaller steppe-like areas between 
theme. The soil here nearly everywhere consi.sts of the exceedingly fertile, black 
earth. 2— 'A m. deep, rich in humus and chalk, and cultivated grounds become more- 
frequent on proceeding southwards. From the hilltojis here are seen to the .south the 
pointed and ragged jags of the Sayansk mountains. 

The scenery is, on the whole, very pleasant, a great number of park-like patches of 
wood having been left among the cultivated fields, and birches often making up veri- 
table avenues along the roads. In some places the hillsides are overgrown with birches 
and other foliage trees and with a very luxuriant and varying undergrowth. 

On a slope near the village of Taskina, I have recorded the following plants illu- 
strating the composition of the vegetation and the striking difference between the 

29 



scenery here and tlial of the Abakan Sleppe. The list was made in an area only of some 
40 or 50 ni.". in open Ijruslnvood of Betula verrucosa. Popiiliis Iri'muhi. Priiniis Padiis. 
and Rosn pimpinelli/olid: 

Agiinwnia pilosa ixir. dahurica, Galium uerum, Hieracium spec, Achillea Millefolium, 
Dracocephalum Rui/schiana. Campanula glomeiata. Hijphochueris maculata. A'-hillea 
impatiens, Carum (Uitvi. Planlago media, Dachjlis glomerala. Sanguisorba officinalis, 
Thaliclium .simlex. Tri folium repens. Tri folium piatense. Prunella vulgaris, (ialium 
boreale. Stcllaria grnminea. Hemerocalis flava, Phleum pralense, Plantago major, Linaria 
vulgaris. Tragopogon j)ratensis vai. orienlalis. Ranunculus acris. Erigeron acer. 
Taraxacum spec, Bunias orienlalis. Chrysanthemum Leucanlhemum var. irculianum, 
Festuca elatior. Genliana macrophglla, Ulmaria penlapelala. Lychnis flos cuculi, Trollius 
asicdicus. Poa annua. Aira caespilosa. Poa paluslris. Equiselum silvalicum, Heracleum 
disseclum, Polygonalum officinale. Rn}>us saxcdilis. Primula officinalis var. macrocalyx, 
Geianium pseudosibiricum. Melandryum album. Inula salicina. Pteridium aquilinun}, 
Epilobium angustifolium. and Aconitum laeve. 

Cultivatod Here the route leads through one of the very richest provinces of Siberia, with a 

pliints. niild and pleasant climate and a sufficient amount of rain. In spite of a rather defec- 
tive cultivation of the ground, the fields, extending for miles, yield a rich supply of corn, 
especially of r y e, the rye-fields covering some 30 or 40 per cent of the cultivated 
ground. Wheat is also grown successfully, the wheat-fields occupying about 30 or 35 
per cent of the cultivated fields, and besides are to be found fields of oats and b u c k- 
wheat. Flax and h e m p are grown as well, and a great quantity of hemp is 
exported from the Minusinsk region. P o t a t o-fields are more rarely to be seen. More- 
over, c u c u m hers and water-melons are grown, and are sold in the market- 
places of Minusinsk at a price of only few' kopek a-piece. 

In these fields and near by, various weeds are to be found, of which I have obser- 
ved the following occuring rather frequently: 

Noxious weeds. Thlaspiarven.se. Galeopsis Tetrahit, Sonchus oleraceus. Sonchus aivensis. Papaver 

somniferum subspec seligerum. Erodium cicutarium, Brassica campeslris. Capsella bursa 
pastoris, Slellniia media. Polygonum lomentosum. Polygonum Convolvulus. Eagopyrum 
Udaricum. Bunias orienlalis. Agrostemma Gilhago, Cenlaurea Cyanus, Pisum sativum, 
Vicia sativa, Raphanus Raphani.ttrum, and Turrilis glabra. 

On the road or along the road-side here I have collected: Lappa tomentosa, Plantago 
major. Plantago media. Polygonum aviculare, .luncus bufonius. Malva borealis, Matricaria 
discoidea, here and there in I'ich abundance, Lepidium apetalum, Trifolium repens. and 
besides were s u n f 1 o w e r s, ha\ing grown from seeds dropped by the roadside, very 
characteristic. The seeds of this plant, abounding in oik are extensively used for chewing 
by the inhabitants of tliese regions and also of all Russia, and very frequently offered 
for sale in their market-places. 

-\long the road there occur small thickets and groves, mostly consisting of Betula 
verrucosa. Pinus silvestris. and Pop»//;.v tremula. with a rather luxuiianl vegelation usu- 

30 



;ill\ altciuliiiL; llic woods ol lolilcriin^ trees. lUsides sevei';il species ol .S>(//.r iiuiv, ;is llie 
most c()ns|)it'U()Us speiMcs here, lje ineiitioiied: 

liosd pimpincllifolid. Irifoliiiin pntlcnse. At/iimoiiid pilosa. ()ii(/iiiiiiiii i>til(/(irc. 
llillHTiciiiu hirsuliiiii. Iliipciiriim rli-qans. (ifnli<tn(t nuirrophiilln. l-'ntf/tiivt tx-scit. (iitUniu 
I'cruni. (idliiiiii horcdlc. liliiciirrliizn didlrnsis. Liiidiiii I'dlifdiis. I'liiiuihi nfficindlis nar. 
ludrnn-dhix. Dcljihininn) i/rddilifliiruiu. ddinpdiiuhi sihiriin. ('.dDipaimld (iloiiicnild. 
I'olippild cninosuiu foniid. Iluhus sdxdlilis. Aslcr dlj)imis. luiplinisia Itildiicd. I'oa diiinid. 
Tiisi'liiin fldix'scriis siihspcc ropiosiiin iioii suhspi'c.. Aiilhoxanlhuin odoialtim. 
Evhinospcnnum IjippuUi lutr. dnisdCdiUliiim. (jirddininc iiiipdlicns. Lillxispcnudn) 
officindlc, Sciopluildiid iioilosd. Androsdccs uillosa ixii: (Idsiiphijlla. (ii'm/iiiim sihiiKiim. 
Aiu'iui puhcsvcns. Malricdiid Inodoni. Viold niirdhili'' ixir. .sdhfildbni. lidiiuncdliis 
duricdiniis. liunici Acelosclhi. liuiiwx dii/olius. ('.hriisdnlhciniini l.cucdnllieinuiu ixir. 
iiculidimin. Achilhxi iinpdiicn.s. Allium lineure. Pnhitioiidliuu (tlJiciiudc. Alliiini odoiuiii. 
^Icdicdcjo pldtijcarpti. Mcdicdfio lnf)nlina. Fcstucd clidiur. Sih'itr rcpcns. Sili-iic injldtn. 
Lcunuins Udaiiciis. Iris luthcnivd. Scpeld luidd. ;iiul Aconihini Ixirlxduiu. 

About the village of Karatus, the character of the scenery is changed. As far as this 
place, the land is open to the view, beailng, in spite of a soniewiial higher degree of 
moisture, the impress of the neighbouring large steppes. There is also an indication of 
this in the character of the fauna worth mentioning, for all the way between Minusinsk 
and Karatus may be observed great numbers of small rodents, the so-called 
<vS u s c h 1 i s k» (Spenuophiliis enersmannii), typical animals of the steppe, and their 
innumerable holes in the ground. 

About Karatus these small animals also disappear. Here the way leads into the 
valley of the river Amy], with very rugged surroundings, where the solid rock begins to 
appear. The lofty hills and steep mountain sides are clothed with an exceedingly rich 
tree vegetation, chiefly consisting of birch, alder, and other foliage trees, but also 
gradually of spruce and pine, being the first indications of the proximity of the primeval 
forest. Here the first eruptive rocks are also to be seen bursting forth, and red Devonian 
sandstone-cliffs occur, alternating with higher eruptive masses, not unfrequently with 
larger and smaller flakes of Devonian sandstone shooting forth on the sides. 

The flora here is — as might also be expected — much varying and luxuriant. 
Ihe vegetation of the steppe and that of the foliferous trees meet in this zone the moist 
and shade-seeking vegetation of the coniferous forest. The varying geological subsoil, 
the great heat, and considerable moisture are factors whieii combine to an exception- 
ally luxuriant flora with a great variety of species. 

Besides most of the plants already mentioned, there are frequently to be met with 
in Ihickels and on hillsides: 

Melandrijuin album. Epilobium luu/ustifolium. Gcuui Alcppicum. Vicid silixitica. 
Vicia sepium. Vicid cnurd. Aconitum bdilxitum. Ranunculus arris. Ranunculus 
polyanihemos. Eriqeron aver. /'. poliius. Polenlilla norvegica f. (fenuina. Inula 
.■ialiriud. Vernnini Cluimdcdriis. Chriisanthemum Lcucdnlhrmum txir. irrulianum. 

31 



Tlic li 
fcitions 
real tai 
lation- 



Htjpeiiciiin perforaluin. Hiiprririiin Ascfiron. Sagiini piociinihrtis. TussHago tarfhin, 
Veronica srrpiillifoUd. Veronica psi-udolongifolia nov. spec. Ceiasliiini iniUfaliim. 
(j-rastiuin pilosum. Tanacrluin milgaie. Slaciifis silualica. Lainiiin} album. I'lmaria 
I'ilipendiila. (liicaea Liiteliaiia, Solaniuu Dulcamara var. peisicum. and Li/chnis 
chalcedonica. 

Wherever the ground is swampy, and in waler-pools, are to I'ound various helophy- 
tes and hydrophytes: 

Care.x cae.spitosa. Care.v cijperoides. Parnassia paluslri.s. Rume.r acpudicus. I'olijgonum 
Hipiropiper. Juncu.s filiformis. RananruUis sceleralus, Alisma Planlai/o. Typlia latifolia, 
Nifmphaea Candida, Sparganium simplex, Potamogeton nutans, Sagillaria alpina, and 
Lemna minor. 

On the banks of the Amyl. in sandy places .SV(/(.r capiea, Salix viminalis, Salix 
fragilis, Populus laurifolia, Dianlluis superhus. and Pulsalilla i)alens are commonly seen, 
rsl indi Oi^ moist wooded hill-sides accompanying spruce and fir, are especially to be found 

ol the the following as the first representatives of the flora attending the real coniferous forest 
"'" "^^^ pushing forward here: 

Heracleum disseclum. Carex tenuiflora, Carex loliacea, Aconitum laeve. Delphinium 
elatum, (lerunium .silvalicum, Pedicularis uncinata. Anemone dicholoma, Carex globularis, 
Majanthemum bifolium. Athgrium Filix femina. Onoclea Strulhopleris, and Pleridium 
(Kiuilinum, a plant-society becoming more and moie widely distributed further lo the 
south, and gradually richer in individuals as well as in species. 

About Kushabar, the strata of the Devonian formation altogether come to an end, 
and the traveller enters the large area of eruptive rocks forming the Sayansk moun- 




Fifi. 17. View on Ihe village of Kushabar. In the background the laige willi the extreme s|nirs 

ot the Savansk mountains. 



hiiiis. Ill proportion ;is llu' yrolo{<ical subsoil rliaiigcs in lliis way, a f^ieal iuiinl)iT of tlic 
plants which arc common in Ihc more westerly rcf^ions. disaj)pcar, while new ones, 
especially with a nunc distinct suliarctic stamp, creep in. The distance from Minusinsk 
to Kushabar docs not exceed 120 worsts, Inil there is a considerable difference in the 
natural conditions of the two places. The village of Kushabar itself is grandly situated 
in a rugged, partly wooded country, on the edge of the forest zone, facing the snowy 
mountains to tiie south, and the countiy around is considered to be one of the best 
residences in all southern Siberia. It is situated on the boundary between the fertile 
Siberian soil and the Sayansk eruptive rocks. Here tiic fertile and well cultivated black 
soil area of the Siberian plain-land end, and in front cxiciul immense areas of the most 
impenetrable type of Siberian virgin forest, called by the Russians the «b 1 a c k/> or 
<,m o i s t t a i g a», extending nearly unbroken over thousands of wersts as far as the 
Amoor Province, and forming a complete barrier against any progress of human culture 
this way. 

In places, especially on level-land, there is often a remarkably sudden transition 
between the steppe and the taiga. As cut with a knife, the border of the primeval 
forest extends in a direct line; only a few steps, and the traveller from the sunny, open 
steppe enters the moist twilight of the virgin forest. 

The climate here is very moist, showers occur at short intervals, and the tran- 
sition from the dry climate in the more westerly steppe regions is very sudden. In spring, 
the weather is rather variable in this part of southern Siberia, and severe storms may 
arise suddenly, accompanied by great changes of temperature. In the first half of May, 
the temperature rises quickly from some degrees of frost to towards 30" C. of heat. In 
the second half of May, the weather is sunny and hot, the spring advancing very quickly. 

As an instance of the composition of the vegetation here are given in the following 
a list of plants found by me on a diy and moderate dry mountain-side consisting of 
granophyr, just outside Kushabar. 

Beiiila verrucosa. Pinus .sili>pstris. Popidiis trciniila.SoilnisAiiciiparia. Rosa aciciilaris. Vcgcl.Tiion 
Cratacffiis scingitiiwa. Cornus alba. Ribes rubrnm. Carlina vulgaris var. nebroch'nsis, »' I\u.sli;il)ar. 
Woodsia ilven.sis. Kpipactis lati folia. Verbascuin Thapsus, Arabis iucarnata. Agrimonia 
pilosa. Armaria serpgllifulia. Mgosolis inlcrmcdia. PoU'idilla argenlea. Potentilla 
norvegica. Achillea Millcfoliuui. Achillea impaliens, Hypericum perforatum. Hypericuu) 
hirsulum. Eriisimum rhriraulhoides. Lappa touientosa. Ciisium hwceolalum. Tanacelum 
vulgaie. Carum Carvi. (kimpanula glomerata. Care.x pediformis. Calaminlha Acinos. 
Lotus corniculalus. Fragaria vesca. Rumr.r Acetosella. Rubus sa.vatilis. Veronica 
Chamaedigs. Veronica agrestis. Polygonum dunjctorum. (U\elidonium majus var. 
grandiflorus. Runw.v aiifolius. (ientiana macrophglla, Tara.vacum sj)pc.. pAiphrasia lalarica. 
Euphra.sia hiilella. Euphrasia .Jaeschkei. Stellaria graminea. Slellaiia uliginosa. Galium 
borealc. Plantago major. I'lanlago media, I'rlica dioica. 1 ri folium pr(dense. Tri folium 
repens. Trifolium medium. Alchemilla minor. Alchemilla pasloralis. Polggida comnsiim 
forma, Linaria vulgaris, Sagina procumbens. Dactglis glomerata. Primula elatior var. 



Pdllasii. Anciuonr silveslris, Pohjqonum Bislorla, Ranunculus pohjanlhemos. Cirsium 
arvense, Polentilla anserina, Raphanus Raphonislium, Phleum pralense, Glecoma 
bedemcea, Thaliclnim minus vnr. eUilum, Viola canina. Veronica serpijllifolia. Brunella 
iHilcjnris, Rubus idaeus. Aclaea spicata subspec. erythrocarpa, Geum Aleppicum. Ciepi, 
lijiata. Anihriscus silveslris. Vicia cracca. Poa Chaixii. Hamulus Lupulus. Spir.aea media 
(^repis sibirica. Lamium album, Pleridium aquilinum, Majantliemum bifolium Aconilum 
laeve. Heracleum disseclum, Onoclea StruUiopteris, Erigeron acer, and Paris quadrifolia. 




Fig. 18. Heracleum disseclum on a glade near Kushabar. July 11th 19U. 



Moist slopes are rather common about Kushabar, from where the following plants 
mav be mentioned as examples of the flora typical of similar habitats: 

Picea obovala. Betula pubescens, Alnus frulicosa. Onoclea Slrulhopleris, Aconilum 
laeve. Delphinium elalum, Slellaria Bungeana var. lalifolia. Vlmaria penlapelala, 
Scirpus silvalicus.i\ndCarex caespilosa, which are the most common and very frequent. 

Moreover, the following list of plants also occuring here may complete and serve 
as an example of the vegetation characterizing this place: 

Pleridium a(iuilinum, Biunella vulgaris. Slellaria giaminea. Anemone dichotoma. 
Adoxa Moschalellina, Slellaria media, Myosolis palusliis var. nemorosa. Inula salicina. 
Anihriscus silveslris, Geum Aleppicum, Galium uliginosum, Juncus bufonius, Equiselum 
silvalicum,Trollius asialius, Cirsium htterophgllum, Cirsium paluslre. Parnassia-palustris, 



.Iitnciis /ilifonnis. Enidiiiw cicularium. Anchusa mifosolidiflora var. t/nindiflorn. I'olrnlilln 

frrtfidiioides. Viohi inunilii. (Uiidaminp pmlensix var. piinn'pjiid. 

Near habitations, in couit-yaids, on roads, etc., are to l)e found: 

Siellarin mcdin. Scrophidaiia nodosa. I'olcidilld ansriina. liarhnira slnclo. I'o<i 

(iniiiKi. Plunliifjo miijoi: Hijosrijanius iiifici. PoIiicioiuiiti (inituhirc. .Iiincii.s hiifoniiis. 

Capselld htitsd jxtsloris. I'lddspi dnn-nsr. Sonrluis olvrarcus. Sonrhiis diix'iisis. and 

CJwnopodium (dhuin. 

In loaniv places licie, in thickets on a i)rool<, and in l)iiish\voo(l ol' Alnus frdlicosd. 

I iiavc collected Inip(dicns noli Idnc/ere. Tiissild(/o Fdi/hrd. luiiiischun iirnrnsr. Veronicd 

serpijllifolid. Inula salu-ina. Cardamine impaliens imr. conuudiiis, and in nioic s\vanii)y 

places Menfidnllifs Irifolicda. A(/roslis idbd. C.idlhd judttslvis. l\rinpli(innn (jVdcHi-. and 

Eriophoniin iHt<jin(dun} aie lathei- lie(iiient. 



The Saynnsk Mountains and the T ijnnkai Country. 

Natural Coiulitioiis. 

At a rather short distance from Kushabar, the last of all inhabited places in this pari 
of Siberia, the traveller finds himself in the genuine virgin forest, and after a couple of 
hours there are no more traces whatever of human agency to be found. This forest is 
formed by the outskirts of the immense «taiga» region, covering the northern slopes of 
the Savansk mountains down to Siberia. 




V\g. 111. I'limc'Viil forest near I\iisli;il);u-. lii tlie Ibreyi-ound 
trunks of ccdnr, and liesides spruce :in<i poplar with 
an nndcrnrowtli mostly of various siiecics ol ferns. 



.^f) 



In point of natural conditions, these wooded regions agree rather per- 
fectly with the large forests also to be found on the southern declivities of the Sayansk 
mountains in the so-called Urjankai country. Only the most northern parts of the Sayansk 
mountains belong to Siberia. The political frontier between Siberia and China, to which 
the Urjankai belongs, as forming a part of Mongolia, follows roughly the water-shed 
situated here at a distance of only about 150 wersts south of Kushabar. On the other hand, 
most of the mountains thus belong to the Urjankai country, filling up this nearly 
unknown region about the sources of the Yenisei. This, the Upper Yenisei Basin, 
which I passed through during the following months, is bounded on the north and west 
by the watershed of the Sayansk mountains, on the east by the Baikal mountains, on 
the south by the Tannu-Ola or Snowy mountains. The country is thus almost surrounded 
by high mountain masses, which form a secluded basin, and the bulk of which is 
situated in latitude 50 — 54°, and in longitude 90—100°. The greatest extent of the land is 
from the east to the west, and it is traversed throughout its length by the river Yenisei 
or Bei-kem, receiving here a great number of large tributaries from the mountains. The 
Urjankai country is reckoned to cover about 150.000 square wersts, of which nearly 
one third is likely to be arable ground. There are extensive grazing-grounds, affording 
excellent food for cattle. 

In point of topography, the country is mountainous, being filled up with the 
Sayansk mountains and their spurs. Out of the forest there rise lofty mountains with 
white peaks, one behind the other, as far as the eye reaches. For thousands of wersts 
this gloomy, mountainous country lies quite waste and uninhabited, only rarely visited 
by some vagrant nomad. In this snow-clad mountain region, wooded valleys form 
indentations here and there, where the game leads an existence as undisturbed as in few 
other places in the world. The highest mountain masses are to be found in the east and 
north-east, where the Munku-Sardyk runs up to 3490 m., and where the Yenisei is con- 
sidered to have its sources. 

To the south and west the land becomes drier and lower, and near the Ulu-kem it 
is an arid, barren rock-steppe, passing directly into the Mongolian table-land across the 
dry and nearly treeless Tannu-Ola. 

The Sayansk mountains are the most northern of the three mountain ranges 
extending east-wards from the Kolyvan Altai. 

The mountains consist of various eruptive rocks, such as granite, syenite, porphyry, 
diabaze, diorits, etc., which have forced their way through the layer of the Devonian 
formation, carrying aw^ay, or, for a great part, covering the Devonian slates. In the 
boundary area, gneisses and metamorphic schists are first to be met with, and in the out- 
skirts, the reddish-brown Devonian slates have been left as larger or smaller remains on 
the sides of the eruptive rocks down the mountain sides. In places layers from the Silurian 
and Carboniferous periods are to be met with near the boundaries of the eruptive rocks. 

The mountains are not distinguished by any imposing altitudes, the highest summit 
being, as mentioned above, the Munku-Sardyk in the most eastei'n part of the itiountain 



mass. TliiMT arc. l)osid(>s. several groups ot rather liigli inountain.s, for instance the 
Aradansk niouiitains lo the west, on the Yenisei, tiie Usinsk mountains, the Artool 
mountains, etc, generally attaining lo about 2500 m. aboyc sea-hvcl. On the contrary, 
the mountain masses are characterized by their wild formations, with pointed sunnnils, 
lofty pillars of stone and steep precipices. In some places, however, there are flat high- 
plateaus covered with immense blocks of stone. 




Fi". 20. From the S;iyaiisk luounhiins near Ust Alj;i;u-, at the end of Jnly lia4. 

To the west, they are. accordingly, connected up with the Altai, and to the east with 
the Baikal mountains, thus forming a continuous mountain barrier, having been able to 
confine — in point of culture — the portions of Mongolia lying to the south, from 
Siberia. The Sayansk mountains may thus be said to form the boundary between Sibe- 
rian and Mongolian scenery. 

The Sayansk mountains are not a solitary and continuous mountain range, being 
interrupted or divided by small valleys and ramifications running in every direction, 
so as to make a mountain mass, filling up the greater part of the Urjankai country, 
especially its northern and eastern portions. These ramifications are separated from 
each other by deep valleys with steep sides, running up to towards 2700 m., and, accord- 
ingly, making the land .still more impassable. But the uninhabited, swampy and pathless 
areas of virgin forest with masses of fallen timber, covering everywhere the subalpine 
mountain regions, are perhaps the chief factors in making these tracts of land so difficult 
of access to man. 



37 



Owing to the difficulties of penetrating into thiese mountain regions, the Urjankai 
land has been able to remain so isolated, making the district about the sources of the 
Yenisei a vcrital)le terra incognitu. with a population of natives, the so-called Soyotes, 
well hidden and protected against any progress of foreign civilization. Only few regions 
of the interior of Asia are so isolated and difficult of access as the land about the 
sources of the Yenisei. As yet no part of the basin has been mapped out systematically; 
the maps in existence are chiefly based upon the statements of the natives and, accord- 
ingly, not only very defective but in a great measure even erroneous on essential points. 
In every other respect the land is equally unknown. 

The Sayansk range itself lacks detailed survey, and the same may be said of the 
encircling border ranges of the basin. The headwaters of most of the rivers are 
unknown, and the extensive regions between the Chua-kem and Bei-kem, the basin of the 
Chua-kem and the Kemchik are still awaiting their explorers. The country is «New 
Land indeed, where the mountains are nameless and the rivers all run God knows 
where». 

Only in a couple of places the traveller is enabled to pass from Siberia into the 
Urjankai land. One of the routes, the mo^t difficult and unknown, lying across the 
Algiac Pass and leading into the north-eastern part of the land, was followed by us. 
This route is passable only a few months in the summer, being the greater part of the 
year protected by ice and snow in the mountains and by the extensive, impenetrable 
swamps and dense forest in the subalpine regions. The other one, a riding-path, lea- 
ding from Gregoriewska via Usinsk, is not so difficult, and accordingly better known. 
The access from the south, via Tannu-Ola, is easier, for which reason the land is also 
in closer contact with Mongolia proper and China, to the latter of which countries it maj' 
also be reckoned to belong politically. 

In point of o r o g r a p h y, Ihe Sayansk district is connected up with Mongolia, forming 
the north-western part of the Mongolian mountain table-land. The Sayansk mountains 
may be said to form the first step from the Siberian lowland up to the Mongolian 
plateau, and the Upper Yenisei basin to make up the first terrace; the Tannu-Ola, con- 
fining the basin to the south, forms the second step passing direct into the main table- 
land. Tlie Sayansk mountains are no real barrier in point of the floristic conditions, 
the mountain ranges being crossed by lower, wood-clad passes by which the plants have 
been able to spread. With the exception of the south-western declivities facing the large 
Soyote Steppe about the Ulu-kem, tlie mountains themselves bear, both in floristic and 
faunistic respects, a markedly arctic and subarctic stamp. 
Northerly spc- ^'^'*' occurrence of northerly species so far south is especially interesting, being most 

cic's of plants likely suggestive of survivors from the glacial period. For a corresponding flora is now 
district^" ''"^' to be found in the subarctic and arctic portions of the Siberian lowland far to the north, 
north of the dry. hot south Siberian steppe region. In former times, in a colder period, 
this flora possibly also extended further to the south, over the large south Siberian 
steppes, but in proportion as the temperature rose and the climate became drier after the 

38 



I'.eiiKiins ot ;i 



glacial period, the ice retreated norlliwards aiul up into tin- inouiitains, followed by the 
arctic and subarctic flora, S'ving way to a steppe vegetation, which little by little immi- 
grated into llic dry south .Siberian lowland, and isolated this arctic and subarctic floral 
colony to the south. 

In this connection I will also call to rcnuMubrance that among tiie plants already 
reported from the low-lying and dry steppe regions about Minusinsk, at an altitude of lloni olthc liifjli 

about '2')() 111. above sea-level, also some arctic and high norlliern plants were foinid by '^'"'■"» °" "'« 
,■ . . " siciipt's of sou 

me, lor instance: ., .... 

lliern Siljcria. 

Pulrinia siberica. Aslcr alpinus, Carex capillaris snbsprr. demiflora two. siihspcc. 
Slellnrid Ihmgediui var. lalifolin. Primula sihiiint. Carex alro-fiisra inir. coriopliora. 
Sli'llaria prirara, Polcniilla sericea. Slrllariu crassifulia, Mi/usulis siliHilica. Liliiiiu 
Martafion. Cobresiaspec, Arctogerron gramineus, Scorzonera radlata, Mochringia lalerijlora. 
and otiiers 

They occur here most frequently in small, scattered colonies witJiin limited areas, 
especially in moist places, or also on the ridges of the sandstone lulls, often together 
with solitary larches, surrounded on every side by the common xerophile vegetation 
of the steppe. 

These plants should possibly be regarded as remnants from the flora of the former 
colder period in these regions, which have been able to survive here in the lowland, all 
of them being plants the geographical range of which mainly lies in northerly regions 
or in alpine and more elevated mountain tracts, in the same way as I consider the 
larches here to be the last remains of the forests of the past in these tracts. 

Similar plants of the high North may also no doubt be found in many other places 
on these low-lying steppes. We know, it is true, that during the glacial period proper, 
large portions of the Siberian lowland here were covered with a great ocean, to the north 
connected with the northern Arctic Ocean, and to the south extending right down 
to central Asia, to the Caspian and Areal Sea, forming at this time a boundary between the 
vegetation of Europe and that of the remaining parts of Asia. As far as to its most 
southern limit this ocean must have had a perfect arctic character, for in the deeper 
parts of the Caspian Sea there are still to be found, according to what G. 0. Sars has 
pointed out. arctic marine Crustacea, relicts of the arctic animal life which was pre- 
dominant here at this time. When the sea receded from here, the climate must, howe- 
ver, in my opinion, still have been rather cold, and the flora and fauna immigrating 
and taking possession of this old, drained sea-bed, has been, albeit perhaps no longer 
absolutely strictly speaking arctic, at least of a high northern character. 

This is evident from the remains of mammoths — debris of a fauna of the high 
North — which are of rather common occurrence in Siberia, and, lying upon these 
marine deposits, they are, accordingly, j^ounger than this glacial transgression of the 
ocean. The remains of the mammoth, thus belonging to the younger Tundra stratifi- 
cations, are to be found not only in northern Siberia but occur right down to the extreme 
south, as for instance also at Kushabar, where the year before our stay there, remains of 

39 



a mammoth had been dug out of a loamy hill near a brook. According to A\hat we were 
told, discoveries of remains of mammoths were said to be rather common at the 
foot of the Sayansk mountains, and even on the south side of the mountains, right down 
into Mongolia, they were not rare. The ocean accordingly receded already at a time 
when the climate was at any rate still so cold that such northern species as the mam- 
moth and the animal societies allied with it were able to occupy the steppes of southern 
Siberia, and together with tliis animal life there spread a corresponding vegetation of 
the high North, of which the bulk has now been expelled northwards, into the Tundras 
of northern Siberia and up into the high mountains, while a remainder may be traced 
in the above-mentioned species of plants. The tree-roots already mentioned, found by 
me in the steppe earth, are also remains of a subarctic vegetation in these regions.') 

There are indications in the character of the vegetation here in noi-thern Europe 
that when the last remains of this arm of the sea, already mentioned, disappeared, and 
a connection by land was established between the vegetation of Europe and Asia, the 
climate was no longer markedly arctic, but perhaps more precisely subarticlic, so that 
the bulk of the plants that were able to invade northern Europe, must properly be 
classed among the subarctic floral constituents. Unfortunately, Siberia is as yet very 
little known in point of Quaternary deposits, which is the more regretable from the fact 
that the knowledge of the conditions here is not uninteresting with respect to Scan- 
dinavia. 

The fauna here in the Sayansk mountains also exhibits many northerly forms. 
Above all, the wild reindeer, which, according to the statements of the natives, are sup- 
posed to have been much more widely distributed in former times, but are now being re- 
duced. Moreover, there occur here strongly defined northerly species, such as ptar- 
migans, and also the cmbergoose and many others. These have, indeed, in all proba- 
bility, experienced a like fate as the arctic and subarctic floral constituent. 

No systematic meteorological observations are recorded from the Yenisei ba- 
sin. The climate is, as a matter of course, prominently continental, and very severe, the 
annual middle temperature being doubtless several degrees below zero, so it is very 
difficult to grow corn, even on the slopes with southern aspects. Sudden changes in 
the weather are rather frequent, and there is a great difference between the temperatures 



*) While this work was printing, thero hiis appeared a smaller treatise by the fiermaii chief physician and 
zoologist I)k. Walthku Aunut: Zur Kenntnis der Verbreitung von Planaria alpina Dana (Zoologischer 
Anzeiger, Bd. L. Nr. % 6. Dezemher 1918), which Is not uninteresting in this connection. 1)h .Aundt, 
who lived as a physician for the prisoners of war in the Minusinsk district in 1915, has found that the 
arctic flat-worm Planaria alpina, also occurs in these regions. It is to be found here not only in the 
forelands of the Sayansk mountains right down into the steppe res'iou, but even in the middle of the 
steppe area, in the affluents of the issueless salt lake Schira. lying north of Minusinsk, and in several other 
places it has been found by him. This little flat- worm has, after the works of \V. Voigt, treating of 
the coimection between its distribution and the glacial epoch, become especially interesting. VoiGT has, 
as is known, according to the peculiar conditions of distribution of Planaria alpina in Europe, enounced 
the theory that it is to he considered here as a relict of the glacial epoch, and if this theory of Voigt's 
is to have universal validity, I)R. Arndt's discovery is considerably interesting. The above-mentioned 
arctic plants, which I have pointed out in the lowland at an altitude of about 250 m. a. s. 1., on the 
dry and hot south Siberian steppes about Minusinsk, are not, accordingly, the only survivors here from 
the glacial period, but are also accompanied by representatives of the arctic fauna once living here. As 
this little publication of Dh. Ahndt's is seen really to give an excellent support to my view that those 
plants are genuine glacial relicts, I beg to direct attention to it in this connection. 

40 



of day and niglit. wiiiti-r and sunmier. 'I'lic winler is severe, llic 1< inperalure sinkinj^ 
down to -^ 30 — 40° C, and, as a rare exception, still lower in alpine situations, but 
hardly as severe as tlic wiiilcr on the open Siberian steppes. On the other hand, the 
short and luxuriant suinmei is very hot, with lenii)eratures risinj^ to + 40 C. in the 
middle of the day, and not unfrequenlly sinking in the course of brij^ht nights to degrees 
of frost. \\ thai linic of llic year heavy I'ainfalis may occur, continuin;; without inter- 
mission for several days, often accompanied by heavy Ihundcr-slornis. Tiie s])ring gene- 
rally begins suddenly about (he middle of April, when the Ulu-kem becomes free from 
ice, the wintry weather chanqing in a verv short time into an intense heat, making the 
rivers swell very quickly, due to the water from the melting snows, carrying away 
everything that comes in their way. Great numbers of fallen trees are swept down the 
whirling, dirty-grey streams, and may be heaped u]) in inuucnsc piles on the banks. In 
places, pieces of timber willi thorn off ijranches were heaped up in such masses as to 
form mighty mounds, looking as if Ihey had been built on purpose. These masses of 
drift wood give the rivers in the Sayansk district a certain wild appearance. 

The summer is luxuriant and fine, but short. In May everything shoots up sud- 
denly, but at the end of July or the beginning of August, the plants already begin to 
wither on account of the night-frost commencing early. The first snow makes its 
appearance on the mountains already at the end of August. On the morning of the 21^1 
of July I found the fields about l^st Algiac, 980 m. above sea-level, covered with rime. 
In spite of the continental situation there is, however, no want of rain, the middle annual 
rainfall being about 500—600 mm., while, in eastern Siberia, the average amount of rain 
only slightly exceeds 300 mm. The great moisture and therewith the wood is con- 
fined to the more elevated mountain tracts, above all on their northern sides. In places 
where the annual rainfall does not reach 200 mm., the wood disappears, and the steppe 
begins. The most important quantity of rain falls in the summer and autumn, and 
July is considered to have the greatest rainfall. The amount of rain is, however, very 
unequally distributed, and is subjected to considerable local variations. There is 
plenty of rain in the north and west parts of the mountains as well as at the great 
central elevations, but it decreases quickly southwards and south-westwards, the total 
annual rainfall about the Ulu-kem and Kemchik scarcely exceeding 200—300 mm. In 
winter, the precipitation is rather inconsiderable, and the amount of snow in this region 
accordingly very small, being about 15 cm., according to the statements of the natives. 
The cattle are therefore enabled to stay in the open and find their food in the grazing- 
grounds the whole winter. It is quite otherwise in the centre of the mountains and on 
the Siberian side of them, where the snow is often 3 m. deep. During the frequent 
storms the snow is heaped up in huge drifts, continuing till far into the summer before 
melting, if disappearing at all. Northerly or north-westerly winds are mostly prevalent. 
At altitudes exceeding 2200—2300 m. above sea-level, the ground is covered with peren- 
nial snow and ice. and from the glaciers larger and smaller rivers take their rise, 
finallv uniting into the mighty river system of the Yenisei. 

41 




Fig. 21. From the Sayansk mountains near tiie sources of tlie Sisti l<em, al)out 2100 ni. above 

sea-level. Phot. July 24th 1914. 

The counti-y abounds in lakes and rivers; the main river is the Yenisei or the Bei- 
kem, as it is called by the natives, traversing the country from Munku-Sardyk north- 
westwards or westwards, and receiving several tributaries, of which may be mentioned 
the li, Dora-kem, Kamsara, Sisti-kem, Tapsa, and Chua-kem. The latter li-ibutary is the 
largest one, and nearly as mighty as the main river itself. At the junction of these two 
rivers, where the Bei-kem emerges from the mountains, and the lowland begins, 
Bjelosarsk is situated, from where the mighty and broad river flows, under the name of 
the Ulu-kem, through a very dry, jagged steppe land, the average altitude of which is 
550—800 m. above sea-level. In the Ui-jankai land it also receives the Kemchik, a 
considerable tributary, with a very large but comparatively dry basin. Roughly from 
the junction with the Kemchik, where the Siberian-Chinese border runs, the river turns, 
and flows, for the rest of its course, to the north into Siberia under the name of 
the Yenisei. 



42 



Suminar.v of tlie Floral C'tMiditioiis in tli(> Sa.vuiisk Mountains and 
the rrjankai Country. 

After this gciicral view of tlic iKilural conditions of the region, as far as Ihey are 
{■cnown, I will in llio following, soniewliai more closely, treat upon its vegetation. I 
only aim to draw the main lines and give a first rough survey of the flora of these 
tracts, having heen til now. hroadly speaking, quite unknown. Tlieie may thus onh 
be laid a basis for future and more niiaule treatments of the floral conditions here. 

In its main features tlie terriloi v on jjolli sides, on the norliiern as well as on the 
soutiuMu side of the Sayansk mountains aie dry steppe regions, those to the north — as 
already borne out — with a common Siberian stamp, and in the transition zone between 
the steppe and the primeval forest with a vegetation having a distinctly boreal character, 
whereas the scenery south and .south-ea.st of the mountains, on the large, comparatively 
low-lying rock-stejipes about the L'lu-kem, bear a more .Mongolian stamp. Thus th.c 
Sayan and the rrjankaicountry may be said to form a Iransilion oi- bondary zone 
between Siberian and Mongolian scenery. Ihe Sayansk mountains proper, on the other 
hand, are moist, and up fo a height of 1800 — 1900 m. above sea-level covered by dense, 
almost impenetrable coniferous forest. Owing to the fewness and short duration of mj 
investigations, I have not been able to make any attempt at classifying the vegetation 
here into r.atuial plant-societies. Only by way of suggestion I will mention that the 
following 4 main regions may be distinguished in their leading features: 

1. The S u h a 1 p i n e Taiga o r F o r e s t Territory, comprising the Sibe- 
rian north side as well as the Mongolian south side of the mountain masses, the flora 
of which has a markedly subarctic character. 

2. The Alpine Region, comprising the loftier mountain tracts above the tree 
limit (about 1800—1900 m. above sea-level), where arctic species of plants are 
prevalent. 

3. The Lower Steppe Area about the Ulu-kcm. mainly with a Mongolian 
or central Asiatic stamp. 

Besides, it would be natural to separate here one floristic region more, viz. 

4. The Wooded Steppe Region, a transition zone between the lower 
steppe areas and the subalpine taiga territory. 

As is the case on the north side of the mountains, this region also comprises 
very large tracts in the Urjankai country, where especially occurring about the borders 
between the more elevated and, accordingly, moister eruptives together with the wood- 
lands and the lower and drier Devonian areas forming the steppes. Thus, in the Urjankai 
country, these wooded steppes extend roughly from the Lower Sisti-kem southwards to 
the Dora Steppe, and from the outfall of the river Ujuk to towards Bjelosarsk, on the 
large Soyote Steppe, in the south-western part of the country, about the Ulu-kem. 
Moreover, all over the borders between the primeval forest and the steppes in this 

43 



counti-y, there may no doubt be separated larger or smaller stretches, which, in point 
of the floral conditions, must be referred to the wooded steppe regions. 

There are, of course, no sudden transitions between these floristic regions, the 
different natural conditions of which arc, indeed, practically speaking, only depen- 
dent on the height above sea-level and therewith in closest intimacy with the amount 
of downpour, and where to draw the boundary line will therefore, in some measure, 
have to be left to individual judgement. The fact is that the downpour, as already men- 
tioned, is here wholly dependent on the loftier mountains, and the moisture gradually 
decreases towards the lower tracts. 

For further particulars of these 4 floristic regions in the Urjankai country and 
adjacent territories, I refer to the annexed map (no. 3), where I have made an attempt 
to indicate very roughly their distribution, as far as the country is knoAvn in this 
respect. Where nothing is inserted in the map, the country is as yet quite unknown in 
point of floristic conditions. Unfortunately, on such an expedition of short duration 
there is only little opportunity to study more closely each of these floral regions, and I 
will in the following survey only give a general phytogeografical description of the 
various localities where we stopped long enough to enable me to study the general 
composition of the vegetation. It will appear from this how ' the natural conditions, 
and accordingly the vegetation as well, change their character in the different parts of 
the country. 

The first of the floristic regions met with by the traveller coming from the 
Siberian lowland, are the subalpine woodlands, which may also be supposed to be 
the region most widely distributed in the Urjankai country. 

I therefore intend to treat upon this region first. 



The Subalpine Taiga or Forest Territory. 

In the loftier mountain tracts in the Sayansk district there is, as will appear, a 
comparatively copious downpour, and up to an altitude of from 1700 to 1800 m. above 
sea-level, the land is covered with a dense, often nearly impenetrable mixed coniferous 
virgin forest, chiefly consisting of Picea obovala. Abies sibirica. Finns Cembra var. 
sibirica, Finns siluestris, Lnrix sibirica. and of foliage trees arc to be found less 
abundanlly, especially Belnla pubescens, Fopalus tremula, Fopnlns lanrifolia. Alnns 
fruticosa, and Frnnns Fadns, etc. 

The bulk of the wood in the moist subalpine regions is made up of the three 
first-mentioned, viz. the spruce, the silver-fir, and the cedar, and in drier habitats also 
pine and larch occur. 

From the summits of the loftier mountains may be viewed interminable areas 
covered with dense wood, the mighty, bushy and extensive cedar-crowns of a lighter 
colour mostly reaching higher than the surrounding trees and giving the forest a wild 
and ragged appearance. The spruce and the silver-fir are not able to maintain their 

44 



{^louiul l)esi(lo liic i^iiiaiilif cedar, and liavi- lo coulnil llicmsclvfs willi a less iiinl)i- 
lious place, half hidden between liieni. They conslilule the ^realer pail of Ihe under- 
wood, which is frequently so dense as to make it nearly impossible foi- Ihe liaveller 
to force his way. even in llu' subaljiinc rei;ions. nol tar iii'iow Ihi- lice liniil ilscil. 

1 will first in few woids make mention of liic most common species of trees com- 
posing the taiga proper. 

Abies sibiiicu forms trees up to 30 or .35 m. high, measuring over 0..") m. in dia- 
meter at a man's height. It is above all characteristic in constituting the moist, dark 
taiga together with the spruce and the cedar, and. to sonu' extent, the birch and the 
a.spen. In alpine situations it icaches nearly lo liic limit of Irec vegetation, represented 
by isolated low specimens, more or less stunted, here however, being superseded by 
the .spruce and the cedar. It is frequently to be found in loamy soil, and docs not 
shun rather moist and swampy places, forming here and there undeiwood so dense 
as to compel travellers to cut out a way for the pack-horses by means of axes. In 




Fig. 22. .Subiilpiiic virt^in coiiircious fori'sl in tiii' Sny;ms!v 
mounliiins; llic Ujiper Sisti iicm viillcv about 
ItiOO m. above scalevcl. Tlie l)usliy ceilar-crowns 
ovci'loppinj^ Uic level of tlie siirioiiiulinu; wood. 

moist, moss-grown places, Abies sibirirn frequently propagates by means of vegetative 
shoots, the lower branches trailing along the ground, or branches of fallen trees taking 
root and bending upwards at the summit. These shoots are at the beginning dorsiven- 
tral, like the branches forming them, but gradually pass into .symmetrical ones. I have 
observed this fact in several places, for instance near Ust Algiac. 



4.5 



Picea obovnia generally forms the j^reater part of the taiga, associated with the 
preceding one and the cedar. There arc to be found trses over 30 ni. high, and about 
75 cm. in diameter at a man's height. In moist places, it frequently occurs together 
with the silver-fir, growing like the latter in alpine situations nearly up to the limit of 
tree vegetation. 

Piinis Cembra vni. sibirica especially occurs in more or less moist and 
swampy places. It does not generally form woods alone, but accompanies the two pre- 
ceding ones. It is to be found in the lowland as well as right up to the limit of trees, 
being of all trees the one climbing highest up the mountains in these regions, and in 
possession of a great power of enduring cold. Not only in the lowland but also in the 
mountain valleys, at rather great elevations, it is seen to attain gigantic dimensions, being 
influenced, however, near the very limit of tree vegetation by the climatic conditions. 
In the mountains, the alpine variety coronans especially predominates, represented by 
low, distorted specimens, growing right up to the bare mountain. In the Sayansk district 
there generally does not exist any transition zone with birch-thickels between the 
wooded and the alpine regions. The prettiest cedar we had occasion to see during 
our journey, was growing in the Sayansk eruptive territory, where the soil in many 
places was not very fertile. The temperature here oscillates between 40° C. of heat and 
50° C. of cold, the daily changes of the temperature being very considerable as well. 
The rainfall makes the same quantity as over great parts of Scandinavia, and it is 
therefore probable that this tree also is able to thrive here. 

Pinus sihestris attains a height of about 35 m., measuring to about 1,5 m. in dia- 
meter. It especially occurs in sandy soil, where it frequently grows unmixed, or in 
many places on loamy, limy or dry and stony ground, mostly accompanied by other 
conifers, above all the larch. 




Fig. 23. Lanli lun-si irmi Ust Sisti-kem ; scattoiud while- 
stemmed birches in left foreground. 



46 



Lari.v sihiiica also assumes inif^hly diinensioiis licic, nu'asiiring lo 45 m. in licifjh!, 
aiul aljoiil 2 in. in dianielor al a man's height. Generally the larch does not form al 
any rate eonlinuous forests of considerable extent, as it occurs sparsely together with other 
conifers, especially with pine and fohferoiis trees. It secined lo he :ii)li- Id ciKlinc llie 
dry steppe climate heller llian any other conifer. Ijeing of especially common occurrence 
in the dry, Devonian sandstone territories, where it also forms woods over tracts of 
some extent, in i)art even wilhoul any admixture of other trees, hi such places the very 
largest specimens also are lo he found. In the rrjankai country, the larch therefore 
especially occurs in the lower, hotter, and dii -r tracts. Ilial is. in the wooded steppe region. 
Hovicver, this is nol due lo sensitiveness to the cold, for in noilhern Siberia the larch 
grows as far to the north as the other conifers, or farther still (up to 72'j north 
latitude), and even as for north as in the J a k u t s k district, it becomes large and 
well grown. In the I'rjankai country, it also reaches up to 1700—1800 m. above 
sea-level, i. e. right up to Ihe tree limit. It is, accordingly, one of tlie most hardy 
conifers here, and is far from being dependent on the summer lieals. The reason why 
it is especially restricted to lower altitudes after all, is that these regions are 
drier, and accordingly less suited for other conifers to do quite well. For the larch is 
of all the coniferous trees the one being best able to endure the dry climate, while 
it is evidently expelled from the moister tracts by more shade-giving conifers. Thus 
it is the conditions of moisture, and not the summer heats, which, in my opinion, are 
the cause of the existdng distribution of the larch in these regions. The ground in 




l"'ig. 24. Trunks of ccciar in the primeval forest near Kusliabar. 

In the I'oregrounii mainly Sdmbticiis i-accniosa, Asperula odoraia, 

and various species ol ferns. 



47 



tlic lareli wood is dry and light, wilhuul Uiiowing any obstacles in the way of the 
traveller. The thin branches and narrow leaves allow the rays of the sun and the 
light to pass through, and in the soil, abounding in humus, formed by the leaves, which 
are shed yearly, there is to be found a luxuriant flora. The larch may also occur 
in moister places, but here, as it generally appears, more sporadically together with the 
spruce, the silver-fir. and the cedar. In alpine regions it ascends as high up as the 
tree limit, which it forms together with the cedar. The larch being thus especially dis- 
tributed in dry places, it constitutes, with the birch and the aspen, the greater part of the 
trees to be found on the dry open wood-steppe, which form the transition zone be- 
tween the taiga and the steppe region, and are covered with dry open woods with lar- 
ger and smaller open steppe-like areas between them. 

As mentioned before, the virgin forest begins for good at Kushabar, lying at a 
height of about 320 m. above sea-level. The soil here is rather sandy, forming a narrow- 
transition zone chiefly consisting of Piniis silvestris, in a less degree Larix sibirir.d, 
and various foliferous trees, especially poplars and birches. When growing densely, the 
trees attain here a height of about 40 m. and even more, while in open wood the height 
does not generally exceed 30 — 40 m. but in return with somewhat thicker trunks. The 
scarcity of young conifers in the outskirts of the forests is noticeable, the younger gene- 
ration being chiefly foliferous trees, which seems to indicate that the conifers are gra- 
dually being reduced, probably owing to the constantly increasing dryness in these regi- 
ons. Later on I will return to this question. The vegetation making up the ground flora 
here is also still intermixed with some steppt forms. But gradually the forest of conifers 




Fig. 2') From the siib;ili)ine tiMcls in tlie Siiyansk district. Open 
moi.st liillside chiefly grown with Yeralnini alluiin, Aqaitcuia 
sibiiica, and Pcciiciilaris resiipinalci. 



4S 



becomes denser and nioie impenctmhle, Ihc spruce, llie silver-fir, and tiie cedar, as well as 
poplars and birches beinf< predominant. In the taif^a. the trees assume cpiite f^if<antic 
dimensions, especially the cedar, not unfrequentiy attaininjj a height of from ;}() to 40 m., 
Willi a circumference of () lo iS m. i'his is liic so-called black or moisl taiga, characteri- 
zed by an exceedingly great humidity, even in places in the immediate neighbourliood 
of the steppe region, and which is especially characteristically developed hen- on the 
northern sides of the mountains. The southern sides, althoui^h moist as well, 
are for all that somewhat drier. The moisture is kept very long, the scarce sun- 
rays reaching down to the ground, being but little effective. In the middle of 
the day a sultry vapour rises from the ground, but as soon as the sun sinks 
a little, the moist twilight among the roots of the gigantic trees prevails again. 
People and hor.ses moving onwards among the enormous trunks a|)pear strangely 
diminutive amidst these surroundings. Everywhere fallen or nearly fallen trees 
lie scattered about pell-mell, in part overgrown, and frequently so rotten that 
only a thin crust has been left, through which the traveller breaks when placing his foot 
upon it. In the interior of the taiga, the downpour is considerable, and in win- 
ter the snow is deep, continuing till far into the summer, and. when melting, irrigating 




p-jg. 2»i. On iiorseliack tlirougli tlie virgin coniterous forest under llu- leadership "I tin- Sayansk 
mountains, about .'i.")0 m. above sea-level In the foreground chiefly Veralntm alhiim. 



49 



The usual vcs^e- 
tntion in the tni- 
{•a on the north 
side of the Snv- 
iinsk mountains. 



Ihc gioiiud and making il swampy throughout the summef. Mosses seemed to be of no 
great consequence in the ground in the wood here, but in sufficiently open places there 
occurs a luxuriant vegetation consisting of various vascular plants, especially Aconitiim 
Idcvc. Delphinium chiliim. Heracleum ilissertinn. ycniinini nlhinn. Arinilcgin sihirica. 
etc., attaining a height of towards a couple of metres and so densely interlaced 
as to form a nearly impenetrable jungle. This association is especially characteristic 
of dark and moist, partially irrigated localities, mostly in woods of Abies sihirica. The 
traveller is liable to lose the general view among this high vegetation, where men and 
horses nearly disappear in the tangled undergrowth when making their way with diffi- 
culty through the pathless territory. It is practically hopeless to try to force this taiga 
with heavily loaded pack-horses, not only because of the fallen trees and the denseness 
of the wood, through which men in advance are obliged to cut their way yard by yard, 
but e.specially so on account of difficulties caused by the extensive swamps and headlong 
declivilJL's. The traveller forcing his way through the virgin forests in these regions, will 
have, above all. to take into account the natural obstacles to be met with, the real di- 
stances being rather delusive. 

Here and there, open places in the wood are covered with a dense vegetation up 
to 1,'- m. high, nearly exclusively consisting of Veiotnim alhiini. or elsewhere with 
various iVrns, such as Alhijriiim Fihx femina, Aspidiiim spinulosuin. Aspidiiim dilalaliim. 




Fiji. 27. Open place in the taiga near Semiretska, grown chiefly 

with various ferns such as Athyriiim Filix /emiiia. Asj>uliiim 

spinutosum, Oiioclca Struthoplcris, and others. 

Pleridiiim 'aquiliniim, Onoclea Struthopteris etc. Of other species of ferns which are 
to be met with in the taiga, I will mention: 

Cystopleris fragilis, Woodsin ilvensis snhspec. alpina ct sid)spec. riifiduUi. Asplenium 
viride, Asplenium septenlrionale, Asplenium Ruta muraria (occurring cspecially'on rocks) 



50 



iiiul l)i"si(li's I'hrf/oplriis Dijioplrris. I'lm/oplcris pnljipodioidcs. Pohipodiuin I'lih/drc. 
Aspidiitni I'licliiplcris. jind especially in lolliei- inoimlaiii liaels Mliiiriiim (ilpcslir ajid 
Alluiiitim cirndlum are to l)c I'ouiul. The eliimi)s ol aspens sonielinies lo he met 
Willi here, are also a eharaeleristic assoeialion. In similar siluations, the trees attain 
a height of towards .'!() ni., with slender, neailv hranehless ti-iinl<s, only near the 
summit Ininished with a erown. Anionic liie more Ivpieal jjlanls in these loealities 
may he mentioned ai)ove all Ihe pretiy red I'aronid (inonuild. and also Vi'idlniin dlhiini. 
Mclicd niildiis. Diiplinc Mczcrcum. Alhijiiiuu Fili.v fnuina. and olhcis. 

Moreover, the moist taitja on the north side of the Sayansk mountains is distinj^uished 
hy a great variety of plants with an all but suharetic character, and the resemblance lo 
the con-esponding Scandinavian one was many a time quite striking. Of trees and shrubs 
aie to be lonnd besitles I'icea ohoixila. Ahii's sil)iiic(t, Piniis silnesliis, and Pinus Cemhia 
var. sibiiicd. constituting tlie l)uli< ol' the wood, sporadical specimens ol" Ldvix sihirica, 
especially on dry declivities with sonlhern aspects, and scattered Junipenis communis. 
Of foliage ti'ces BeluUi pnhcscens vur. oixilifolia el I'ltr. rlwmbifolia, Pcliild hiimilis. 
Popidus Iremidd, Popnliis laiirifolid are predominant, more scalteied and less ai)nn- 
dantly Sorbiis Auvupaiid. Primus Pndus. Alnus frulicosa. Vd)urnum Opulus. Suntbucus 
lacemosa, Iih(uunus FrdUfjuld. Ribes nigrum. Rdn-s pubescens, Lonicern coetuled ixir. 
(/UdM'escens, Snli.r caprea, and Scdi.r uiminidis occuired. The ground in Ihe wood here 
is generally very fertile, with a luxuriant and varying Mora. On siiady i^round in 
woods and in copsy woods besides the plants already mentioned, I have collected 
and observed the following, wbich may give a notion of the vegetation characterizing 
the lloor in the forest: 

Epilobiuni moiddiimn. Trifolium Lupiudslcr. Lalhijius pruteiisis. Viulii Konuiioi'ii. 
Epipaclis Idtifolia. Saxifra(]d crdssif'olid. Gndpbntium silvaticum, Cerasliuni j)ilosuni. 
Cerastium indgulum. Equisetum silvalicum. Pidiculaiis euphrasioides, ddnipdnuhi 
nipunculoidcs. Pi/roln unifloiri. Pi/rola rolundi/olia var. incdrmda. Senecio iicmonnsis 
vdt. maver. Ldmiiiiu (dbum, Anlennarin dioica /'. cori/mbosn. Geranium siliHdicnm 
el f. pari'iflorum, (wranium albi/lornm. (ieraninm pspudosibiricum. Prunella vul(]dris. 
Erigernn (u-er f. polilus. Pulenlilla jrulicosd. Andro.'^aces jilijormis, Pulmonaria 
molli.f.sima. Aspeiula odoridd. Polnuonium corruleuni. Allium Viclorialis, Melica nuhins. 
Ijdhi/rus Giurliiii. Linnaea borealis. Slelhuia Bungeana par. Udifolia. Oxdiis Acelosella, 
Tiienlalis europaea, Majanthemum bifolium. (lircaea alpina. Slavhijs silv(dird. I'.tjuiselun] 
hiem(de together wilh Cgstopleris /ntgilis (especially in chinks ol rocksi, Pediculaiis 
uncinata, Pedicularis versicolor. Viola iiniflora, Vicia cracca. Calamagroslis Langsdar/fii. 
Mgosolis siUxdica. .\ncliusa mgosolidijJora var. grandiflora. Paris (piadrifolid. Anemone 
refle.Vd, 'Anemone dUdicd. .\ennilum laeve, Aclaea spiccda var. erglhrocarpa. .\speruld 
odondd. Aelbusd (Afrnqnum. ('.orgd(dis braeleala. Pna nemor(dis. llumulns Lupulus. 
Alragene .\ihiiied. Luziihi pdosd. Lgsinnwhid vubidris. Epilobium ungusli folium. Rubus 
.sd.cdiilis. Ruhus idaeus. ('.umpunuld rolui}ili/olid. Hesperis nudroiudis vni. sibiricd. Pgrola 



minor. Vdniniiini iiliniiiosiiiu siibsprc. inihrrbe nor. siihspec, Vacriniiim Miiililhis, 
Vdtriiiiiiiu I'ilis itUicii. lAjcojXHtium SrUu/i). Liicoixxliiiiii (innoliniiin. nnd Liicopodiiiiu 
cldnitluin. 

Ill moistcr i;i;iss-on)\\ n places oi- in Sphagnum swamps etc., Ihc lollowing plants 
WW latliei' coimnoii : 

Alopccnms (jcniruldlns ixir. sihiricus, Angelica silveslris, Calla paliislris. Parnassia 
palnslris. Saiissiirea xerrata. Kguiseiam aroense. Comnnim palustrc. (ialium uliginosiim. 
Mi/nsolis palnslris var. nemorosa. Carex canescens. Ecpiisclnm paluslre. Canlamine 
marraphiilla var. eriocarpa. Vaccininm Oxgcoccos. Vnccininm O.vgcoccos var. microcarpum. 
Carer jxinrijlora. Naslnrlium paluslre. Valeriana officinalis. Epilobium davuricnm, 
Viola cpipsila suhspec. repens. Trollius asialicns. Drosera rolnndi folia, Drosera anglica, 
Drosera inlermedia. Andromeda poli/olin. Ledum paluslre. Ruhus Chamaemorus. Hubus 
arclirns. Tiipha lalifolia. Carex a(pialilis. (Mrex laeviioslris. Menijanlhes Irifoliala. Caliha 
palnslris. and Sparganium minimum. 

Ill more open, dry places especially occuired: 

Alcliemilla vulgaris. Bupleurum longifolium var. aureum, Adenopbora liliifolia, 
Trifolinni pralen.se. Poa pralensis. and Fesluca giganlea. On dry, open declivities with 
southern aspects, associated witii Belula pube.scens and .luniperns communis, ai'e to he 
t'onnd: 

Aniho.vanlum odoralum var. glabre,scens. Care.v curaica. Origanum vulgare, 
Solidago Virgaurea. Lotus corniculalus. Campanula glomerala, Fragaria vesca. Viola 
aienaria. Carum Carvi. Chelidonium majus var. grandiflorum, as well as the very cha- 
racteristic Epilobium anguslifolium. and the variety albifloium. 




l"i«. 28. Fioni llic middle course of the Amyl river; dry liill-slope 
with a soulhern ns|)ect towards llie river. 



Similar open, dry declivities with southern aspects were rather frequently to he 
met with in the iaif^a, often hearinf^ marks of forest-fires, whicii had devastated the wood. 
In these stretches the conifers seemed to have some difficulty in f^aininj^ f<round a^ain. 
foliferous trees hciuj^ mostly predominant, especially HeUdu jnibi'scens and I'opiilus 
licmiilii. associated with vaiious grasses and some forerunners of the xeropiiilous sle|)])(- 
likc flora. 

\l f>reater altitudes on the summits of the still wooded hills to be found here at 
tiie outskirts of the Sayansk eruptive area, some plants not obseived hy me in Ihe lower 
rei^ions akso occurred, viz.: 

Saxifr(U)(i sibiriat. Euphorbia alpina. Anemone eoerulen, Rannncnins propinrjinis. 
Viola bi/lora. Sinissurea alpina. Belnlit lolundifoiia. Pelasiles liiijidus. and others. 

Moreover, Ihe following are above all ciiaracteristic of the sandy stretciu-s of \\\v 
riverbed : 

Dianthus superbus, I'olenlilla frnlicasa, I'olentilla anserina, and luiui.seluin i>uric(/aluni. 
and in loamy soil Tussilago Farfara, and Veronica serpijlli folia. 

In low, irrigated, stony places and on low river-banks among pebbles, the charac- 
teristic leaves of Pelasilea laevigatas frequently occurred at this time. 

The taiga is practically waste, untouched and uninhabited. Oidy at intervals of 
several days' journeys, the traveller meet with scattered camps of gold-diggers where 




Fig. 29. Tlie t)anUs ol tin' Aiiix 1 river nenr Semiretskn, nhout 100 m. ;iiiovc sea level. The sands 
covered with Pelasiles luei'ifialiis. the hanks chieny grown with spruce. hirch,and PoterililUi fnitirosa. 



5:5 



people are to be found, at any rate in summer. In court-yards in such places I have 
collected for instance: 

lianiinciiliis icpeiis. rrlica iirens, Pohjgonuiu avicuUne. IHctnlatjo inajoi . (iiilcopsis 
I't'lnthit. Euphrasia spec. Veronica arvensis. Pua annua. Jrifoliiun reprns. Brunella 
vulgaiis. which arc the most characlerislic ot such liahilats. On liie lurl'-root's of the 
houses plan Is as Poa alpinn. Polijgonum Convolvulus, Polygonum aviculare, Chenopodium 
album. Vrlica urens, Stellaria media, and Planiago major frcciucnlly occurred. 

About half way between Kushabar and the Algiac Pass, on the river Amyl, is situated 
the lonely Russian settlement of Kalna. On a sloping hill, in open brushwood here, 
with a slightly southern aspect, near the houses, I have collected the following trees and 
bushes: 

Picea obovafa. Abies sibiiica. Pinus silvesliis. Beiula pubescens, Sambucus racemosa, 
Lonirera coerulea var. glabrescens. Populus tremula, Ribes peiraeum. Prunus Padus. 




Vijl. .'W. Look out on Ihc upper pjut ol' Uie Aiiiyl vallcv neur Kaliui, 
about .500 in. above sea-level. The vegetation in the foreground con- 
sisting of Bcliila pnhcscen.'i and Saxifraga crassifolici. 

Nearest to the houses the most conspicuous plants were: 

Taraxacum spec. Slellaiia media. Capsella bursa pasloris. Urtica dioica, liumex 
domesticus, Rume.v rrispus, Lajjpa tomentosa. Anlennaria dioica, Galeopsis Tetrahit. 
Brunella vulgitiis. Poa annua. Polygonum aviculare, Geum livale. (u'um Aleppicum. 
Veronica arvensis, Tanacelum vulgare, Alchemilla vulgaris, Trifolium repens, Planiago 
major, Planiago media, Hypericum hirsulum, Stellaria graminea. liumex Acelosella. 
IJnaria vulgaris. Ranunculus auricomus. Valeriana of/icincdis. Origanum vulgare. 
Heracleum disseclum. Spiraea chamaedry folia var. ulmifolia. Thaliclrum minus, 
'rrij'olium pralense. Solidago Virgaurea. Aconilum laeve. Acnnilum volubile. Epilobium 



54 



luonlaniim, Hpilobnim (tnf/iislifoliiiin, I'liroUi rolitndifolid ixir. iiumnnld. Hiibus idncits, 
Sciaphuldrid nodosa. (Auuixunda glomcnda. (Udium bovcitlc. I'liiidiimi iKjuilinum. 
Pltildnlhrid bifoUa. Ilii-niciiiin sprc. l-'iiii/diid lu-scd. Sdf/ind protiinibrn.s. Mdjaiillicmiiii) 
bifoliiiin. luipbnisid hirb'Ua. SlcUmin Biingediid vitr. bilifolid. Saxifrcif/tt cnissi folia . 
\'<icciiiiiim I'ih's idiu-d. and Vdcciniiiin MijiliUus. 

In thicUels of S(di.v, on dcclivilies facing the river, tlicic is to l)c t'ouiul here a 
denso vci,'eti>tion nearly of a man's liei^hl, ciiiefly eonsislinq of (jibiiiKK/ioslis I'piiiriox 
as the dominant plant. 




.■.mnv^-sfft ■<r.i\<}.usiuwM 



l-'i^. 31. Hillside near Kalnn, with thicket of Salix and Biiula 
puhesceiis, with a very dense and luxuriant underf^rowlh, chiefly con- 
sisting of Cakimac/roslis epigeios, reaching nearly the height of a man. 

In its upper course, the Ainyl has the character of a mountain river. The bound- 
ary between Siberia and the Urjankai country here roughly follows the watershed, 
which the traveller passes by this route through the Algiac Pass, the height of which is 
only 1413 ni. above sea-level, and is accordingly situated below the limit of tree vege- 
tation, for which reason the plants may also be spread by this way. In the main, 
the flora on the south side of the mountain agrees with the one on the north side; at any 
rate in the moist subalpine wooded regions, the flora seemed to have the same character. 

Nor are the Sayansk mountains an isolated ridge, but may really be said to form a 
ramified mountain range, the spurs of which reach nearly to the same height as the 
watershed itself, both on the north and the south side of it. The greater part of tlie 
Urjankai country is traversed by these mountain masses. 

From the Algiac Pass, the land .slopes gradually southwards, forming, as it were, 
the first terrace from the Siberian lowland up towards the Mongolian tableland. 

55 



Vegetation at 
Ust Algiac on 
the south side 
of the Sayansk 
mountains. 




Fig. 32. Coniferous woodland in the upper Amyl valley on the north side of the Sayansk moun- 
tains, about 450 m. above sea-level. 

According to our route, we went southwards along the small river Algiac to Ust 
Algiac, on the Sisti-kem. In the same vicinity, along the river, the wood was in many 
places somewhat thinner, here and there with more open stretches. Thus, there is 
evidently somewhat less moisture on the southern slopes of the mountains than on the 
north side, but quite sufficient to call into existence a complete typical subarctic vege- 
tation on this side as well, at any rate in the more elevated regions. The dominating 
forest trees here were Picea obovata. Abies sibirica. Pinus silueslris, Piniis Ceiubrn var. 
sibirica, Betiila hiimilis. Betiila piibescens. Popiilus tremiila, and along the river thickets 
of Alniis frulicosa are especially characteristic. 

In order to convey an impression of the general composition of the vegetation 
in these subalpine tracts here on the south side of the mountains. I will, in the follow- 
ing, give an enumeration of the plants found by me in different kinds of habitats at 
Ust Algiac (roughly 980 m. a. s. 1.). 

Here are to be found under-sized spruce-forest with an admixture of clumps of 
foliferous trees. 

In small meadows in the wood occur here: 

Solidago Virgaurea. Anthoxanthum odoralum. Galalella daviidca. Chriisanihemum 
Leucanthemiim var. irculianum, Chrysanlhemiim sibiiicnm, Bninella vulgaris. Polggonnin 
aviculare, Urtica iirens, Urlica dioica, Plantago major. Plantago media, Polcnlilla 



56 




Fig. 33. From Ihc suhnlpinc I'orest trncls on the south sidi' (il ihc ;5:l^:lnsk iiiounlMins iu';ir the 

Algiac Pass, ahout 1400 m, ahove sca-lcvcl. Gla<ie densely i,'ro\vn. chiefly with Poliif/oniim 

and ti la I urn, Vcralinm albiiin. Ilcraclcnm disscclum. various grasses, and sedges. 

anserina, Barhnrea slricla, Runie.v domesliciis. Tiifolium jttnlense. Trifolinm repens. 
Trifolium Liipinasler. Vu-nlinim verna var. angulosa, Ranunculus dcris. Ranunculus 
repens. Geranium piatense, Alchemilla vulf/aris. Erigeron acer. Hierariuui umlwllalun}. 
Hiipochaeris maculata. Campanula rolunclifolia. Achillea Millefolium. Achillea impaliens. 
Dachjlis glomerala. Triselum flaoescens subspec. copiosum nop. .suhspec. Rumex arifolius. 
Rume.r Acelosa. Rume.r crispus, Equisetum arvense. Poa annua, and Poa alpestris. 

Ill open wood of loliferoiis trees and in IhicUcMs here eliielly eonsistinj* of Zif/u/fJ 
piibescens. Populus Iremula. Sorbus Aucuparia. Prunus Padus. Populus laurifolia. Alnus 
frulicosa. and Sali.r spec, are lo he I'onnd: 

Bupleuium longifolium var. aureum, Adenophora liliifolia. Adenophora denticulaUi, 
Primula elaiior var. Pallasii, Senecio nemorensis var. macer. .luniperus communis. 
Potentilla frulicosa. Pedicularis euphrasioides. Polggonum vivipatum. Polijgonum 
undulatum subspec alpinum. Polemonium coeruleum. Tanacelum oulgare. Spiraea 
chamaedrgfolia var. ulmifoha. Geranium p.seudo.sibiiicum. Geranium albiflorum. 
Geranium silvaticum. Rubus sa.vatHis, Rubus idaeas. Epilobium anguslifolium. Melica 
nutans. Veronica pseudolongifolia nov. spec. Vicia cracca. Geum Aleppicum. Arlemi.sia 
vulgaris, Cacalia haslata. Galeopsis Teirahii. Lilium Martagon var. ])ilosiusculum, 

57 



Cerasiium vidgatum, Leiizea caithainoides, Aconitiim voliibile subspec. ciliare imr. 
rectiuscnlum. Viola Konmrovii. Anlhriscus silveslris, Veratriim album. Aqidlegia sihiiira, 
Pleiirospermiim austiiaciim. Ribes petraeum. Botri]chiiim Matricariac. Calamagroslis 
Lnnfjsdorffii, Anlennaria dioica. Gimphalium silvaliciim, Acoidlnm laeve. Piiiola 
roliindifolia var. incarnala. Pijrola minor. Pijrola nniflora, Lislera cordata. Linmiea 




Fif». 34. Prospect of the Upper Al<ii;ic near the Siberian-Mon- 
golian Ironticr. The tree vegetation in the bacl<yroiind cliielly 
Picca obovala, Beluta piibcsccns, and Aliiim friilicosa. 

borealis, Vacciniiim Mijrtilliis. Yacciniiim viUs idaea. Pedicidaris iincinala, Pedicidaris 
versicolor. Trientalis eiiropaea, Empetriim nigrum. Calamagroslis epigeios. Lycopodium 
Selago f. laxum, Lycopodium annotinum. Lycopodium claixdum. Alhgrium Fdix 
femina, Phegopteris Dryopleris, Phegopleris polypodioides, Carex globularis, Carex 
loliacea, and Carex tenuiflora. 

Near river-banks etc., in sliohtly nioistcr halntats Cirsium palustre. Cardamine 
pralensis. Myosolis paluslris var. nemorosa. Pediculaiis comosa, Epilobium palustre. 
Epilobium davuricum. Cirsium helerophyllum, Stachgs paluslris. Coicdliorrhiza iiinala. 
Alopecurus fulvus var. sibiiicus. Poa p(duslris, Agrostis canina. Calamagroslis neglecla. 
Aeia caespilosa. Equiselum palustre. Salix arbuscula. Salix myrlilloides. Ribes procumbens. 
Ulmaria penlapetala, Chrysosplenium alter ni folium. Gnaphalium uliginosum. Angelica 
silveslris, Heracleum dissectum. Scirpus silvaticus. Rumex aqualicus. Polygonum Bistorta. 
Viola epipsila subspec. repens. Juncus filiformis, Veronica serpylli/olia. Mulgedium 
sibiricum, Galium Irijidum subspec. distentum, Galium uliginosum. Comarum palustre. 
Caltha paluslris, Parnassia paluslris. Carex vesicaria, and Caret canescens are frequent. 
Moreover, in Sphagnum swamps and in grass-grown swamps appear: 
Carex pauciflora, Carex limosa, Carex magellanica, Carex caespitosa, yaccinium 
Oxycoccos, Vaccinium Oxycoccos var. microcarpum, Vaccinium uliginosum subspec. 

58 



imberhe. Uiihiis Cluinuiniionis. liithiis (ircUciis. (jinltiiiniic iiKiirdiilnilhi. Lcihiin jxiluslrr. 
Drosera rolundifolid. Mt'tu/dnlhrs Iri/blidld. Eriophoium ixu/iiKildiii. Aiulniiiicda polijolia. 
Ranunculus nuUcans. mikI riricuhirid minor. 

In sloiiy places and on dry sloping; clills I liavc collec-lcd as tlie most cliaiac- 
lerislic plan Is: 

Agrimonid pilasd. (icnuiiuni lidhcrlidnuni. Asplcniuni sriilfnliioimlr. Wnndsid 
ilvensis, and Asplenium linla nuiniiia. 




Fig. '6b. ('.liarMilerislic view sout]i of llic Algiiu- Pnss near Ust 

Alginc Picca olnwata and Ihtiiln imhcscciis. with a dense i^round 

vegetation consistinf^ of various licrbs (see text). 



Towards the limit of tree vegetation the hireh is generally first seen to remain 
hehind, soon followed by the aspen. About 100 m. below the tree limit proper, the 
spruce and the silver-fir also come to an end, only the cedar, the larch, and rareh. 
the fir reaching it. The climatic conditions, especially the moisture, seem to be the chief 
factors in determining which of tliese trees are to reach highest. In drier localities, as 
for instance on the Tannu-Ola, the larch seemed to be the most persevering one, the 
fir and above all the cedar, on the contrary, predominating in moister places, for in- 
stance in the <v,Altaian». The height of the tree limit seemed, for the rest, to vary even in 
rather neighbouring localities. It is also worth noticing that the tree limit descends east- 
wards from the Yenisei from a height of about 2200 m. above sea-level to about 1700 lo 
1800 m. above sea-level near the Algiac Pass, a characteristic trail that has nol ye( been 
accounted for. Moreover, the tree limit, of course, reaches higher on tlu' south side of 
the mountains than on the north when upon level terms in other re.spect.s. In the moister 
parts of the Sayansk district the cedar is, as we have seen, the tree thai climbs higiie.st 
up on the mountains, some stunted, weather-beaten specimens reaching high up to liic 



Tlic vej^etation 
al)out tlie tree 
limit. 



bare mountain, associated ^vith BeliiUi roliindi folia. Janiperus communis vav. nana, 
Alniis frulicosa subspec. monlana nov. siibspec, forming a jungle nearly to the height ol 
a man, and, besides, various species of Salix. 




Fig. 36. Typical scenery from tlie subalpine region in the upper Amyl 
valley, about 1400 m. above sealevel. The trees are Picca obovala, with 
a ground vegetation chiefly consisting of Vacciniuw. 

Up here, not far from the tree limit proper, we found, indeed, the very densest coni- 
ferous forest, which it was impossible to penetrate into except with the help of axes. It was 



CO 



also necessary lo f<o nlu'iid of (Ik- caravans to find oiil tlic easiest passages. The cedar also 
sconied to lie more common here than lower down; in short, the character of the forest 
itself reminds, up here, more of the one to be found on the north side of the mountains. 
This may he accounted for by the greater amount of moisluie on tlie heights here — 
as is the case on the noilh side. 

A marked birch-belt above the tree limit constituting a transition zone between the 
coniferous forest and the bare mountain, as is to be found over the greater part of Scan- 
dinavia, was not observed by me in these regions. It is cs])ccially interesting to state this 
fact in connection with the phytogeographic discoveries in the extreme nortli and north- 
eastern parts of Scandinavia. For, according to the investigations ol II. Ijnoheiu;, 
every trace of the «birch period» is wanting here, a period characterized by l)irch forest 
mixed up with alpine types, which further to the soutli seemed lo have been the first 
vegetation seizing the land left by the ice. 



j]?S?5l 





¥ 



** i 




mmm 



Fig. 37. P>oni the .\ltiii:ui , about the lice limit at a liciftlil of about 18U0 ru. above sea level. The 

conifers — chiefly cedar — reachin-; right up to the bare mountain. The birch belt is wanting. 

Scattered bushes of .-l//i(is fmticosa suhspec. nwnlana. and Sali.v. 

In the more elevated subalpine tracts about the tree limit are to be met with, 
besides some of the above-mentioned plants occurring in the neighbourhood of I'st 
Algiac, also some new ones, which seemed to be predominant here. Among plants of 
especially frequent occurrence may be mentioned: 



Gl 



Sdlix pi] lolac folia. Rhododendron dauiicnm. Coiijdalis pauciflova, Aslragahisfiifiidus. 
[jilhi/rux hiunilis. Orohiis alprstris, Chnisospleniitm niidicaide. Aegopodium nlpeshr, 
l>('l(isilcs friqidiis. Scoizonera radiala. Pediculaiis nnvincda, Luzida nudtiflora. Lalhiims 
(inielini. Saussincd (ilpino. Myosolis sUimlica var. alpestiis. Euphorbia lutescens. Aconitum 
ambiquum subsprr. (dpiniun nov. comb., (Mlaniagrostis Langsdorffii f. gracilis. Veronica 
sajanensis nop. .spec. Cgstopleiix monlana. Polemoniinu coeruleum. Trifolium Lupinasler, 
Spiraea chanmedrgfolia. and others anion" Iho most characteristic. The traveller's 
eyes, however, are here perhaps ai)ovc all leasted with the heautiful aznre A(inilegia 
glandidosa. with its ilowers to 10 cm. wide, clolhinsT the alpine, parlh' stony meadows 
with a dense cover, visihle at a great distance. 




Fig. .58. Saxifraga crassifoliu I... from tlu' '.\llaian 
iicjir the tree limit 



Of the arbuscular vcLjctation about the tree limit here may be mentioned Belula 
pubescens v. ovalifolia. while Belula humilis only rarely seemed to reach up to the tree 
limit proper. Moreover, there occur here a low. alpine form of .Alnus frulicosa, desci-i- 
bed l)y me as subspec. monlana. lo^clhcr with .luniperus cominuni.f var. nana, and 
various species of .Sali.v. 

Moreover, several plants the proper range of which lies above the tree limit, also 
descend into this zone, such as Belula rotundifolia. Sibb<ddia procumben.s. arid many 



r,-2 



others. Near the upper hinit of the forest, along brooks, in moist moss-grown places 
in thickets, etc. C.ovlusd Mdllliioli is of rather cominnn occurrence. Moreover I'.re 
to be found rntiier frecjuently here Sdxifracja crdssifiilia. Ilie splendid large-flowered 
'Iwlliiis osidlirus ixtr. slniopclahi, and Callhci paliisliis. frequently covering nearly as the 
sole prevailing plant large moist hill-sides in this region. In irrigated grass-fields large 
areas are often clad nearly exclusively with Alliiiiu Schdcnoprasum. in full flower just 
at the end of July, emitting a smell of onions perceptible at a great distance. In this 
region there are also freciuenlly to be found large Sphagnum swamps, which are now 
l)artly overgrown wilii: 

Beluld humilis. Vdcciiiiiiin ulifiinosnm siibspec. imberbe non. siibspec, Carex 
caespilosd, (jirc.r jxincijlurd. (jircx vdiicscens. Vdccinium Oxycoccos. 

These magnificent regions will make an impression never to be obliterated on 
every lover of nature who has had the fortune to travel here. 

However, before finishing the treatment of the subalpine forest region, 1 must also Areas with 

. . marks alter fo- 

briefly mention the extensive areas of burnt forest and various questions suggestmg ^gj.[ c^^^g ^j.^ 

themselves in connection with, these. very cliaractc- 

The sparse native population consisting of Sovotes, living scattered here in ""'^ ""' <^'^l''''^'^ " 
f II t> . o lyofllie lower 

small clans at intervals of hundreds of wersts, are very careless about fire. They are siibalpinc iracls 

also said designedly to fire the wood in order to procure open grazing grounds for their "' t''^' L'rjankai 

1 • I • 1 • 11-111 countf}'. 

remdeer, m this way burnmg small trees and brushwood, whue the larger stems are 

left, naked and black. In these scorched places there grows out in a short time a 
dense, nearly impenetrable jungle, especially of Epilobinin angiixiifoliuin, .sthe firew-eed» 
reaching the height of a man, and rather higher still. In July, the flowering season of 
the species, the red flowers, forming at this time a contrast to the dark wood, arc 
visible at a distance of several miles. This plant constituted in the early years almost 
the only vegetation in similar places, which seemed almost to be shunned by beasts 
and birds. Nor are these tracts of land inviting to man. being quite empty and 
desolate, and very difficult to penetrate into because of the dry trunks in the course of 
time having been blown down in every direction or interlaced in a chaotic disorder, which 
renders it impossible to force a way. Forest fires are so common in the Urjankai land 
that a traveller will always observe some when passing through these tracts in sum- 
mer. Rather frequently, mighty clouds of smoke rise above the horizon, indicative 
of some forest fire, now and then lasting for weeks, destroying large tracts of land without 
any attempt being made to jnit it out. Sometimes, the lightning also sets fire to the 
wood, which we had also occasion to see. 

Burnt, open areas of this sort in the forest, larger or smaller, extending to over 
a great many wersts, are thus rather frequently to be met with and very characteristic 
of the Urjankai country. The ground is dry, and aj)t to catch fire, and after a burn it 
is long before the forest invades the ravaged places again, if ever it does so any more at 
all. After a forest fire the ground is, as mentioned above, rather rapidly settled by a 
very dense jungle of herb.s, above all Kpilohiiim dnguslifoliiim. which, for a great number 

(J3 



of Ycai's, seemed lo l)e able lo occupy the ground here, frequently nearly sole pre- 
vailing. Later on, various foliage trees also seize, especially birch and aspen, and some 
few others. At the same time, the character of the floor vegetation will also be changed 
in the process of time. Thus, the dense growth of Epilobium is gradually mixed up 
with various other herbs, such as divers grasses, Aronitnm, Solidago. Thnliclriim, 
Hi/pochaeris. Pediciilaris. and the like, or it is little by little replaced by various species 
of ling, as Kmpclnim. Airloslupbijlos. Vacciniiim, etc. But even a long time after the 
fire has raged and all the dry trunks have been blown down and have disappeared, 
young coniferous forest many a time is looked for in vain, wanting as it were, strength 
to conquer again the giound once lost. The tall and old foliferous trees, however, testify 
how long time may have elapsed since the fire ravaged here. Coal and black charred 
trunks in the ground are an unmistakable evidence of the conflagration once devasta- 
ting the forest in this place. 

Krassnow, who visited the western portions of the Altai, the territory about 
B j e 1 u c h a, in the summer of 1882, calls attention to the fact that burnt stretches of 
the forest were common in those regions as well, and he, too, has noted that though it 
was a long time since the fire had been raging, no new forest had yet arisen, but the 
ground was covered with a waving sea of various herbs, several feet high. In upland 
regions, however, he has observed that the forest seemed to have a greater facility for 
reappearing. He is of opinion that the reason of this must be that eventual larch seeds 
entering, become suppressed by the dense herbaceous vegetation, which, in this man- 
ner, direct prevents the ecesis of the forest. Since the birch and other foliferous trees, 
however, seemed to be more apt to grow out again, he is of opinion that this is due 
to the tact that the birch with its lighter fruits, also furnished with wings, giving 
greater buoyancy for the promotion of the spreading, has a better chance of finding a 
spot open enough for its seeds to germinate and the young seedlings to develop, while 
the more heavy seeds of the larch will have more difficulty about this. At higher eleva- 
tions, the conifers are said to enter more readily burnt areas of this sort, because the 
vegetation of the forest floor is supposed to be less dense here, and thus the seeds of the 
conifers were assumed to be more apt to find an open spot where to establish thems- 
elves. I will point out this, indicating that the suppression of the forest thus not only may 
be attributed to modification of the soil, as for inst. by destruction of the mould and 
tiic like. 

Though, it is true, instances are kno\\ n of a dense plant cover, at any rate for 
some time, being able to prevent the development of tree vegetation, this explanation, 
however, as set forth by Khassnow. appears rather improbable to me in this particular 
case, anyway when given in such a general form and concerning long periods. Even 
apart from the fact that also the seeds of the conifers, as is known, are furnished with 
wings making them adapted for wind-carriage, it is strange that none of all the millions 
of seeds ripening in the surrounding forest should be able to find a place — as well as 
those of the birch — so as to enable some plants to grow out and thereby pioneer the 

64 



way for ollu'is. Hut even after this dense sea of herbs, to ap])ly Khassnow's own term, 
becoming thin and being in the course of time successively rei)iaced l)y otiiers growing 
less densely, the coniferous forest many times seemed not to be able to force a way still, 
especially at lower elevalions. jldc Kkassnow s llieory utterly fails to satisfy us. And 
why should the herbs growing out and covering the ground after a forest- fire at higher 
elevations be less dense than lower down? Nor did this, besides, seem to be the case 
at all, as the mountain sides here are just, from my experience, very luxuriant and 
densely grown. The supposed supersession of the forest for always by herbs in this 
way is al.so, in my opinion, the more improbable because, on the contrary, as is well- 
known and all experience shows, a forest cover just forms tlie final jiliasc — llie 
climax formation — in the development of the vegetation, save for places where factors 
as humidity, cold, and d r o u g h t put obstacles in the way of the generation 
of the trees. 

The explanation of this fact that the vegetation here, in an essentially different 
degree, seemed to change its character, must no doubt be attributed to more deep seated 
causes. As we have seen, the conditions appear, as to that, to be identical both in the 
Altai and in the Sayansk regions. By considering this in connection with a series of 
other phenomena here, I have arrived at the view t h a t a t p r e s e n t a s 1 o w d i .s- 
placement of the climatic conditions towards a drier 
epoch, and, as a consequence, also corresponding changes 
in the floral conditions are proceeding in the interior of Asia. 

I will now enlarge upon my reasons for maintaining this view. 

Already when commenting on the Abakan Steppe, I mentioned ttie solitary larches Conditions in 

only occurring here and there, especially near the summits of the sandstone hills in this •'"■a'ins ''i^it 

r . tlie climate in 

region. 1 supposed these were to be considered as the last remains of the forests of former times 

the past, for roots of trees in the ground here are an irrefutable evidence that also was moisten in 
the lower steppe proper was once wooded, which again implies a considerably moister "ip-nvnnsk le 
climate at that time. I will here, for the sake of completeness, also call attention to the other 
evidences of a colder, at least a subarctic climate in former times, which I have found on 
the south Siberian steppes, more precisely mentioned on page 39. The old Tsudian tombs 
with their contents also prove that in times long past, the country here was inhabited 
by a numerous and mighty people, living, to judge from their properties left in the tombs 
and the rock-carvings, by farming and breeding of cattle. Their domestic animals were 
also, according to the rock-carvings, animals which are no longer in existence or would 
not now be able to stand the dryness and heat of these steppes at all. In connection w'ith 
this I will also call to mind that remains after a corresponding ancient culture and coloni- 
zation are recovered on the steppes south of the Sayansk mountains, in tracts which, 
are now quite uninhabitable on account of the drought, and. accordingly, at present 
waste and desolate. In this connection, the great old road is highly interesting, which, 
to judge from the remains, existed in the western part of the Soyote Steppe, between 
Cha-kul and Kemchik, and was about a iiundred wersts long. This road leads through 

65 



the Kemchik mountains and the steppe lying to the east of them, and it is still so well 
preserved that it can be availed of, even to this day, for some distances. A similar 
road was also observed by us between Cha-kul and the outlet of the river Kemchik. It 
lies for great distances along the Yenisei, where it has been built from large chips of 
stone on the abrupt mountain-sides on the western bank. These magnificent roads, 
thus running through the country in many places, attest that these tracts were once the 
home of a mighty and numerous people, in possession of a comparatively high culture, 
and that these regions, wich are now so waste and desolate, were then full of life and 
stir. The Soyote Steppe has, accordingly, not always been so isolated and forgotten as it 
is nowadays, but was once much more favourable to human thriving. 

These facts, accordingly, leave beyond doubt that the climate, since the time when 
these ancient people lived here, must have become much drier. But herewith has not 
yet been proved that the climate even at this day is constantly becoming drier, or that 
the climate should not be supposed to be stable at all in the present day. But also in 
the vegetation here itself there are indications not to be mistaken. There are 
phenomena here showing that also at present slow changes 
in the vegetation are proceeding, the causes of which can 
only be due to climatic alterations towards a drier state. 
Changes in the I have, by the way, already mentioned that on the edge of the jirimeval forest about 

ciaractcroftlie Kushabar, the conifers, which require more moisture, are gradually disappearing. The 
vegetation indi ^ o .; i r- o 

eating tliat tlie younger generation of the tree vegetation here especially consists of less exigent foli- 
climate is still ferous trees; and of spruce, cedar, and silver-fir, constituting the bulk of the primeval 
° ' forest proper, are to be found here on the edge nearly older giants only, which must 
have grown out during a time more favourable to these trees in point of climate. Now- 
adays there is not growing out any more young forest of this sort here: to such an 
extent the conditions must have altered since the time when these trees were young, 
and among or instead of the vegetation of the coniferous forest formerly, from immemoiial 
time, keeping the ground here alone, there now begin to invade the pioneers of the steppe 
species, conquering the domain about the roots of the old conifers. When at length 
also these last giants, which are still able to hold their own, must in their turn go to the 
ground, the last vestiges of the moist taiga thereby disappear for always here. I n 
this manner the steppe seemed now little by little to push 
forward here into the primeval forest. 

Theloiestisbe Lastly, besides all these indications that climatic oscillations towards a drier time 

ing dried up in , . • i , , , . , »-,.., . , . , , ,, , . , 

the lowlands ^ still are takmg place, I wdl add one trait more, which the traveller through the 

and the xero Urjankai country will have occasion to note: It is the areas of drying up forest. 

plnlous steppe Qver stretches, a larger or smaller contingent of the conifers might be quite exsiccated, 

vegetation is . ^ ® & H 

inimigrating in '^^''*" their dry and naked trunks rising, while in others the exsiccation could be seen io 

'"'""■ be in a more or less advanced stage of progress; at intervals sound trees were found, 

but these were in places of this sort as a rule mostly older trees only, which are best able 

to resist the extreme conditions, while the younger generation, which was to recruit the 

Gtj 



slock I'oi llic ruluic. was wantinj^'. Ilu- fuel lluil soiiie ol' llic trees oee.urring^Brc still 
soiiiui. and the absence of coal and charred hunks in the ground bear a clear evidence 
that no coiillagiation was the cause of the decay of the forest hero. The exsiccating 
forest might here actually be followed in all its phases. It is a pervading trait, which 1 
noticed everywhere, especially near the limits of the forest area, that the forest is falling 
into decay and disappearing over stretches where it was formerly ])revalent. and this 
fact shows us more plainly liian anything else that also at this day climatic changes are 
proceeding and that the forest here is doomed. It is the last desjjerale fight of the forest 
against an enemy of superior strength, the deadly drought, of which we are witnesses 
here. Soon its last remains vanish here, and the open, dry steppe .scenery begins to 
jirevail. Thus, there is now no stable relation in the floral conditions of tliese places. 

These facts, wiiicii are obvious in so many j)laccs and in so many different condi- 
tions, carry evidence, in my opinion, that at present, in the interior of Asia, a climatic 
change towards a drier (and possibly also hotter?) time is proceeding, and hereby an 
acceptable explanation may also be found why the forest — especially in the lower 
and accordingly drier regions — has so much difficulty in invading areas again from 




Fig. 30. Drying up forest near tlic river Tsliernoretska, about 900, m. above .sea level. In tlie 
foreground natives — Soyotes — riding on tlieir reindeer. 



where it, has once been expelled by conflagration. What is the chief cause of this in 
the present case again, if it be the drought, direct exsiccating seeds and seedlings, or 
others, as changes in the character of the soil, such as destruction of the mould, a 
reduction of the mossy cover or the like, is not always easy to settle definitely, though 
the drought in the summer and after-summer may be most likely direct to account 
for the seedlings exsiccating and being destroyed. F. E. Clements expresses his opinion 
on this question in his work, Plant Succession (1916) Pag. 70: «With the seedlings of 
woody plants the cause of the greatest destruction is drouth in midsummer or later. 




Fig. 40. A view in the south side of the Sayansk mountains at an altitude of about^900 m. above 
sea-level. Coniferous trees in various stages of exsiccation. 

This is the primary factor in limiting the ecesis of many conifers, though the cheaving» 
action of frost is often great or even predominant. The root-system is often inadequate to 
supply the water necessary to offset the high transpiration caused by conditions at the 
surface of the soil. Moreover, it is likewise too short to escape the progressive drying- 
out of the soil itself. In open places in the Rocky Mountains, such as parks, clearings, 
etc., the late summer mortality is excessive, often including all seedlings of the year.» 

Experience shows that when the forest for some reason or other is expelled from 
habitats under extreme conditions, near the boundaries of its area, it does not reappear 
any more. During a climatic change, however, forests will be able to linger for a time 



68 



in places where they used to grow, even if the cUinate has ciianged so nuieii that it 
is no longer quite favourable to the forest in this place. The flora is, on the whole, rather 
resistenl in this respect. Thus, a floral constituent is apparently more apt to continue 
in such a place wlicre it has once been growing than, uiidi i the same extreme con- 




l-'ii». -H- l)i\iiig up lorcst at an altitude of about 900 in. above sea kvcl uu the south side ul 

the Savansk mountains. 



ditions, to invade as a new and extraneous element in the place concerned. But if the 
forest under such unfavourable conditions, from some cause or other, is impaired still 
more or entirely expelled, it has generally not strength enough to invade that place 
unaided. Here in Norway, where at present the tree limit is sinking, the conditions arc 
quite analogous. Slumps of trees in the bogs are indications that the forest formerly 
extended much farther up, to 2—400 meters higher up the mountains, above the present 
tree limit, and also in many places here, dying forest is to be found towards the tree 
limit. Here, as well, it is often encroachments from outside, especially reckless felling 
of trees which has inaugurated the destruction, and has the forest so high on the moun- 
tains disappeared, it does not return. Only in one of the valleys of Norway the area 
of foi-est has, by the sinking of the tree limit within historic times, been subjected to a 

(59 



reduction ot roughly 20.000 km.-, or nearly one third of the whole present woodland. 
Here the low t e m p e r a t u r e (tiie main temperature of the 4 summer months) dra\\s 
the limit on tlie heights, w^hile, in the interior of Asia, in my opinion, the drought 
limits the expansion of the forest in the lowland. It is therefore, as already mentioned, 
especially in lower regions that the forest in the interior of Asia is apt to be dried up, 
and it is also in the same regions, where, according to Krassnow's statement, it has 
the greatest difficulty in invading burnt areas again. And as the forest, which has like- 
wise been reported by Krassnow too, is more apt to be regenerated at higher altitu- 
des, I consider this as a natural consequence of the greater amount of moisture, and the 




Fig. 42. From the south side of the Sayansk mountains at Tshernoretska. In the Ijackground 
dry trunks of spruce; the sound trees are larch. 

forest is, accordingly, given much better and more natural conditions of existence in 
these tracts. It is also really here, in the higher regions of the Sayansk, that I found 
the densest coniferous forest of the finest growth, as mentioned above. 

Similar climatic changes of cyclical as well as of quite irregular nature, both in 
point of temperatures and conditions of moisture, even within, geologically -speaking, 
comparatively short periods, are, as in known, far from being any isolated pheno- 



70 



mouun. i'u lake an obvious example, AxiiL Hi.ytt, llie Norwegian botanist, has l)y iiis 
studies of the peat-bogs in Norway, been able to separate 7 different zones — four layers of 
peal with liiiec inlcivcning layers of remains of forests — representing deposits after 
as many coresjjonding moist and dry periods, indicating that three drier periods of climate 
alternated with four moist ones since the glacial epoch. I had, unfortunately, no 
lime or occasion for digging out in any of all the peal-bogs in which the rrjankai country 
abounds, and wliicli would no doubt bring to light many interesting facts. The bogs 
were now frequently more or less dried up, and the original vegetation had been gradu- 
ally mixed uj) with other plants, or, in the process of time, wholly expelled l)y these 




Fifi -t;!. From the lower ])art of the subalpine regions on the south side of the Sayansk moun 

tains. In the background drying up conifeis. 

invaders, ^^ hich do not belong to the typical Sphagnum swamps. In similar places were 
often to be found common copse-wood of Betiila humilis, Betula rotiindi/olia, or in 
places, high and well grown firs and various Salices, and with an undergrowth of divers 
species of grasses and sedges, especially Carex caespilosa, which might form tussocks 
to over one meter high, Vacciniuin Myrlilliis, Vaccinium vitis idaea, and besides, also 
very commonly Vaccinium uliginosum subspec. imberbe nov. subspec, Rubus arcticus, 



71 



Carex pauciflova, Yaccinium Oxycoccos, Galium (ri/idum siibspec. dislentum nov. subspec, 
Comariim palustre. Ledum paliislre, and olhei s were common species in such habitats. 

On the north side of the Sayansk watershed might also be found here and there 
nalicd declivities facing south, where the forest, after being ravaged by fire, had not 
retiniied, but here such areas were rare, as the tracts here were considerably moister. 

That also the reindeer in some places may ruin the forest to some extent, I will 
not deny. But areas with dying forest is a pervading trait all over the country, even in 
places where the Soyotes and their reindeer never set foot, or where no trace of human 
activity is to be found at all. There are really only few reindeer and reindeer Soyotes in 




Fig. 44. Drying up forest on the river Tsliernoretska at an altitude^ of about 900 m. above sea-level. 

the Urjankai country, and the destruction of the forest, which in this way might 
perhaps be brought about in this vast territory, is, in case, of quite secondary impot- 
tance and at any rate only confined to smaller areas. 

The question of the damage inflicted by i-eindeer on the forest is, for the rest, as yet 
quite new and pending, and far from being sufficiently cleared up, and various views 
assert themselves. 



Some foresters arc of opinion tiinl reindeer damage tlic tree vegetation hv nibbling 
off and. aecordinj^ly, destroying young plants, i)y rubbing tlieir liorns against rather voung 
trees and by depriving tlic ground of a lichen cover, useful in certain respects, etc., while 
others have pointed out that reindeer promote the renewal of the forest, at any rale in 
tracts where the reindeer-lichen grows so densely and luxuriantly as to be able to 
check tile renewal of the forest. As to our case, more i)articiilarly concerning burnt 
stretches, the reindeer-lichen must be disregarded, because, firstly, as is known, it will 
generally take about half a century before a reindeer-lichen cover grows out again, and, 
secondly, this lichen seemed, on tiie whole, to be of secondary importance in llie forest 
ground of these regions. 

From the observations recorded in the preceding pages, it is ai)parenl tliat the forest 
was formerly much more widely distributed in the Sayansk tracts, and likewise, that the 
factors causing this forcing back of the forest are still unceasing and operative in die 
present times. 

The grand primeval forest in the Sayansk mountains seemed by slow, but certain 
degrees to meet destruction, and if the climilic changes are to be continued in the same 
way as now, the Sayansk mountains will no doubt some day rise as naked and deforest- 
ed as the Tannu-Ola now. These mountains are roughly parallel with the Sayansk 
mountains, and form the boundary of the Urjankai country southwards. They are 
a dry and woodless mountain ridge, practically destitute of forest right up to the sum- 
mits, only the north side in the greatest elevations being clad here and there with 
small patches of wood, especially of larch, which is the tree here best able to stand 
the drought. The Tannu-Ola mountains are reported to average as high as the Sayansk 
mountains or even higher, and the fact that the Tannu-Ola is now destitute of forest, is 
no doubt due to the drier climate, as these regions, with prevalent northerly winds, will 
have to lie in the rain-shade of the Sayansk mountains. 

I have not been in the Tannu-Ola myself, and have only seen these mighty moun- 
tains at a distance, from the I'lu-kem Steppe, and have, accordingly, not had occasion to 
search for the remains of the forests, which, formerly, in a moister period, may be sup- 
posed to have grown here. 



The Alpine Region. 

The alpine flora of these regions I have learnt to know from a stay in the v.^ltaian», 
a mountain mass consisting of rather high, snow-clad mountains situated in a north- 
westerly direction, at a distance of about 50 wersts from Ust Algiac. On this mountain 
the river Sisti-kcm takes its rise. 

The alpine vegetation is very rich and luxuriant, with many characteristic plants, 
especially in more sheltered places, the open mountain being poorer. Especially on decli- 
vities about the tree limit itself, the richness is many a time quite exuberant. 

7 73 



At greater altitudes, about 2200 m. above sea-level, the vegetation is rather mono- 
tonous, chiefly consisting of mosses and various lichens, mostly Chidonia rangiferina. 
and others of a like kind, generally not even affording sufficient food for horses. 




Fig. 45. A mountain lake in the .\ltaian, near tlie sources ol the Sisli-kem, about tlie tree limit, 
at an altitude of about 1800 m. above sea level. Scattered conifers in the background: in the 
foregroundBc/u/n pubcsccns, Alniis fruticosa, Juniperus commnnisviir. nana, and Beliila ruliindi/nlia. 



In the Altaian, the mountain sides with southern aspects were rather dry and hot. 
frequently covered with different lichens, interspersed with some few mosses. Here 
large areas were seen to be entirely overgrown with the magnificent yellow-flowered 
Rhododendron chrysanlhiun. forming dense thickets to about 1 m. high. Moreover, in 
similar habitats, among lichens, were frequently to be found: 

Rhododendron Anthopogon var. fragrans. Phgllodoce coerulea. ArclosUiphglos alpina. 
Gentiann ullaica, Genliana algida, Campanula pilosa, the large tlowered Dracocephalum 
altaiense, Dryas octopelala, Crepis chrgsanlha, Empetrnm nigrum, and others. 

Especially on the moist, shady, and cool declivities with northern aspects and in 
moist and shady valleys, the following markedly arctic species are common: 

Sa//.r glnuca. S(dLr Turczaninowi. Salix reticulata. Salix hastala var. subalpina. 
Sedum Rhodiola. C.ardamine belidifolia. Sa.rifraga .sibirica var. eusibirica, Saxifraga 

74 



siclhnis luir. cDinnsd, Saxifnujn inchilciicd. ().iii(/r(iiiliis ijldcidlis. l-'.ijiiischtm siirpoidcs, 
Scdiim (iiiiiilri/idiiiii. S'dlcriaiKi ciipilnlii. Udiiiinciilns fiif/idiis. Oxtjiid rciti/'<iniiis, 
Koenif/ia isldiulicd. I'djxtvcr luulirdnlc ixir. xdiilltopcldliini. iind Muthiiitijid Idlcrijlord. 




Fig. 4<i. A view in llic Altaian, above llu' Imiil ol ticcs at an 

altitude of nl)()iil 2000 iii. above sea-level. Mostly urown willi 

licbeiis and mosses willi I'hyllodocc coenilcti. CcnIiniKi (illaicii. 

Ciinthdui iiUjidii. Viola allaicd. and others (see text) 

Of other plants cliaiaclorizing the alpine region here, 1 have collected: 
Bctulu rotiindi folia, Alniis fruticosa siibspec. monlana. Salix arbuscnla. Salix 
nuirsiniles. Anemone ndrci.ssijlora, Callianthrmnin nddcfolimu, Hedifsarum obscurum 
ixir. htsiocarpiim. Vacciniuni Miiiiillus. Vaccinium vilis idara, Vacciniun} nilis idaea /'. 




Fig. 47. Moist and cold mountain side lacing north in the 

Altaian, at an altitude of about 2000 m. above sea-level, 

grown with various markedly arctic plants (see text). 



75 



pumilnm. Ledum paliislie inir. decumbens, Andromeda polifolia, Sibbcddia procumbens, 
Sivertia oblusn, Schidfzid crinila. Saussiirea Frolowii, Saussurea pygmaea. Agrosiis 
cldixila. Hicrocloc alpina subspec. miciostacbiia noi>. siibspec, Triseliim subspicatnm, 
Phleum (dpiinim. Festiira alloica, Aera caespilosa, Calamagrostiii Langsdor/fii var. gracilis, 
Carex rigida, Care.r fidiginosa, Carex fuliginosa subspec. sajanensis noi>. subspec, Carex 
decipiens nov. spec. Carex Irislis. Carex alrala, Carex atrala var. aterrima. Poa palustris 
subspec. esuriens nov. subspec. Caiex canescens. Carex canescens var. subloliacea, 
Macropodium nivale. Campanula rolundifolia var. liniifolio. Lagotis glauca var. Pallasii. 
Spiraea chamaedrg folia. Spiraea alpina. Euphorbia altaica Euphorbia lutescens. Pedicularis 
amoena, Pedicularis mgriophyllum. Pedicularis versicolor, Pedicularis uncinala, Pedicularis 
sudelica. Pedicularis euphrasioides, Bupleurum triradialum. Alsine aictica, Alsine biflora, 
Silene lenuis. Potentilla anserina. Bupleurum longifolium var. aureum. Potentilla nivea 
var. elongata. Potenlilla gelida. Aconitum ambiguum subspec. alpinum nov. comb.. Primula 
nivalis var. Igpica. Primula elalior var. Pallasii, Trienlalis entopaea. Painassia palusliis, 
Saxifraga oppositifolia, Sa.vifragn punctata. Sa.vifraga Hirculus. Saxifraga broncliialis, 
Snxifraga androsacea, Matricaria ambigua. Doronicum all(ucum. Viola biflora, Scirpus 
caespitosus. .hincus Irighunis. Luzula mullijlora. Luznla confusa. Luzula frigida. Allium 
Victorialis, Epilobium anagallidi folium. Ulmaria penlapetala. Erioplioium angustifolium, 
Llogdia serolina. Lycopodium Selago, Lycopodium alpinum. Athyrinm alpestre. and 
Aspidium spinulosum. Several of these also desceiui — as already mentioned — into 
the subalpinc tracts, where they may be met with, partly as characteristic constitu- 
ents of the llora ot this region as well. 

The vegetation here does not, in the main, reach higher than about 2200 — 2300 m. 
above sea-level, which may be regarded as the limit of the perennial snow in this 
tract. 



The Wooded Steppe Region. 

The upper part of the Sisti-kem valley is a rugged Avood-land with lofty hills on 
both sides, mostly grown with cedar, silver-fir, spruce, and some pine, and, accordingly, 
in point of the flora, belonging to the subalpine region. In lower altitudes, at a greater 
distance from the high mountains proper, the moisture gradually decreases. 

Southwards, the transitions in the natural conditions are rather sudden. The great 
moisture is dependent on the loftier mountain masses, which are everywhere in these 
regions of an eruptive nature. The Isohyeloses will no doubt prove to be closely connec- 
ted with the relief of the country and in their broad features show the same course as the 
curves of height. The lower parts are not only drier, but the ground is also of another 
kind, consisting here of Devonian sandstone. Thus, both the climatic and the 
edaphic conditions are factors contributing towards altering the natural conditions 
when advancing southwards. About half way between Ust Algiac and Ust Sisti-kem 

76 



IIr' Devonian sinidslonc U'lrilorv appears, and llie typical stamp nt llic taij^a scenery 
therefore j^radually disappears. The l)iack taiga iiradualiy retreats, and liie valley hc- 
comes more open and snioolli. 

Southwards from here there appeals a successional zonation in the vegetation 
from the dark, moist taiga to the dry, open steppe land. This transition zone, which 
is widely distrihuted over the I'rjankai country. I have separated as the wooded 
steppe region. Tlie Iransilion between the sul)al|)ine pi'inic\al I'oresl and the wooded 
steppe region may here roughly he sil down al a height of about 800—850 m. 
above sea-level, hi i()nii)arison ii will be icniembered Ihal Hie primeval forest on the 




Fi.i;. 48. From tlie middle course ol' the Sisti kem near L'st .\lgiac. 

Tlie fjanlis are grown cluelly with cedar, s|)riice, and also bircli. 

Atjout 980 m. atjove sea level. 

north side of the mountains might be reckoned to begin about Kushabar, at a height of 
only 320 m. above sea-level. The forest thus descends considerably lower on the north 
side. This is also an indication of an average drier climate on tiie south side of the 
mountains. 

Further to the south the country becomes successively still drier, even in upland 
regions. Thus, the Tannu-Ola mountains, forming the boundary of the Urjankai country 
to the south, and being recorded to average still higher than the Sayansk mountains, 
are much drier, even in the more elevated tracts. Here the black or moist taiga is 
altogether wanting, and the ground is dry and treeless right up to the highest ridges, 
or only grown with scattered, open larch-forest. 

This distribution of the downpour may, I think, perhaps be accounted for by the 
prevalent winds in these regions being mostly northern, for which reason the moisture is 
mainly given off on the north side of the mountains, and the wind blows down the south 



/ 1 



side as a dry and hot one. The country further south, accordingly, lies in the rain-shade 
of the Sayansk mountains, and is therefore rather exsiccated. Over the Tannu-Ola, 
this dried up land is in connection with and continues directly into the interminable 
wastes and barren mountain tracts of Mongolia. 




Fig. 49. From the lower part of llie Sisti-kcni valley. The l)anUs 

grown with I'icca obovata. Planus Padiis, Sorbus Aucuparia, Ribcs 

nigrum. Ribcs piibesccns, Aliaijene sibirica, and Salix. 




Fig. 50. From the Sistikem valley near Ust Sisti kern, about SOOm. 

above sealevel. The banks chiefly grown with larch; in the 

background dry declivities, with the first ofT-shoots of a xerophi- 

lous steppe yegetation. 



Aloiii^ llif liaiiks ol llic Sisli-k<'iii alioni TnIicIxtUisIi llicit- appear larclios of a 
liqlilcr Ljrccii, coiislanlly iiicrcasini; in iiiiiii hci southw aids, unlil they are seen to prcdo- 
miiialo in llic Dfvoiiiaii Icrrilory. over larLje Iracls ol land, even nioslly (piilc jjurc. The 
larches here arc l'rc(|ucnlly larj^e and vigorous, allaining a hciglil of 25— ;5() ni., measuring 
towards 1—2 ni. in diameter at a man's height. Associated witli the larch there also 
ai)pcar sun\r oilier plaiils, of which may especially i)c nicnlioncd: 

Scdiim jniijiuiruiu. (ifiiliitiui Aiuiurlhi. (jildiicuslcr iitclniiocdrjxi. Svorzonera 
aiislridcii. (icnlidiui dclonsd. Pdlenlilln chriisniilliii v<u\ tisiiilica. and others. 




F"ig. 51. From tlie lr;iiisitioii zone between tlie taiga and tlie wooded sleijjje ref^ion. The .Sisli- 

keni vatlev about bW m. above sealevel. 



Along the banks and in thickcls the characteristic arjniscular plants here were 
represented by Pniniis I'adits. Soibiis Aiiciiparia. Alniis frulicosn, Ribcs piihesccns. Rihes 
nigiimi, Alrttgcnr sihiriai, and in sand along the river-banks Didntliiis siij)eihus and 
Epilobiiiiu lati/oliuin are t'ref[ucnt. 

The lower joarts of the river basin thus chiefly contain larch-wood with smaller 
steppe areas. This is the genuine wood-sleppes, dry open areas with scattered open larch- 
forest, (and sometimes pine) intermixed with various foliferous trees. Already at Ust 
Sisti-kem the climate is ratlicr dry. which is also apparent from the great number of 
locusts to be found here. Among conifers the larch jjredominates. but in more 



favourable situations, such as on northern slopes, there also still occur small pieces of 
woodland scenery consisting of spruce, silver-fir. pine, and isolated cedars. Of foliferous 
trees may especially be noted here: 

Beliila piibescens. Betula verrucosa, Alinis frulicosa, Popiihis tremiila. Popiiliis 
laurifolia. I'niniis Padihs. and a tew others. Rather large stretches of the wood here con- 
sist nearly exclusively of larch, where the ground is light and. open and easv to pass 
through. 

In the following I will give an enumeration of the plants found by me, represen- 
ting the general character of the vegetation at Ust Sisti-kem. 

In moist, grass-grown places, on river-banks and in branches of rivers, the so-called 
protoks. I have noted the following paludal plants as the most prominent species: 

Potuinogelon peifolialiis. Hippiiiis vulgaris. Ranunculus aqualilis. Ranunculus 
replans. Ranunculus repens, Glijceria aquatica, Gnaphalium uliginosuin, Xaslurlium 
palustre, Myosolis paluslris var. nemorosa, Rume.r aquaticus, Liisinutchia vulgaris, 
Mentha arvensis, Scirpus silvalicus var. Ma.rimou>ic:i, Parnassia paluslris. Ligularia 
sibirica,Callha paluslris, Galium uliginosum. Cardamine pratensis. Cardamiuv macrophijlla, 
Conioselinum Fischeri. Peucedanum salinum. Saussurea senala. Aloprcurus fulvus var. 
.'iibiricus, Carex vesicaiia. Care.r caespilosa, Agroslis canina. Scirpus pcduslris, and 
Equisetum Helcocharis /'. fluvialile. 

In natural meadows I have collected: 

Polygonum Bislorla. Geum rivale. Cirsium helerophijllum. CArsium paluslre, Cirsiuin 
arvense, Lalhgrus p(duslris, Epilobium palustre, Stachiis jxdusliis. Spiraea salicifolia, 
Alectoi olophus major, Alopecuius pratensis, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium Lupinasler, 
Trifolium repens, Rume.r crispus, Tiagopogon pratensis var. oiienlalis. Ranunculus 
acris, Rume.v arifulius, Alchemilla vulgaris, Veionica set pglli folia. Taraxacum spec 
Plileum pratense, Euphrasia spec, Sanguisorba officinalis, Genliana delon.sa, Carum 
Carvi, Achillea Millefolium, Achillea impatiens, Medicago falcala, Hgpochaeris mnculala, 
Carduus crispus, Ergsimum cheiranihoides, Hypericum petforalum, Galium verum, 
Galium boreale, Solulago Viigaurea. Erigeron acer, and Campanula rolundifolia. 

Near the habitations of the natives occur: 

Polygonum aviculare, Capsella bursa pasloris, Rume.r donjeslicus, Trifolium repens. 
Poa annua, Plantago major, Plantago media, Chenopodium album, Agrostemma Gilhago, 
Galeopsis Tetrahil. Eepidium apetalum, 'Thlaspi aivense, Raphanus Raphanistrum, Urlica 
urens, and Urlica dioica. 

Especially in thickets, woods, meadows in woods, in mixed wood, on hills, etc.. are 
to be found: 

Geranium j)i(Uense. Vicia megalolrupis. Vicia craccu. Vicia amocna. Lalhyrus 
pisiformis, Epilobium a ngusli folium, Epilobium monlanum. Euphorbia lutescens, 
Tanacetum vidgarc. Hypericum perforatum, Hesperis malronalis var. sibiricus, 
Antennaria dioica, Polemonium coeruleum. Veronica pseudolongifolia, Erythronium 
dens canis, Cerastium davuricum, Cerastium vulgalum, Brachypodiun} pinnatum. 

80 



Bromiis inermis, Beckmannia eruciformis, Carex Arnelli, Crniiiiiiin pseudosibiriciim. 
Erodiiim Slephanianiim, MedicaQo plali/carpa, Polenlilla fnilicosa, Aiiemisia vuU/aris, 
Plt'iirospermiim aiislriaciim. Caculia luislala. (ialiiim vcrniim. Anemone silveslris. Serralula 
coronala, Campanula Cervicaria. Luzula campesliis. DacUjlix qlomernla. Holnirhium 
Matricariae. Geiim Aleppinim, Lampsana aimmiinis, Rnbtis sa.valilis. Rubiis idaeiis. 
Agrimonia pilosa. Goodijeia repens. Pulmonuria moHissima. Anlhriscus silueslris, 
Scutellaria scordn/olia, and rimariii prnlapelala. 

Of the typical wood flora, which has hecn considerably decimated, the following 
plants arc sfill to be found as the last remains of the reccdinj^ taif<a: 

Aconitum laeve, Veralrum album, Equiseium siluaticum. Aclaea spicala var. 
erytlirocarpa. Majanthemum bifolium, Trientalis europaea. Circaea alpina, Heracleum 
dissectum, Linnaea borc(dis. Pfirola minor. Pedicularis uncinala. Lijcopodium clavatum, 
Woodsia ilvensis. and AUuirium Filix femina. 

Of foliferous trees I have observed here at Ust Sisti-kem: 

Belula pubescens. Populus tremula, Populus laurifolia. Populus nigra. Alnus frulico.sa, 
Sorbus Aucuparia. Prunus Padu.s. Cornus alba, Crataegus sanguinea, Rosa acicularis, 
Ribes nigrum, Ribes pubescens. Lonicera coerulea var. glabrescens. 

In di-y, sandy woods of larch and pine are to be seen: 

Draba nemorosa, Stellnria dichotoma var. heleropbglla. Scorzonera austriaca, Pgrola 
roiundifolia var. inrarnata. Andiosaces seplentrionale, Cotoneasier melanocarpa, Sedum 
purpureum. Bupleurum mullinervc. Bupleurum longifolium var. aureum. Saussurea 
discolor, Mulgedium azureum, Hieracium umbellalum, Campanula glomerata, Zygadenus 
sibiricus. Rhododendron parvifolium, Ledum paluslre var. angustiim, Vaccinium vitis 
idaea, Viola arenaria, Dianlhus chinensis, Gentiana verna var. angulosa. Thymus 
Serpyllum, Potentilla bi/urca. Veronica incana. Polygonum nndulatum var. alpinum, 
Dracocephalum Riiy.schiana. Aster alpinus. Phleum Boehmeri subspec. decurtatum nov. 
subspec. Triticum cristatum, and Poa allaica. 

Besides some of the plants already mentioned, the following, which are to be found 
here especially on dry, hot declivities and hills with southern aspects, may also be 
particularly noted, representing the genuine steppe flora pushing forward here: 

Aconitum barbalum. Cotyledon spinosa, Sedum hybridum. Statice speciosa, Artemisia 
glauca, Potentilla vi.scosa, Potentilla chrysantha, Potentilla subacaulis, Coluria geoides. 
Scabiosa ochroleuca, Caragana pygmaea, and Atrapha.vis frulescens. 

This floral association, i-estricted by Ust Sisti-kem only to the dry and hot 
slopes with southern aspects, is, for the rest, gradually more widely and richly distributed 
farther to the south. 

Proceeding farther southwards the climate becomes gradually still drier; the 
moist taiga, which, as already mentioned, was seen to form small forests as far as Ust 
Sisti-kem, practically disappears, the larch alone becoming the dominating conifer. 
Open, steppe-like plains are more frequent and become gradually larger, and the flora 
contains a constantly increasing number of steppe plants. It is interesting in these 

8 81 



regions to study how the vegetation of the humid taiga must gradually give way to the 
xerophilous steppe vegetation that advances in proportion as we get more and more south, 
away from the higher mountains. Owing to the broiling sun the plants were mostly dry 
and withered already in the middle of August when I visited these regions. About the 



Vegetation at 
Ust Kainsara, 
about 850 m. 
above sea. 




Fig. 52. Typical scenery from tlie wouileU steppe region on ttie 
Upper Bei-kem, near Ust Tarakcni. The trees are birch and larch. 

Kamsara. roughly 35 — 40 wersts south of Ust Sisti-kem, the taiga has completely dis- 
appeared, the land farther to the south consisting wholly of steppes, alternating with 
the open wooded steppes. 

On the Kamsara I collected a series of plants, on the whole indicative of a con- 
siderably drier climate than farther north. On dry, open declivities the following plants, 
particularly belonging to the steppe region, occurred: 

Caragana arboirscens, Rosa pi mpincUi folia. Spiraea hijpericifolia, Cotoneastei 
melaiiocarpa, Dianlhus rhinensis, Sediim hybridiiin, Thymus Serpyllum, Dracocephaliim 
nutans, Diacocephalum Ruyschiana, Phlomis tuberosa. Thermopsis lanceolata. Astragalus 
fruticosus, Triticum crislatum, Poleniilla subacaulis. Fragaria collina. Peucedanum 
baicalense, Galium verum, Galatella punctata, Artemisia sacrorum. Artemisia frigida. 
Campanula glomerata. Origanum vulgare. Galeopsis Tetrahit. Plxleum Boemeri subspec. 
decurtatum, Triticum caninum, Acnniium harbatum, Scabiosa ochroleuca. Cotyledon 
spinosa, Atraphaxis frutescens, and Ephedra vulgaris. 

Growing especially in larch-forest: 

Aster alpinus. Polygonum undulatum irnr. alpinum, Chamaerhodos erecta, Potentilla 
fruticosa, Rubus saxatilis. Solidago Virgaurea. Gentiana Aniarella. Euphorbia Esula. 
Trisetum flauescens subpec. copiosnm nov. subspec, and Bromus inermis. 

82 



The vegetation occurring in thickets and meadows also paiily consists of plants 
which are characteristic of drier tracts. The following have been recorded by me as the 
most usual: 




Fig. 53. Look-out on the wood steppe on the Upper Beikem, near 

Ust Tara-kem. Scattered trees of larch, biich, and also some straf4g- 

ling spruces. The forest-ground is light and open, here and there 

with rather small and dry natural meadows. 

Sanguisorba officinalis, CampimuUi rotandifolia, Thalictram minus, Rumex ai if alius, 
Cypripedilum macrnnthon, Sisiiinbrium Sophia. Eriisimum hie racii folium. Ranunculus 
aciis, Alchemilla vulgaris. Hgpochaeris maculata. Genliana delonsa. Planlago media. 
Equisetum arvense, Alopecurus pialensis, Avena pubescens, Elijmus sibiricus, Tiifolium 
Lupinaster, Rosa acicularis, Galium boreale, Senecio nemorensis var. macer. Inula 
britannica, Polemonium coeruleum, Cerastium pilosum, Hgpericum peiforatum, Hypericum 
hirsutiim. Geranium sibiricum. Geum Aleppicum. Rubus idueus, Lilium Martagon, Rubus 
humulifolius, Epilobium angustifulium. Erigeron acer. Tanacetum vulgare, Artemisia 
vulgaris. Cacalia haslala, Cirsium serraluloides. Chelidonium majus var. granaiflorum. 
Bupleurum muliinerve, Hieracium umbellatum. Pedicularis euphrasioides. Leonurus 
iataricus. Cypripedilum gullalum. Polygonaliun officinale. Luziila campestiis, Mulgediuin 
aziireum. Vicia amoena, Urtica dioica, Rumex crispus. Tiienlalis europaea, Linnaea 
borealis, Vaccinium Myrlillus, Vaccinium vitis idaea. Pyiola rolundifolia var. incainata, 
Pyrola secunda. Goodyera repens. Lycopodium clauatum, Lycopodium complanatiim, 
Equisetum silvalicum. Athyrium crenaium. Polypodiiim vulgare. and in sliohtly moister 
places, ill grass-orown, partly irrijiated fields, in bogs and on l)anks, etc. are to be found: 

Calamagrostis neglecta. Calamagrostis Langsdorffii. Archangelica decurrens, 
Heracleum dissectum, Pleurospermum austriacum, Betula humilis, Vaccinium uliginosum 

83 



subspec. imberbe nov. siibspec. Galium nliginosnm. Valeriana officinalis, Myosotis 
palustris var. nemorosa, Cardamine pratensis, Comariim paliistre, Ulmaria pentapetala, 
Epilobinm paliislre. Cirsium heterophijllum. Peacedaniim saliniim, Carex vesicaria. 
Poa palustris, Equisetum palustris, Pelasites laevigatas, Lysimachia thyrsiflora, and 
Salix myrtilloides. 

It will be seen that only a very small number of the plants mentioned here are 
wholly dependent on the wood itself, the flora usually associated with the coniferous 
wood having shrunk even more in this tract. 

South of Uie Kamsara, upwards along the river Bei-kem, the moist taiga, and the plant 
life associated with it, has wholly disappeared. The smaller stretches of wood to be 




Fig. 54. Open, dry larch-forest with scattered birches and poplars 

between the rivers Kamsara and li. In the i'orenround mostly 

Thaliclrum, Viburnum, and various grasses. 

found here are entirely made up of larch and various foliferous trees, the greater 
part of the land consisting of open wood-steppes, interspersed with smaller areas with 
a marked and genuine steppe scenery. Only along the rivers there occur some other 
conifers, such as spruce and fir, but they do not form woods here and are not accom- 
panied by any vegetation characteristic of coniferous forests. 

The traveller is no longer under the necessity of availing himself of pack-horses, 
and in spite of the total absence of roads, carts may everywhere be employed, the 
land being so open in every direction. The densest larch-wood is to be found near the 
river Kamsara. For the rest, the land is rather hilly, with immense terminal moraines, 
and sand terraces. A great number of lakes are also to be found here, mostly due to 
deposits from earlier glaciers. Among the lakes may be mentioned the pretty 
Todshi-kul^), the sacred lake of the Soyotes, which no stranger is allowed to approach. 



^) Kul = lake, Todshi-kul, i. e. the lake of the ToUshi tribe. 



84 



The Bei-keiii flows liere in some places between high cHffs of sandstone or through 
;tn alhivial ])laiii. Iliiouiili which il has dug oul a bed lietwcen high, sandy, terraced 
banlcs, where the river erodes, hi other places wliere the valley is more open and broad, 
the river has formed large, flat, moist or even quite swamjjy flood-plains. Similar moist 
flood-plains occur near Ust Tara-kem, and on the Dora Slcppe at 1*i;tho\v and 
MosGALEWSKi. Tlicsc swamps are here densely overgrown witii vascular plants and 
contain an exceedingly rich flora of algae, described by me in an earlier publication. 




Fig. 55. From the Upper Bei-kein, near the Dora Steppe. The banks grown ehietly with larch 
and birch. In the background dry and scorched slopes of Devonian sandstone. 



In this region the Bei-kem valley lies at a height of from 800 — 940 m. above sea-level. 
The alluvial sand terraces, with a nearly park-like appearance, being large and level 
with scattered larches, contain, besides some of the above-mentioned plants frequently 
occurring in larch-wood, also Leontopodiam alpinum var. sibiricum, being a very 
common and characteristic constituent of the flora, as for instance on the wide sand terra- 
ces about the river li. In wood constisting of larch, Belula piibescens, and Populus 
tremiila, the ground is found over large stretches to be grown with Polygonum undulatum 

85 



var. nipinum, which is very common and characteristic in similar locahties. In the 
following I shall give a summary of the plants I met with at Ust Tara-kem in order to 
illustrate the composition of the vegetation of these regions. In the larch-forest and on 
the wood-steppes, the following species of plants, giving their stamp to the scenery, are 
common: 




F"ig. 5G. Look-out on swanipy laiiil ;ii the ihira Steppe, near the 
sacred lake Todshi-kul. The declivities in the foretTound are f>rown 
willi lA/rhnis sihiricd Sediim hyhndiim. Arlcniisid sarroriuu, Arlcmisid 
laciniata, and various grasses; the swamps witli Polcimoijclon nalans, 
Poly gonumamphibium.Bulomustimbellalus, Set/ pus Tabernaemontani, 
and various sedges. In tlie background the Bei kern is seen. 

Vegetation at Aconilum barbaliim, Draba nenwrosa, Galium boreale, Galium uerum, Scabiosa 

Ust Tara-kem, ochroleuca, Achillea Millefolium, Achillea impatiens, Asler alninus, Purola roiundifolia 

about 880 m. 

above sea-level. ^"^- incarnata, Trilicum cristalum, Phleum Boehmeri, Polygonum undulatum var. alpinum, 

Leontopodium alpinum, Medicago platgcaipa. Lallnjrus pi.siformis. Chamaerhodos erecta, 

Potentilla fruticosa, liubus saxatilis, Rosa (tcicularis, Sedum purpureum, Bupleurum 

multinerue, Solidago Virgaurea, Hgpochaeiis maculata, Campanula glomerala, Gentiana 

Amarella, Bromus inermis, and Brachyfmdium pinnatum. 

On dry, open steppes and on rocky slopes occur: 

Thalictrum petaloideum, Arabis incarnata, Alyssum lenense, Silene repens. Lychnis 
sibirica, Sedum hybridum, Gentiana decumbens. Sisymbrium heteromallum. Ephedra 
uulgaiis. Cotyledon spinosa, Atraphaxis frutescens, Hedysaium polymorphum, Potentilla 
chrysantha, Potentilla subacaulis, Fragaria collina, Agrimonia pilosa, Peucedanum 
baicalense, Galatella punctata, Artemisia sacrorum, Aitemisia laciniata, Cirsium acaule, 
and Dracocephalum nutans. 

On the flood-plains are to be found, besides natural meadows, a more or less 
dense brush-wood consisting of: 

86 



Popitltis Idiirifulid. I'optilus lirmiihi. Minis frulicnsd. Rihrs nifinini. Ribes piibescens, 
Sorbiis Aiinipdria, Piuniis Padtis. lirluld limnilis. licliild piibescens. Sdli.r depressa, ;ind 
olhois. and where tlic ground is drier, scattered larches occurred. Farthest away from 
the river tiie fiood-phiin is rallier drj', containing a series of i)lants, such as: 

Cemslium vulgdhim, Hypericum lursiiliim, Gemniiim pseiidosibiriciim, Viria dinoeint, 
Vicia megdlotropis. Vicia cracca, Geiim Alcppiciini. I'otentilld bifiiira. Potenlilla oiscosa, 
Riibiis ifldciis, Epilobiiim angiisti folium, Peucedaniim vaginaliiiii. Anthrisciis siluestris, 
Erif/eron dcci. Artemisia macrdiillid. Cncalia haslala, Cardinis ciispns. Dactijlis glomerala, 
Ai-'ra cdcspilosii, Serrdlulii roronald, (Uimpdnuld loliindifolid. and Pedicularis euphrasioides. 

Moreover, I have found on tiu^se flood-phiins: 

Sangiiisorbn ofjiciiidlis, Sisiimbriiim Sophia, i'liica dioica. Polygonum aviculare. 
Lalhgrus paliislris. Ranunculus acris, Cardamine pratensis, Alchemilla vulgaris, Heracleum 
dissectum, Halenia sibirica. Rumex crispus. Rumex arifolius, Gymnadenia conopsea, 
Pletiroggne rotata. PedicuUiris resupinala, Bupleuruin multinerve, Tiifolium Lupinastei, 
Onobrgchis salivn. and nearer to tiie river, where it is moislcr and partly swampy, 
occuired: 




FIK- 57 From the wooded steppe region, near the Dora Step|)e. Tlie decli- 
vities lacing south, whicli arc exposed to the burning of the suns rays, are 

partly stripped of lorests. 

Impatiens noli tangere, Saussiirea serrata, Rumex aquaticiis. Ranunculus sceleraliis. 
Nasturtium palustre, Galium trifidum. Lgsimachia tliyisiflora. Potentilla fragarioides, 
Mentha aruensis. Comdiiini palustre. Spiraea salicifolia, Ulmaria pentapetala. Epilobiiim 
palustre, Cicula virosa, Cenolophium Eischeri, Peucedaniim salinum, Cirsium heterophyllum. 



87 



Carex curaica, Pediciilaris palustris. Slachys paliistris. Triglocbin paliistre, Jiinciis 
filifonuis, Scirpus silvaticus, Phalaris amndinacea. Elymiis sibiiicus, Alopeciirus fulinis 
var. sibiricus. Calanuigrosiis neglecla, Poa palustris. Glyceria aquatica, Eqmselum 
Heleocharis, and Equisetiim scirpoides, and in stagnant water, in swamps, pools and 
small lakes were lo be found: 

Nymphaea pygmaea, Hippuris vulgaris, Callitiiche verna, Utricularia minor, 
Limnanthemum nymphoides. Polygonum amphibium, Potamogeton natans, Potamogelon 
peifolialus. Potamogelon pnsillus, Menyanthes trifoliata, Myriopbytlum verticillatum, 
Alisma Plantago. Sagiltaria sugitluefolia, Butomus umbellatus var. minor, Acorus Calamus, 
Scirpus Tabernaemontani. Carex vesicaria, and Carex ampullacea. 

Among sand and loose stones on the banks are to be found Dianthus superbus 
and Petasites laevigatas. One of tlie most characteristic plants here, on grass-grown 
river-banks, was furthermore the tall Elymus giganteus. 

As the last remains of the real wood floi-a are to be found in some places, accom- 
panying Picea obovata and Pinus silvestris. plants such as: 

Linnaea borealis, Equisetum silvaticum, Athyrium crcnatum. Phegopteris polypodioides. 
Vaccinium Myrlillus, Yaccinium vitis idaea, Goodyera repens, Gnaphalium silvaticum. 




Fig. 58. Typical scenery near the Dora Steppe; slopes lacing soutli 
are dry and barren, those facing north are grown with larch In the 
background some huts are seen — the so-called yurls — belonging 

to the natives. 

Thus, leaving the loftier regions in the mountains, the natural conditions of the 
land are seen to change gradually southwards from the characteristic and genuine taiga 
about Ust Algiac into the lower, wooded steppe region about the Upper Bei-kem on the 
Dora Steppe, with a more distinct central Asiatic stamp. 

The direct distance between the two said places is not more than about 150 to 
200 wersts, but the difference as to natural conditions is very considerable. The Dora 

88 



Stepjjc. Willi llic (IwclliiiLis ol l'i;iit()w ;iii(l Mosc.ai. i:\vski, lormcd llu' utiiir,.'-:l liiiiil ol Ihc 
expedition l)y Ihis loulc. no luillicr progress soulii-caslwurds bciiio made. 

In .silling llicsc slc|)j)c's and wood-sleppes here are said lo i)c- eovcred with a liixu- 
riaiil ij;rass vet^clalioii, whicli is gradually destroyed by the droiiglil in the course of 
the sunnncr. In Ihe second half of August these tracts had aheady an antnnmal 
appearance, the firsl nights of frost having also in a great measure luined liie vegetation. 
Just in liiis transition zone between the stejjpe and the taiga, the best and liche.st regions 
of the land, from a cultinai standpoint, are lo l)e found, and it is strange that tiiis rich 
and beautiful country should be so thinly populated. The area of Ihe I'rjankai land 
probal)ly exceeds l.^iO.OOO wer.sts', of which, as mentioned aiicadv, at least one third is 



yi]j£^'!ii''il; 




Fig. 50. A view in the noia .Steppe. In some phices tlie steppe is nearly de- 
stitute of vegetation, and l)eing exposed to tlie erosion ol' tlie violent winds 
tliercareot'ten formed stretclies of driltsand. In Itie right l)ackground hirches. 

arable, but with a population scarcely amounting to 20.000 individuals, living scattered 
about in deep valleys and dense woods, where no foreign traveller hitherto has been 
able to search them out. For this reason it is also, as a matter of course, quite impos- 
sible to state the exact number of the inhabitants. 

For our homeward journey from the Dora Steppe we had lo choose between two 
routes, the one lying across the Arayl taiga, followed by us when entering the land, and 
the other by water down the Bei-kem. In spite of the latter route being the longer, it 
was chosen as having the charm of novelty. 

The Bei-kem runs here at an average speed of 16 wersts an hour, and in the course of 
one day we descended in this way from the Dora Steppe to Usl Sisti-kem. The bottom 
of the valley is situated at a height of betw'een 950 m. and 850 m. above sea-level. At 
some distance below Ust Sisti-kem the Bei-kem receives an affluent called the Sebi. 



au 



From the Dora Sleppe roughly doNvn to Sebi the ground consists in the main of reddish- 
brown Devonian tile and conglomerates of the same kind as on the Minusinsk Steppe. 
As mentioned above, the strata of this Devonian formation here is interrupted by one of 
the spurs of the Sayansk mountain range, the so-called Tashkyl and Artool mountains, 
running in a south-easterly direction from the main ridge. This mountain range is a 
very important boundary line, forming a natural barrier between the upper and the 
lower Yenisei basins. These two parts also differ distinctly in point of natural condi- 
tions, the south-western part being very dry, approaching much as to climate and general 
aspect the whole of the Mongolian steppes. 




Fig. 60. Luiik iPiil on the Dora Sleppe with the Buddhistic temple 

— the Kuree of the Soyotes — forming the extreme limit of the 

progress of the expedition south eastwards. 

The Bei kern Towards the region wliere the river runs into these mountains, the strata of the 

valley helween Devonian formation become more and more displaced, with fine folds in the profile alont! 
ebi andTapsa. 

the nver. In several places they are seen to have been broken up entirely or raised on 

edge. Below Sebi, the eruptive zone itself begins, continuing roughlv as far as Ujuk. 
The average breadth of the mountain range here is 60 wersts, the Bei-kem running all 
this way in foaming white rapids in deep, narrow clefts, with steep, rocky walls on both 
sides, reaching right up to the regions of the perennial snow. The roar of the mighty 
river, averaging here 20 wersts an hour, is echoed from the surrounding mountains, 
and the lonely travellers feel oppressed by the gloomy, wild and mighty scenery. 
During our journey here we had also heavy torrents of rain, with hazy weather, contri- 
buting to make it still more wild and adventurous. .\t the mouth of the Utt, mighty 
green porphyrities are seen extending do^^ n towards Utinski porog. followed down- 
wards successively by gneisses, granites, diabases, and melaphyres, whereupon porphy- 
rities again appear. The mountain range here has the same character as the Sayansk 

90 



range itself, some of (lie show-iIihI peaks :ilUiiiiiiif< a lieiglil of lo 2r)(IO m. 'I'liis l)raneli 
is followed by the moist taiga, wiiere 1 observed once more the common, tyj)ical SayansU 
subalpine taiga vegetation. Besides the plants already mentioned, I have collected here 
among gravel and stones Aslnif/alus alpinus. Aslnif/dliis jiii/idiis. Eitphorhia luti'sri'iis, 
Agroslis viiniiui. and various species of (Aildindf/mslis. On moist, moss-grown declivities 
close by the river, I have, in addition, collected />/7)<'.s iiclnicinu and Scdiini populifnliiiiii. 
and in grass-grown |)hu'es near Ihe river Itdiumniliis acris ixir. puniilus. In places, 




Fig. Gl. P'roni the Yenisei valley about Sebi, where we enter the 

eru|itive zone in the Tashkj'l and Artool mountains — and where 

the primeval forest begins. 




Fig. 6'2. From the Bei-kem valley, near Utinski porog. Naked, 
sandy and gravelly river-bank below the highwalci- mark. 



currant- and black-currant bushes were seen, strangely enough, to cover nearly exclusi- 
vely the mountain sides, Uiousands of bushes forming, as it were, one continuous garden. 
About Ujuk there occur small quantities of Devonian sandstone forced into the 
eruptives, and farther down the Soyote Steppe the Devonian sandstone is nearly sole 
prevailing again. Towards Ujuk the mountains become lower and more rounded; the 
primeval foi-est — the moist taiga — gradually retreats again, and the wood becomes 
more open and lighter, with an admixture of larches and various foliage trees bearing an 
unmistakable evidence of a drier climate. In this region it is very interesting to study the 




Fii>. (io. From the Bti ken 



i ui jioroj^. The wood on the ri.^ht side h;)s been 

ravaged tjy forest-fire. 



steppe and the taiga fighting for the upper hand. Gradually the larch-forest with its 
attending flora becomes nearly sole prevailing on the drier and warmer southern slopes, 
while tlie taiga proper is now only to be found on the cooler and moister northern 
slopes. But here, too, it is also at first by degrees mixed up with and later on altogether 
replaced by the larch, whereby tlie last remains of the moist taiga, which were to bo 
found in the tracts between Sebi and Ujuk, have disappeared. Here we find ourselves 
once more in a transition zone, which, as to floristic conditions, is to be referred to the 
wooded steppes. But soon it also becomes too dry for the larch: it begins thinning, at 
first on declivities with a southern aspect, and is here slowly but surely forced to 
yield for the benefit of a more xerophilous vegetation pressing forward, so as to 
constitute a completely woodless and pure steppe scenery here. Thus, the soutliern 



92 



slopes have now Ix'conu' ([uilt' lie rlcss. and llic j^round Ihmc is occupied by a dr\ and 
slii'l' sicppc grass, wliilc for (lie iaicli, lor sonic Icnj^ld of lime, liicrc is still a place of 
rclreat on Ihc noiUicrn declivities. As the general direction ot the river in these tracts 
is just north-south, (see niaj) II) and tiie folds in the landscape through which the river 
bursts, are parallel with the mountain range, i. e. east-west, the traveller going by the 
river will see a scenery of a \ery sliange character. l""or wlien looking southwards 
here, (he cool, wooded slo|)es faciuL; noilh may be seen in IVonl. and liic wiiole comdry 
looks wood-clad. On the other hand, if (he traveller runs his eye northwards, in the 
direction of the slojx's facing south, the counliy looks naked, dry and scorched, having 
the character of a perfect steppe. The boundaries between the forest and the steppe 




Vin. 64. I-'rom the Vi'iiist-i valley, near Ujuk, view northwards. The 
hanks on the left side of the i)hoto{<i-apli facing south and south west, 
and being exposed to the hurnini^ rays of the sun, are completely 
treeless, while the dcelivilies facin}^ north on the op|)osite banks are 
grown with larch forest. 



vegetation follows the hill-tops rather accurately. But the dryness always increasing 
soon expels the larch altogether, being thinned and disappearing also on the declivities 
facing north; thus, the country here gradually passes into a completely treeless territory, 
where the steppe scenery prevails. The air is mild and dry, and from the river may be 
heard the grating music of the numerous grass-hoppers from the steppes. Within an 
amazingly short distance the scenery has changed its character from moist, dark taiga 
into dn', scorched steppe. When going downstream, the traveller passes the whole tran- 
sition zone showing the serai development of the flora in the course of few hours. 
The last remainder of forest disappears between Tjuk and Tapsa. 



93 



The most fertile stretches are also to be found here in the transition zone between 
the moist taiga and the hot steppe. The first attempts at agriculture were seen to have 
been made already at Scbi, but the crops are very uncertain on account of the short sum- 
mer, nights of frost occurring, even in the lowland, already in August. Rye, however, 
is said to ripen here generally, while wheat mostly fails, being destroyed by the early 
nights of frost. At Tapsa a rich and interested Russian, Safianow by name, has built a 
lonely summer-residence, where potatoes, cucumbers, water-melons, tomatoes and 
other vegetables, besides oats, wheat, barley, and millet were grown to perfection. 

However, the climate is so dry that artificial irrigation is required. Along [he river 
Cha-kul, about 300 wersts further to the west, there are also small patches of culti- 
vated ground to be met with, where chiefly millet, rye, and some wheat are sown, but 
in these places also the crops ai'e eminently dependent on artificial irrigation. In dry 
summers, when the sources of the Cha-kul happen to be dried up, and no water is to 
be found for artificial watering, this agriculture utterly fails. 



The Lower Steppe Area about tlie riu-keiii. 

A short distance below Tapsa the Rei-kem receives a very considerable tributary, 
the Xa-kem, or Chua-kem, and under the name of the Ulu-kem the united rivers flow 
westwards through a very rugged but rather, low-lying and completely woodless rocky 
land, with a typical steppe vegetation, the scenery here in some places even having the 
appearance of a real desert. This is the large Soyote Steppe, about the Ulu-kem, 
extending about 300 wersts westwards along the river to the Kemchik region, and north- 
wards to the Sayansk mountains in about 52° N. L., passing to the south through the 
Tannu-Ola direct into the vast steppes and deserts of Mongolia. The Tannu-Ola moun- 
tains differ widely from the Sayansk mountains in character, forming really one large 
ridge, running in a west-easterly direction from the Kemchik region. On this ridge are 
to be found several rounded peaks averaging about 2650 m. above sea-level. The passes 
between them are generally about 200 m. lower and easily passable, the more so as 
the Tannu-Ola mountains are for a great part woodless. In several places the ground is 
so plain that the traveller is even enabled to avail himself of carts. The Tannu-Ola 
differs from the Sayansk, however, not only in shape and climate but partly also in the 
flora and fauna, the steppe scenery being more prevalent here. 

The steppes about the Ulu-kem are not real plains, but form a very rugged land- 
scape, a rock-steppe with barren, steep acclivities, larger alluvial plains occurring here 
and there, only along the river. The rocky ground chiefly consists of Devonian sand- 
stone, in many places exposed in mighty profiles along the river. Especially in the most 
western part towards Cha-kul, a series of eruptives have broken up, their light, frequently 
nearly white colours contrasting nicely with the monotonous brownish-red landscape. 
The height of the river-bed above sea-level sinks over this distance of roughly 300 
wersts from about 760 m. at Tapsa down to about 560 m. at Cha-kul and Kemchik. 

94 



rill' c'liinaU' is \fiy iliy and hoi down here, and in lliis respect there is a j^ri'al 
differeiu'e l)i't\veeii liiis aiiil Soyole Steppe and the more I'levaled and iunnid mountain 
valleys ill the nortli-eastern portions of the land, l-'iom the steppes lure on the Ulu- 
kcm may freiinently in snmnier i)e ohserved iieavy tliiinder-storms and toncnts of rain 




Fig. 65. Scenery I'lom tlie steppes atjoiit the Ulu kem. Tlie 

land is dry and desert-like, witti a nearly complete aljsence 

of vegetation. On the alluvial plain in the foreground are 

seen sonic yurts belonging to the natives. 




Fig. 66. Rock steppe, dry and naked, about the Uhi kcin. 

to the north, apparently following the mountains, without touching the inner dry basin. 
The summers are very hot, with temperatures regularly rising to + 40° C. in the daj'- 
time, while, in winter the temperature sinks to -h 30 or 35^ C, and, as a rare exception. 



95 



still lower. As far south ns Uliassutai there has been recorded the low temperature of 
-H 47,5° C. The weather is mostly rather calm, the prevalent northerly and north- 
westerly winds being considerably softened down on the south side of the Sayansk 
mountains. The Ulu-kem becomes free from ice in the middle of April, and is not frozen 
up till the end of October. 

These tracts correspond, if anything, to Wahminc's r o c k - s t e p p e s, and have 
only a very poor and monotonous flora. There are only a few species which are able 
to find reasonable terms in these extremely dry and hot localities. The rocky ground 




Fig. 67. From the Soyotc Steppe on the Ulu-kem. A sacred <(Ova» belonging to the natives, 

built chiefly of Scilix, Popiiliis. and Cavagana. 

frequently lies bare, and the shallow, sandy earth occurring here, is dry as tinder and very 
poor in organic matter. The sun bakes all day from the cloudless sky, and several 
weeks, perhaps even months may pass without any rain falling. On the other hand, there 
is a rich dew-fall at night, ^\■hich is no doubt of great consequence for tlie plant life in 
these regions. 

On account of the far advanced season when I visited these regions, at the end of 
August, the steppe was mostly dry and scorched, the summer heat having almost 
entirely destroyed the vegetation, and only few plants were left at this time. As our 
journey for various reasons had to be be forced through these tracts, my floristic 



96 



researches liavc Ixcumc rallici dclcctive. In llic most western parls of llic sleppe, the 
llo\voiiii_i> season oi'iurs ahi'adv in April, and lurlhcr to the fast onlv in May. liowfvcr. in 
contradislinilion lo llic not lli-caslci n pail ol' llic land, wlicic tlii' flowering begins as late 
as in Juiu' and .Inly. 

At Tapsa (rouj^hly TllU ni. aljovc sca-lcvcl). at this lime ol llic year. 1 have ohser- 
vctl Ihc loUowing rather characteristic plants: 

'rribiiliis Iciri'stris. MnUccujo liipitlina. Colurin (/eoides, Odontiles rubra, Lotus 
coniiciildliis. Aslrdi/dlus mrliloloidi's. Vrronicu /liniuihi, Lrominis Idhiricus, liromus 
iiicrmis. I'.liinuis (Idsiisliichiis. Eliiiniis Jiiiicciis. Irlicd dioicii. and ol shrnhs: 




Fig. (iS. From the river L'lu kein. Nearly naked declivities stretcliinji towards the river; 
only the hanks and the islets grown with straggling trees. 



Coloneaslcr mclanocarpa, Caragana arborescens. Cnragana spinosn. and along 

the river: 

AInus frulicosd. Populus nigra, Popnlus laurifolia. Populus Iremula, Sali.v spec, and 
some others are .seldom absent. On sandy ground in the river, I have collected Salix 
viminalis and Cnscnta lupuUfonni.'i. Farther up [he riwv, Caragana jubata also occurs 
as a very characteristic plant ol' this region. 



10 



At Bjelosarsk. in thickets and in grass-grown places near the river, I have observed: 
Lalhijnis pratensis. Gdliiiin horeolr. Inula britaniiird. Inula salicina. Adenophora 
maisupiiflorn, Hemerocnlis flaua, Melilolus dentalus. Polentilla bifurca, Potentilla frnticosa. 
Potentilla viscosa. Potenlilla flagrllarix. and in drv places, sucii as steppe-meadows, on 
declivities, etc. occur Sisiimbrium nf/icinalc. Ghjcijrrhiza iintlensis, Panzeria lanata, 
Stipa pennata var. Joannis. Caragana piigmaea. Cnraqana Bnngei. Chamaerhodos erecla, 
Serratula nitidn inu . glnaca, Slatice speciosa, Irtica cannabina. and Gypsophila Gnwlini. 
In moist meadows, I have, moreover, lonnd here Cenolophhim Fischeri. Of the 
earlier vegetation at this lime onlv remains were left. 




Fig. (W. Typical sceiieiy li'oui the bkppis abuul tlic L'lii Ucm .Sin ul) slcppe, willi Sti/xt 
and scattered buslies of Canigana Ihingci. and Caragana spinosa. To Itie left a brancli of 

tlie river, with thicket of Salix. 

Further westwards the mighty river flows calmly through a completely woodless 
land, only the banks and the islets in the river being clad with shrubs and trees, con- 
sisting of various species of Salix. Belula ucrrucosa. and here and there some isolated 
Larix. Among the other trees, for the rest, to be found here may be mentioned: 

Popnlus tremula. Populiis laurifolia, Populus nigra. Alniis fruiicosa. Crataegus 
sanguinea, and Cornus alba. 

Here are to be met with in many places the typical s h r u b - s t e p p e s, being 
intermediate between the genuine steppe and the xerophile copse. These shrub-steppes 
constitute a plant society characteristic of the rocky steppes in central and soufh-western 
Asia, and are of very common occurrence on the steppes along the Ulu-kem. Here the 



ilS 



sluiib-sleppos all' nearly exiliisivoly conijioscd of C(tra(/(ina liiiru/ei. Cnragnna spinosa. 
and Polrnlilld friiticosd. foiniinq low l)uslu'.s. about 1 m. lii^li, at latlier regular inter- 
vals, and so open llial llie\ do not i'onn any continuous lliickel. with a sj)arinf; vcf^e- 
talion between llieni. frequently of Slipa pm/uihi ixii: .loaiini.s. Slipa capillata, Slipa 
sihiricd. and remains of other grass vegetation. 

Bui the flora of (he steppe itself is very poor and monotonous. Al liiis time, in the 
last days of August and (he beginning of Septendjer, the greater i)arl ol (lie plant WW had 
been destroyed, j)artly iiy Ihe long continued sunnner drought, jjarlly by the nights of 




Fig- 70. Tlie Yeni.sei valley below Keinchik-boiii. The dry roek .steppe giadiuilly disappears, 
and the primeval forest begins. On the banks the first larelies are seen. 

frost. Over large stretches there was an almost complete absence of vegetation. Besi- 
des the plants already mentioned above, I have, here and there, on the steppe along 
the Ulu-kem, collected still determinable remains of various plants, which, for the sake of 
completeness, I will give in the following, viz: 

Linum perenne. Astragalus hijpogloltis var. dasij glottis. Astragalus meliloloides. 
Cotyledon spinosa. Oxijtropis aciphglla. Artemisia dracunculus. Convolvulus Ammani, 
Eurotia ceraloides. (iiildenstddtia wonopliglla. Ephedra vulgaris. Atrapha.ris frutescens, 
Caragana pggmaea. Allium senescens, Carex supina, Koeleria gracilis. Triticum crislatum, 
Artemisia latifolia. Artemisia glauca. Medicago falcata. (igpsnphila desertorum, 
Echinospermum Lappula. Panzeria lanata. Iris ensuta, Allium Slellerianum. Selaginella 



99 



sangiiinolenta, and Cirsium acaiile, here and there Caragnna arboresceiu ami Vicia 
coslata; near the hank of the river are sometimes to l)e found: 

Melilolus albiis. Mi'lilolus dentatiis. Potentilla anseiina. ConvolDulns awensis. 
Mijricaria daviirica, and Asparagus Pallasi nov. noin. 

In places where the sahferous soil has stamped the scenery, are to he found such 

plants as: 

Oxglropis glabra. Statice Gmelini. Plantago Cornuti. Plantago mariliiud stibspec. 
ciliata nov. siib.spec.. Salicornia herbacea. and Lepidium lalifolinm. 




Fig. 71. Woodland in the Yenisei valley, as seen I'roni the river, near Bolshui i)urog. 

At Kemchik-hom the mountains hegin to increase in height again, and llie traveller 
once more gets into one of the spurs of the Sayansk mountains, through which the river 
breaks. Here the Ulu-kem receives the Kemchik river, a comparatively small trilni- 
tarj', w ith a very large but rather dry basin. On the banks here I have found, besides 
the above-mentioned foliferous trees, also Hippophiie rhamnnides, and moreover: 

Beckmannia eniciformis, Solaniun Dulcamara var. persicuiu, and on clifTs above 
the river Eragrostis minor occur. 

About Kemchik, where the river runs at a great rate through narrow clefts, its 
main direction is changed from east and west, flowing for the rest of its long course 
in a northerly direction towards the Arctic Ocean. The surrounding mountains, which 



100 



are complek'ly l);urcn. lisc ahruplly liom llio riviT, tlii' steppe scenery slill prcdoiniiia- 
liiit^ till al some dislaiire l)el(i\v Keinehik. wliere the laiga again begins lo appear. In 
tlie usual way the hiicli is the jjioneei tree, gradually followed l)y the pine, cedar, and 
spruce, till, al some dislanee al)ove the river Uss, the genuine i)huk laiga becomes predo- 
minanl. The breadth of the Sayansk mountains is here about KM) or .')(»{) wersls, over 
which distance the altitude of the river decreases from .570 lo 300 m. i'roin Kenuiiik- 
hoiii. forming tlie jjouiulaiy l)elweeu .M()iii;oiia and Silx lia. tlie river flows under llie 
name of the Yenisei tliroui^li the laiga in a rather narrow valley, with many rapids. I'liis 
mountain ridge, which the river hursts through here, is accompanied by IIh' tommoii 
Sayansk taiga vegetation. 

Below Mainski porog, the mountains i)ccome lower; Ihe river widens lo many times 
its former breadth, assuming the imposing appearance which it keeps northwards 
throughout the lowland. The transition between the taiga and Ihe slepjje is also here 
very sudden. About Mainski porog, the forest rather suddenly disappears, and the tra- 
veller presently sails oul of the mountains into open, level plains, affording a wide 
view in all directions. The air is also felt to become milder. Small villages surrounded 
by cultivated fields are met with at shorter intervals; the traveller is back again on the 
historic steppes about Minusinsk. 



101 



Enumeration of the Vascular Plants Observed in the 
Regions Traversed. 

Ptoiidopliyta Cohn. 

P 1 y p (1 i a c e a e Mvrtus. 

Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br. in Transact. Linn. Soc. Lond. XI (1812) p. 173; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV. p. 330; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1354; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. 
Fl. Alt. no. 559. Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 510; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 77, 
no. 1386; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 507. Acroslichiim iluense L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) 
p. 1528. 

snbsoec. riifidula (Koch) Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. I (1913) p. 
(;il;Ki)],i.i. <l».i. A.n. \II CidU) p. 1775 

Rather common in the subalpine tracts of wood about the Upper Amyl and on the 
Sisti-kem, on dry, open hill-sides facing south. 

siibspec alpina (Bolton) Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. I (1913) p. 71; 
Kpbi.i. 1. c. p. 1775. Woodsid hijpciborca R. Rr. 1. c. p. 173; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1355; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 511. 

Only one specimen of this one occurs in my collection, found in the Amyl valley, 
near the Algiac Pass, in the middle of July. The specimen is sterile. 

Distribution: The species is spread over Europe, northern and central Asia to 
northern Mongolia and eastern Asia, North America, Greenland. 

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. in Schrad. Xeuem Journ. I (1806) p. 26; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, p. 516; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 85, no. 1399; Luerss. 
Farnpflanz. p. 449; Kiim.i. <I>.i. A. it. VII (1914) p. 1778. Polypodiiim fragile L. Spec. 
PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1.553. Aspidiiiin fragile Swartz, Syn. Fil. p. 58; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, 
p. 329; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 958; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1353. 

Common on rocks in shady taiga about the Upper Amyl, at Semiretska and Kalna 
as well as on the Upper Sisti-kem. With young sporangia in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Europe, northern and central Russia, northern and western Asia to 
Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, the Himalayas, northern Mongolia, East Asia. North and 
South America, Greenland, North Africa, Australia and neighbouring islands. 

Cystopteris montana (Lam.) Bernh. in Schrad. Neuem Journ. I (1806) p. 26; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 517; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 468; Kpi.i.i. <t).T. A.it. -VII (1914) 
p. 1780. 

102 



In llic Alliiiaii. in sonicwlial nioisl j)l;uos, in subalpinc lonitVroiis woodlands. 
I)isliii)iili()n; luirope, norllicrn and ccnlial Asia. Noilli Aniciica. 

Oiioclca Slnillioploiis (1..) Ilollni. Dtiilscli. I'i. (17'.).")) |). 12; Swailz, Syii. I'll. p. Ill; 
Luerss. Fanipfian/. p. 182. Sltiilhiopleris gernumica Willd. Spec. IM. V 0810) j). 2XX; 
Lcdeb. Fl. Ail. IV. p. :{2.">; Tuic/an. Cat. Baical. no. 1:5 1:5; Kaicl. el Kiiil. i'junn. I'I. i-j. 
Alt. no. 9.5.^; i.cdcl.. I"l. Hoss. IV, p. r)27; Turczan. I'I. I'.aical.-I )aliui-. (18.')(1, 1) p. 79, 
no. 1388. Osmunda Slnilliiopterisl.. Spec. Pi. cd. II (17(1:)) p. X^^lW.Malicucrin Sinilliiopleris 
(L.) Todaro, Kpi.i.i. <I'.i. A.n. VII (1911) p. 1782. 

Common on wcl. wooded nunmlain-sides al Kusiiainii and in llic (ai^a atioul llie 
liver .Vmyl. on llic Sisli-kcm a.s well a.s llic Bei-kem. Observed with sporangia in July 
and .August. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, eastern .Asia. Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

Aspidiuni Thclypfcris Swarlz in Schrad. .lourn. Bot. 2 (1800) p. 10; Luerss. Farn- 
pflanz. p. :M). Acroslirluini Thchjpteiis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. l.")28. Poliixlicluiin 
Tlu'lijpleris Both, Tent. Fl. Germ. 3, p. 7; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. IV. \>. 51:5. Diifopleris 
Thelipleris (L.) A. Gray. Man. (1848) p. 630; K|ii,i.i. 'I>.i. .\.ii. VII (1914) p. 1785. 

Along the borders of .S'/^/uK/nf/ni-marshes, and in swampy woods in several places 
in the Amyl valley, between Kushabar and the .\lgiac Pass. 

Distribution: Europe, excepting the extreme northern and southern portions, 
Siberia, south-western and central .Asia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan, Africa, 
North .America, New Zealand. 

Aspidiuni spinulo.suni Swarlz in Schrad. Journ. Bot. 2 (1800) p. ;58. Luerss. Farn- 
pflanz. p. 429. Polysticluim spinuhsiim D. C. Fl. Franc. II (1805) p. .561; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. 
IV, p. 515; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 84. no. i:598. Diiioplcris spiiuilasa 
(Miill.) 0. Ktze, Bev. Gen. PI. II (1891) p. 813; Kpu.!. *.i. A.ir. VTI (1914) p. 1790. 

Rather common in pine-wood about the river Amyl, and in several places on the 
Sisti-kem, accompanying the following: 

siibspec. dilatalum Smith. Fl. Brit. 3 (1804) p. 1125; .A.scher.s. et Graebn. Synops. 
Mitteleur. Fl. I (1913) p. 59; Kpi.i.i. <I).i. A.n. VII (1914) p. 1791. 

In shady coniferous wood on the .Amyl and the Uj)per Si.sti-kem. in the Altaian, 
where observed by me on the mountains up to the limit of conifers. Collected here 
with sporangia at the end of July. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over the greater j)art of Europe, Asia 
Minor, Siberia, northern Mongolia, the Himalayas, eastern .Asia. Sakhalin, Japan, North 
America, Greenland. 

Phegoptcris Dryopteris (L.) Fee, Gen. HI. (18.50—52) p. 243; Luers.s. Farnpflanz. 
p. 300. Dryopteris Linnaeana Christens. Ind. Filic. (1905) p. 275; Kpi.i.i. <l>.i. .V.it. VII 
(1914) p. 1792. Polypodinm Dnpplevis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(53) p. 1.555; Ledeb. Fl. 

10.3 



Mt. IV, p. 325; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1341; Karel. et Kiiil. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 954; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. .509; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 76, no. 1384. 

Prett}' common in shad}' taiga along llie Amyl. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south-east, Asia Minor, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, the Himalayas, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, Greenland, North America. 

Phegopteris polypodioides Fee, Gen. Fil. (1850 — 52) p. 243; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 
296. Polypodiam Phegopteris L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1550; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, 
p. 325; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1342; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 508; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1856, I) p. 76, no. 1383. Drijopteris Phegopteris Christens. Ind. Filic. (1905) p. 
284; Kphi.i. «l'.i. A.n. VII (1914) p. 1794. 

Scattered in shady coniferous forest at Kushabar, Kalna as well as on the Upper 
Bei-kem, near Mosgalewski. 

Distribution: Europe to the Pyrenees, Asia Minor, Siberia, central and eastern Asia, 
Sakhalin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

Athyriuin Filix femina (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. III. p. 65; Christens. Ind. Filic. p. 
142; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 133; Kjitu. fl>.i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1798. Asplenium Filix 
femina (L.) Bernh. in Schrad. Neuem Journ. I (1806) p. 27; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 327; 
Tui-czan. Cat. Baical. no. 1348; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 9.56; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 518; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur.(1856, I) p. 81, no. 1392. Polypodium Fili.v 
femina L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1551. 

Rather common in somewhat moist habitats, in brush-wood and wood over the 
traversed tracts of the Sayansk district, between Kushabar and Petropawlowsk. Semi- 
retska, Kalna. the Algiac Pass. Ust Algiac and the Upper Sisti-kem, where ascending to 
about 1800 m. above sea, on the Kamsara, and by Utinski porog. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, central and eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan. India, 
the East Indies. Algiers, Madeira, the Azores. Noiih and South America. 

Athyrium alpestre Rylands in Moore Ferns Gr. Brit, and Ir. Nat. Pr. PI. VII. 
(1857) p. 1; Christens. Ind. Filic. p. 139; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 143; Kin.i.i. 'Im. Ajt. 
VII (1914) p. 1800. Polypodium rlmeliciim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1552 ex parte; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. W, p. 510. 

Rather common in the Altaian, in somewhat wet places, among stones, along rivulets 
etc., above the limit of trees, at an altitude of from 1800 to 2000 m. above sea-level. Col- 
lected with young sporangia at the end of July. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, north-western portion of Asia Minor, Siberia, 
Northern Mongolia. 

Athyrium crenatum (Sommerf.) Rupr. in Nyland. Spicil. Fl. Fen. II (1844) p. 14, 
et in Beitr. z. Pflanzenk. d. Russ. R. Ill, p. 40; Christens. Ind. Filic. p. 140; h'ln.i.i. i^i. 
A.n. VII (1914) p. 1801. Aspidinm crenatum Sommerf. in Act. Holm. (1834) p. 104. 

104 



Asplciiiuni nrniilunt I'lics, Siiinina Vegel. Scandinav. p. 82. 253; Lcdcl). II. I'oss. I\', 
J). 518; Turczan. I'i. Ikiical.-Daliui-. (]8.")(). 1) p. 80, no. l.'i'Jl. Asplmiiim sihiiii-iim 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. VM7. 

On slony f<rc)nn(l, in .sliady pine-wood, on llic I ppiT .Si.sli-lain, on tlic Kani.saia, 
and near llie Dora Steppe. Observed w'illi .sporangia al Ihe end of Jniy. 

Dislrihulion: Xorlliern i'.urope. Sil)eria, norlliern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakiialin. 

Asplenum seplentrioiiale (L.) Iloffni. Deut.sehl. V\. 11 (17i)5) ]). 12; Ledcl). Fl. Alt. 
IV, p. 327; Lcdcl). 1<"1. Uoss. IV, p. 521; Lner.s.s. Farnpflanz. p. 209; K|.i.i.i. Mm. A.m. VII. 
(1911) p. 180;i. Aciastichum sqAcnlrkmalp. L. Spec. PI. cd. II (17():5) p. 1.521. 

In dry chinks of rocks facing south, rather common near Ust Algiac. With sporangia 
in .luly. 

Distribution: Europe, Asia Minor, Siberia, western and central .\sia. North Africa, 
North .\nierica. 

Asplenum viride Iluds. Fl. Angl. ed. I (17G2) p. 385; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 521; 
Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 1.59; I.>i,i.i. 'lu. A.ir. VII (1914) p. 1805. 

Among loose stones in chinks of rocks, near the banks of the Amyl and the Upper 
Sisti-kem, in somewhat moist, subalpine coniferous forest. 

Distribution: Europe, western and central Asia, Siberia, North America. 

Asplenum Ruta niuraria L. Spec. PL ed. II (17G3) p. 1511; Ledel). Fl. All. IV. p. 327; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 520; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 218; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1349; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 81, no. 1393; i;|„,i,i. <|).i. A.tt. VII (1914) 
p. 1805. 

In chinks of dry, hot rocks in the Amyl valley, near Semiretska, and near Ust 
Algiac, on the Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, western and central Asia, Japan, North Africa, North 
America. 

Pleridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, Botan. v. Ost-.\fr. (1879) p. 11; Christens. Ind. 
Filic. p. 591; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 104; Ki.u.i. <l>.i. A.ir. VII (1914) p. 1810. PU-iis 
aquilina L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1533; Ledeb. Fl. All. IV. p. 326; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1345; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 524; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856. I) p. 
80, no. 1390. 

Rather common in the traversed regions. In meadows in woods, near Kushabar; 
rather common in subalpine, open coniferous forest in the Altaian, at Ust Algiac, at L'st 
Sisti-kem, in open fir-and larcfi-wood, accompanying Anemone, silveslris, IJlium Marlaqon, 
Geranium, etc. Willi spores in .luly and August. 

Distribution: Occurs nearly all over the globe, except in the arctic and arid tracts, 
and in temperate portions of South .\merica. 

11 105 



Polypodium vulgare L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1.344; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 324; 
Turczan. Cat. Baikal, no. 1340; Lcdeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 508; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. 
Fl. Alt. no. 953: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 75, no. 1382; Luerss. Fainpflanz. 
p. 53; Kptu. *.i. A.iT. \'II (1914) p. 1812. 

On a rocky wall in the Amyl taiga, near Kalna. and on the Kamsara. With nearly 
ripe spores in the middle of July. 

Distribution: In the northern frigid zone, over the greater part of Europe, Siberia, 
western, central, and eastern Asia, Africa, the Canary Islands, the Azores, Madeira, 
North America, Kerguelen, and the Sandwich Islands. 

Ophioglossaceac R. BR. 

Botrychium Matricariae Spreng. Syst. Veget. IV, p. 23; Kpi.i.i. tl>.i. A.n. \U (1914) 
p. 1766. Botnjchium maliicarioides (Wild.) Fries, Novit. Fl. Svec. ed. II, p. 288; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1339; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 505; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 
86, no. 1401. Botrychium rulaefuUiim A. Br. in Koch, Syn. ed. 2. p. 972; Luerss. Farn- 
pflanz. p. 582. 

In pastures, and moss-grown fields, in open woods of conifers and foliferous trees, 
near Ust Algiac and Ust Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin. Japan, 
North and South America. Australia. 

Equisetaceae C. RlCH. 

Equisetum arvense L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1510; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 320; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1360; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 486; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 67, no. 1366; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 687; Kpw.i. <I).i. A.ix. VII (1914) p. 1751. 

In moist fields on the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk. Only the barren stems gathered 
at the beginning of June; in meadows at Ust Kamsara. in August. 

subspec. alpina Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp. p. 296; Luerss. 1. c. 

Near the Algiac Pass, in subalpine woodlands. Sterile. 

subspec. erecta Khnge, Arch. Nat. Liv. Ehst. u. Curland. 2. ser. VIII (1882) p. 3/2; 
Luerss. 1. c. 

On moist and muddy ground, on the borders of an islet in the Yenisei. Gathered 
sterile at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: The species is spread over Europe, Siberia, western, central and 
eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan. North America, Greenland, Africa. 

Equisetum pratense Ehrh. Bcilr. Ill, p. 77; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 488; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 68, no. 1368; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 660; KpLi.T. O.t. A.it. 
VII (1914) p. 1753. Equiseluin umbrosuin Meyer in Willd. Enum. PI. H. Berol. p. 1065; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 331. 

106 



Ill iiioisl |)l;ic('s ill lirusli-wood, on llu' iiuugiiis ol' bogs, and llic like, between 
.Miiuisiii,si< and Ivnsliaiiar. 

Dislrihnlion: I'liiropc, Silicria. Sakhalin, llu- Aiiioor I'loxincc Maiuliooi ia. North 
AnuM'ii'a. 

Kquisetuni silvaliciim L. Spre-. VI cd. 11 (17(i:5) p. I.'jK); Lcdc-h. V\. Alt. IV. p. :V2\; 
riui/an. ("at. Baiiai. no. 1357; Ledoh. Fl. Ho.ss. 1\', p. IcST; ruivzan. I'"l. Baical.-Daluir. 
(1851), I) p. 67, no. 13(17; Luerss. Fanipflanz. p. 648; l.>i,i.i. 'I'.i. .\.ii. VII (1911) p. 1754. 

Disprisod in somewhat moist. frcHpiently mo.s.s-gi'o\vn j)hu'i's in I'orosts of conifers 
and lolilerous trees in the .Vinyl valley, al Ust Algiac, near the Kam.saia, and in the 
woods between the dwellings of Kokus and Mosgalf:wsivi. 

Distiihntion: iMirope. Siberia, eastern .\sia. noitliciii .Mongolia. North America, 
Greenland. 

Equisctuin palusire L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (17()3) p. 1516: Tnic/an. Cat. Baical. no. 
1356; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. l\. p. 188; Lueiss. Farnpflanz. p. 704; Tnrczan. Fl. Baieal.- 
Dalnir. (1856. I) p. 68. no. 1369; I.'pi.i.i. 'I'.i. A.ir. VII (1911) j). 17.5(1. 

Dispersed in moist places, frequently on Spliafiniuu hoos. and the like, in the subal- 
pine woodlands between Kushabar and Ust Algiac, and in swamjis near Ust Kamsara. 
Most of the specimens gathered belong to /". simplicissinumi A. Hu. in Sii.mm. Amer. 
.lourn. XLVI (1844) p. 85. distinguished by completely branchless stems. Specimens 
are also occasionally to l)c found the steins of which have short branches, only a few- 
cm. long ;7r;/. ()rr//(77/a/(;;N Mil. i)i;/. /)n'('m(//KW/;/N Ki.ixGi:, Arch. Nat. Liv. Eh.st. u. Curland 
2. ser. VIII. p. 401. 

There occur numerous intermediate forms between the above-mentioned ones. 
I'he sporangia ripen at the beginning of July. 

Distribution: Euroijc. western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sak- 
halin. Japan, North America. 

Equisctum Heleocharis Ehrh. Hannov. Mag. 1783, p. 286; l.'pi.i.i. <1m. A.it. VII 11914) 
p. 1757. Eqiiiseliim limosum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1517; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 322; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1359; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 489; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 69, no. 1370; Luerss. Farnpflanz.p. 715. 

/. fhwiatile Aschers. Fl. Brand. 1, p. 9U0. Rather common in muddy places along the 
Yenisei and the river Abakan, where the spores seem to ripen in the second half of 
June. I have also gathered it on the banks of the Sisti-kem and on the Bei-kem, near 
the mouth of the Tara-kem. 

/. limosum Aschers. Fl. Brand. 1, p. 900. In swampy places on the banks of the 
Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk, and on the borders of a small lake in an islet in the Yenisei, 
between Minusinsk and l\st Abakansk. A very short form, with stems only about 10 
cm. high, gathered by me in muddy places on the river Abakan, near Askys, with nearly 
ripe spores in the second half of June. 

107 



Distribution: Europe, Sil^eria, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan, Salilialin, 
North America. 

Equisetum hicmale L. Fl. Lapp. (1737) p. 311. et. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1763) p. 1517; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 322; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1358; Ledel). Fl. Ross. IV, p. 490; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I), ]>. 69, no. 1371; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 734; K|.i,i.i. 
«l>.i. A.iT VII (1914) p. 1760. 

Here and there in moist, shadv taiga, between Kuhabar and Petropawlowsk; in the 
Altaian, on the borders of a small lake in the forest, about the limit of tree vegetation. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south-west, western Asia, Siberia, north- 
ern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan. North America. 

Equisetum variegatum Schleich. Cat. PI. Helvet. ed. II (1807) p. 27; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, p. 490; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 70, no. 1372; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 765; 
Kphi.i. fH.r. A.iT. VII (1914) p. 1761. 

In the subalpine regions, on sandy banks of rivers, on the Upper Amyl. 

Distribution: Artie Islands Europe, except the extreme south-west, Siberia, north- 
ern Mongolia. North America, Greenland. 

Equisetum scirpoides Michaux, Fl. Bor. Amer. II (1803) p. 281; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
p. 491; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 779; h'lu.i.i. <|i.i. A.n, VII (1914) p. 1762. 

A few specimens of this species gathered by me in the Altaian, in moist, sand\', and 
gravelly places, on the banks of a brooklet above the limit of tree vegetation, at a height 
of towards 2000 m. above sea-level, and also in moist places near Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Arctic Islands, northern Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, Sakha- 
lin, North America, Greenland. 



Lycopodiaceae R. Rll'H. 

Lycopodium Selago L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1565; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 323; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1368; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 496; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 71, no. 1373; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 788; Kpi.i.i. <l).i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1742. 

Rather common in the Altaian, where met with right up to the belt of lichens. 
With sporangia at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic Islands, Europe, except the extreme south-western portions, 
western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Japan, North and South America, 
Madeira, the Azores, St. Helena, Tasmania, New-Zealand. 

Lycopodium annotinum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1566; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1364; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 497; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 71, no. 1374; 
Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 809; Kpu.i. (I).i. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1743. 

108 



Ilallici lrt'(HKul in eonil'crous I'orcsl in llif I rjaiikiii hiiid. I si Algiac, T.sIktdoicI- 
ska. ill scvciai places on tlic rivers Sisti-kem, Bei-kcm, and Kanisara. 

Disliiliulion: Tlu' greater pari of lun()i)e, Sil)C'ria. iioillicin Mongolia, ccnlial and 
casltMii Asia. Sakiiaiiii. Noilli .\mi'iii-a. Greenland. 

Lycopodiinn clavadim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(i3) p. 1504; Ledel). Fl. Ross. p. 499; 

'i'urczan. Fl. Haical.-Daluir. (18.5(i. I) ]). 72. no. l.')77; Luerss. Farn])flanz. j). siS; i;|,i.j.i. 
'!>.!. A. 11. Vll (1911) p. 174.^j. 

Rallur common in the Urjankai land, in coniferous foresl. occasionally accom- 
panying llic iiicccdini; one. 

Dislribulion: Europe, Siberia, central and ea.stern .\sia. Sakhalin. .lajian. India, 
America. Circcnland. Africa. New Holland. 

Lycopodiuni coinplanatuni L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17l);5) p. l.^)()7; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1362; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 499; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (185(), I) p. 72, no. 137G; 
Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. S22. 

siibspec. anceps AVallr. Linnaea XII (1840) p. 676; Luerss. 1. c. p. 821; li"|ii,i.i.<I>.i. .\.ir. 
VII (1914) p. 1746. 

Scattered in ratlier dry places in coniferous forests, especially of larch and fir, 
about the Lower Sisti-kem, the Kamsara, and about the Dora Steppe. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern .\sia, Sakhalin, Japan, 
the East Indies, North America, Madeira. 

Lycopodium alpinum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1367; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 323; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1363; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 498; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 72, no. 1375; Luerss. Farnpflanz. p. 838; Kpi.i.i. $.1. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1747. 

Rather common in the Altaian, above the limit of tree vegetation, among moss 
and lichens. Specimens with young sporangia gathered at the end of July. 

Distribution: Mountain tracts of Europe, western Asia and Siberia, northern Mon- 
golia, Japan, North .\merica, Greenland. 



Selagincllaceae Meti'KN. 

Selaginella sanguinolenta (L.) Spring. Monogr. de Lycop. II. p. 57; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1366; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 501; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 73, 
no. 1379. Lijcopodiiim sancjuinolcnld L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1567. 

On mountain slopes in the .\ltaian. and on the rock-steppe about the Ulu-kem. 

Distribution: Afghanistan, southern Siberia and northern Mongolia, Kamtchatka, 
and northern China. 

109 



G n e t a c e a c LlXDLKV. 

Ephedra vulgaris Richard, Comm. Conif. Cyc. (1826) p. 26; C. A. Mcy. Mouogr. d. 
Gatl. Ephedra (18-16) p. 270; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 663: Kpi.i.i. a>,i. A.n. VII (1914) 
p. 1737. E. monostarluja L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1472; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV. p. 300; 
Karel. et. Kiril. Eiuim. PI. Fl. .\lt. no. 827; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1077. E. inonosperma 
Gmel. ex Amni. Ruth. p. 178. no. 255; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854. II) p. 121. no. 
1078. E. distachiia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1472. 

Scattered on the Aliakan Steppe, especially on dry, hot. sloping Devonian cliffs of 
sandstone, most frequently in chinks facing south, collected with flowers in the middle 
of June at Ust Kamuishto and Askys, where accompanying Atniphaxis fnilcsccnft. Gathe- 
red on rockv places, near the banks of the I'lu-kem, on the rock-steppes, at a short 
distance above Cha-kul, with ripe fruits al the beginning of September. Occurring here 
together with (iiildenstddlia monophijlla. 

Distribution: Southern Europe, Persia, Trans Caspia, Turkestan, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, central Asia, North .\frica. 



P i n a c e a e LlM)LEY. 

Juniperus communis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1470; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1073; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 684: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 417, no. 1072; 
KpLi.i. $.1. A.n. VII (1914) p. 1732. 

Dispersed in the Amyl taiga, south of the Algiac Pass, and on the Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, western and central Asia, North 
America, Greenland, North Africa. 

siibspec. nana (Willd.) Loud. Arb. Frut. Brit. (1838) p. 2486; K[ir,i.i. 1. c; Juniperus 
nanaW\\ld. Spec. PI. IV (180.5) p. 854; Ledob. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 299; Turczan. Cat. BaicaL 
no. 1074; Karel. et. Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 826; Ledeb. Fl. lioss. III. p. 683; 
Turczan. 1. c. p. 418, no. 1073. 

Dispersed in the Altaian, where to be found below as well as above the liuiit of tree 
vegetation, right up to the lichen belt. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, western and central Asia, North 
America, Greenland, North Africa. 

Juniperus Pseudosabina Fisch. et. Mey. Animadvers. Botan. ad. Indie. VIII, Seni. H. 
Petropok p. 15; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 682; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 419. 
no. 1076; Kpu.i. $.i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1736. J. Sabina L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 
1472 ex parte; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 298; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 825. 

This species growing in nature not found by myself, but fresh branchesj have met 
with, more than once, among the natives, the so-called Soyotes. at Tshernoretska, as well 

110 



as on llic Doia Sicppc. Made use ol' duiiii^ llicir iclif^ious rcrcmoiiics. and said lo occur 
on llii" niounlains near 1)\'. 

Dish il)ulion: I'.aslcrn poilions of Silicria. and norlli-wcslorii Monj^olia. 

Piiiiis sih-fslris 1.. Spec. PI. cd. II (17(i:{) p. 1 11<S; Lcdcii. I-I. All. IV. p. 10<); Turczan. 
Cat. Haical. no. 1()(.S; Lcdch. Fl. Hoss. III. p. (171; Turczan. I'l. Paical.-Daliur. (1851,11) 
1). 115. no. 1071; i;|,i,i.i, 'I-.i A.ii. \ll(l(lll)p. 1727. 

Rather common in Ilic region cxi)lored. Prcfcnini; dry. rallicr .sandv f^roimd. Irc- 
ipicnliy I'ormini; woods on liie extensive moraines, he il innnin^led. or accompanying 
various roiil'erous trees, parlicularly the a.sp and hirch, or — as is the case at Ust Sisti- 
keni and on [he Dora Steppe — accompanying the larch. Not ohserved ])v me anvwhere 
ascending very high up the mountains. Reaching up to 1100 m. ahove sea-level, near 
Ust Algiac. Rather common in sandy places on the steppes ahoul Minusinsk. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, norlhern .\sia. .Sihi'ria. nortiiern .Mon- 
golia, the Amoor Province, Manchooria. 

Pimis Ccinbra L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1419; Ledeb. Fl. .\!l. IV. p. 200; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1070; Karel. et. Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 8215; Ecdeh. Fl. Ross. III. p. 
673; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 414, no. 1070. 

siibspec. sibirica Rupr. in Fl. Boi-eali-Uralensis (1856) p. 43; lipi.i.i. $.i. A.n. 
VII (1914) p. 1721. Piniis sibirica Mayr, FremdlJindische Wald- und Parkbaume fiir 
Europa (1906) p. 388. 

Very common in the wood region of the territory traversed, from Kushabar and 
further southwards, preferring moist, or even nearly swampy places. Rarely to be found 
in dry situations. Not observed anywhere by me forming woods, but dispersed in woods 
of Abies sibirica and Picea obovata, or accompanying various foliferous trees, especially 
Popiilus Idurifolia. Popiiliis Irciuiilti. the bircli. etc. These trees, with their large bushy 
crowns rising higher than the wood standing around, give the scenery a wild and ragged 
appearance. Trees belonging to this species may attain gigantic dimensions. In the moist 
taiga between Kushabar and Petropawdowsk. I rather frequently met with trees towards 
2 ni. in diameter, and over 30 m. high. (See Fig. 19, 22, and 24). On the mountains, at 
any rale in moister places, it ascends higher up than any other conifer, reaching in the 
Altaian up to 1700 or 1800 m. above sea-level. In similar silualions the trees are lower, 
with tortous and twisted trunks, shorter leaves, and smaller, broadly ovate cones, to 7 
cm. long for. coro/ia/js Litw. I'ninii.iii riirHi|K-i;iri i.-CTpb-iM, Tp\ a. Uniair. M\.:. IlMiicpai-. Ai;a,T,. 
HavK'h. T. XI (19i:5) p. 20— -Ji;. 

The seeds of this species are roasted by the natives, and extensively used for food. 
44iis tree is called <<,keder» — cedar — In' the Russians, a name also used by mc in 
this publication, in spite of its being no genuine cedar. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Russia, Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

111 



Larix sibirjca Ledeb. Fl. Ait. IV, p. 201; Karcl. el. Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 824: 
Kjjw.i. ^A. A.iT. VII (1914) p. 1721. Larix dfcidaa .Mill. var. sibirica Korshinsky, Tent. 
Fl. Ross. Orient. (1898) p. 493. Piniis Ledeboiuii Endlicher, Syn. Conif. (1847) p. 131; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 672; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dabur. (18,51. II) p. 413. no. 1068. Larix 
intermedia Fiscli. ex Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1071. 

Of common occurrence in the wood region of the territory traversed, absolutely 
preferring dry and liot ground, above all appearing to prevail on red Devonian sandstone, 
where occasionally rather small larch forests are to ])e found, for instance between 
Tshebertash and Ust Sisti-kem. Generally, it docs not form woods, however, occurring 
scattered, intermingled with the fir, spruce, silver-fir, and, here and there, the cedar. In 
the Urjankai land, the tree vegetation on the so-called wood-steppes (,riic( lOTcni.) seemed 
chiefly to consist of larch together with scattered firs, birches, and poplars. Similar wood- 
stepjjes are common in the tract of land between Ust Sisti-kem and the Dora Steppe. 
On the Abakan Steppe I found scattered larches on the tops of the ridges, and here and 
there on the islets in the river. In dry places in upland regions, for instance on the Tannu- 
01a, the larch ascends quite as high as the cedar. In favourable situations the larch 
attains a height of over 40 m., with a trunk of about 1,5 m. in diameter. The trunks of 
rather old trees are often branchless, only with a small crown at the top. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Russia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, the Amoor 
Piovince. 

Picea obovata Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 201; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. lOGS; KpLi.i. $ji. 
A.1T. VII (1914) p. 1718. Picea vulgaiis Link. var. allaica Tepl. in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. 
Moscou (1868, III) p. 244—2,52. Picea exelsa Link, Korshinsky, Tent. Fl. Ross. Orient. 
(1898) p. 494. Piniis orienlalis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1421; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
671; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 412, no. 1067. 

Very common in the wood region, where constituting the bulk of the dense, large 
taiga, occasionally accompanying Abies sibirica, the fir, cedar, and larch. The trunks 
attain a height of from 30 to 35 m. with a diameter at a man's height to 75 cm. On the 
mountains, at any rate in the Altaian, it does not ascend quite so high as the cedar. In 
moist, frequently mossy places it is often seen to propagate vegetatively, by means of 
branches lying along the ground, shooting roots. Near Ust Algiac I have observed 
this vegetative propagation to be of very common occurrence. The species is rather 
varying in growth. One form with short branches, not uncommonly somewhat bent 
upwards, especially prevails. As this from frequently attains a greater height than the 
common form, its narrow, slender, cylindrical crown rises higher than the level edge 
of the Avood, in a very characteristic way. This form very commonly observed by me 
in subalpine tracts in the Amyl taiga. 

Distribution: Northern Scandinavia, north-eastern Europe, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, Manchooria. 



112 



Abies .sil)iric;t I.cdcl). I-l. All. IV, p. '202; l,-|,i,i.i. <Im. A. it. Vll (I'.M 1) p. 1715. I'iniis 
sihiricd I'uic/nii. Cat. Ikiit-al. no. 10(17; l.cdcl). I"l. Ross. Ill, p. (ill'.l. I'inits Piclild Fisch. 
ex Kiulluli. Syn. Conif. p. lOK; 'Iiii c/aii. Fl. 15aical.-Daluir. (1851. II ) p. 11 1, no. 10(JG. 

\'('iy coinmoii in the laiga, especially acc()nii>anyinq liic cedar, spruce, hircii. as 
well as the aspen. To he fonnd hotli on nioisl and on dry ground. In Ihc lowland it 
attains a height of to 30 ni., with a trunk of 50 or GO cm. in diameter. In the Altaian it 
ascends, on the mountains, to about 1()50 m. above .sea-level. 

Distrihulion: Norlh-easlcrn lUissia, Siberia. rormin,!.< woods to Ihc .Viclic circle, 
northern Mongolia, Ihc Ainoor Province. 

Aiii'iosix'riiiiic BnoxJN'. 
M<>i)<m'o1.vI(m1<uh's .Irss. 

T y p h a e c a c Sr. lllLAIin;. 

Typha anguslifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (HdiJ) p. 1377; Ledch. II. .Ml. IV, p. 219; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1177; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 2; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854. Ill) p. 72, no. 1102; Graebn. Tijplmveae in Engl. Pflanzenr. (IV, .S, 1900) p. 12; 
KlM.i.i. 'I'.i. A.ri'. VI (1912) ]), 1255; <I>c,i.iiciik(i, I*iir(i;((ii;i,ii:-iii. 'l'c,i,'iciii;n. 'i'.i. A;ii;n. I'ncciii 
I (1913) p. 14. 

On the margin of a swamp near Karalus. 

Distribution; Europe, western Asia, Siberia to Trans Baikal. North iN.nicnca, 
Australia. 

Typha latifolia L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1763) p. 1377; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 249; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1176; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 1; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, HI) p. 
72, no. llOl; il>(',i'ieuK(i. Purniidiu.ia-in, ^t>c,vu'in;n, <I>.i. Aiiiar. I'dcciii I (1913i p. 12; drachn. 
ryphacene in Engl. Pflanzenr, (IV, 8, 1900) p. 8; Kpi.i.i. 'Im. A.n. VI (1912) p. 1254. 

On the borders of swamps near Kushabar, and in woods near the Amyl, between 
Kushabar and Petropawlowsk. With flowers about the middle of July. 

Distribution; Europe, excepting the extreme northern portions, Siberia, south- 
western and central Asia, northern Mongolia, Manchooria, North Africa, North America. 

Spar g a II i a c e a c HX(JL. 

Sparganium simplex Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. II (1778) p. 401; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p, 236; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1197; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 4: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854, III) p. 74. no. 1 105; Pdreprh, E;i;cnuoi;Km!i,iii-]rb 4>c,;iieni,ii. <l>.i. A:iiuT. Pucciii (1913) p. 30; 
Meinsh. in Bull. Acad. Pctersb. Nouv. Ser. IV (XXXVI) p. 33; Graebn. Sparganiaceae 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. (IV, 10, 1900) p. 16; Kpu.i. a>.i. A.n-. VI (1912) p. 1257. 

In swamps on the banks of the river Abakan, near Ust Abakansk, in slow brooks by 
the road-side, between Minusinsk and Kushabai-. 

12 li:', 



Flowering at the beginning of July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, the greater part of Asia, except the 
extreme east. North America. 

Sparganium minimum Fries, Suniraa Veget. Scand. II (1849) p. 5G0; Meinsii. in 
Bull. Acad. Petersb. Nouv. Sen IV (XXXVI) p. 37; PorepTi., EvKenudisKdDi.in-iii, <I>wr'iii,(i, 
$j. Asiax. Puc-oiii I (1913) p. 34; Kpi.u. fI>.T. A.ir. VI (1912) p. li'5S; Graehn. Sparganiaceae 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. (IV, 10, 1900) p. 23. 

In eddies in the river Abakan, above L'st Abakansk. 

Distrilnition: Europe, Siberia, northern Japan, North America. 

Potamogetonaceae Ast'HERS. 

Potamogeton natans L. Spec. PI. cd. II (17G2) p. 182; Lcdeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 156; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1068; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 23; l\uczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. 
(1854, III) p. 62, no. 1087; Graebn. Potamogetonaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 31 (IV. 11, 
1907) p. 42; Ix[,u.j. $.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1269. 

In a small lake between Karatus and Kushabar. With flowers in the first half of 
July. Rather common in still creeks, and in swamps on the Dora Steppe. 

Distribution: Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, and Australia. 

Potamogeton perfoliatus L. Spec. PI. ed II (1762) p. 182; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 158; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1087; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 833; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 27; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, III) p. 64, no. 1090; Graebn. Potamo- 
getonaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. II. 31 (IV. 11. 1907) p. 92; l,'|,i.i.i. *.!. A.n. VI (1912) 
p. 1271. 

.\.ll the specimens collected are sterile. The stems are from 1 to 1.5 mm. thick, the 
intcrnodes from 3 to 8 cm. long. The leaves are rather narrow, not over 2,5 cm. broad, 
commonly 1,5 cm. broad, and from 6 to 7 cm. long when full-grown, and with a slightly 
undulating margin. The shape of the leaves is lanceolate, tapering upwards from the 
cordate base, completely clasping the stem, and rather acuminated at the apex. 

Thus, in the form of the leaves, and in the long internodes, they agree perfectly 
with the East-Asiatic /'. mandscliuriensis Bennktt in Ann. Conserv. ct. Jard. Geneve IX 
(1905) p. 100. The Iattei% however, is especially characterized by its thick spil^^e and 
numerous fruits, the midribs of which are winged, and, all the specimens collected 
being sterile, I dare not, with absolute certainty, refer them to this form. 

The species is very common in the territory explored, in ponds, still creeks and 
slow rivers. 

The rivers Abakan, Yenisei, Amyl, Sisti-kom, and Bei-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, nearly all over Asia, North .\frica. North America. Australia. 

Potamogeton pusillus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 184; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 159; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 1093; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 29; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, 

114 



Ill) |). (').'). no. 1()<)1; (liachii. Poldmof/elnnaccdc in V.nu}. IM'laii/ciii. II. :;i (IV, 11. l'.)()7) 
p. li;i; l.'iH.i.i. <I>.i. .\,ii. \'l (l'.)12) ]). 127(i. 

siihsiiir. It'iiiiis.simus Mcrl. el Kocli. Dcnitsclil. I"l. I ( 1<S2;'>) |). 8.')7; Ciiachn. 1. c. ]). 
I Ki; li|.i.i.i. 1- ''• p- 1277. 

In a small lake on an isicl in liic Yenisei, near I'st .Vhakansk, and al L'sl Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate portions of Asia, northern Mongolia, Africa, tlie 
Canaries. Madeira, North and .Sonlh .Vnicrica. (Ireeidand. 

Potamoseloii pcclinaUis L. Sj)ec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. l.S;'); Lcdch. I"l. I'.oss. IV. j). ;iU; 
Turczan. Fl. Haical.-Dahur. (1854, III) p. 6(j. no. 109."); (iraehn. Pnlitnuxirlondccac in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. :51 (IV. 11. 1907), p. 121; l,-|,i,i.i. -Im A.n VI (1912) p. 1277. I>,,ln- 
moqelon Vailldnlii Room. I'l. Scliull., Lodel). \'\. \\[. I. j). l.V.t. I'dlnnKKjcloi} ixifiiiiiiliis 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1092. 

In a still creek of the river Abakan, near Askys. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate and southern Asia, Nortli and South .\merica, 
Africa, Australia. 

Zannichellia pediceltata (Wahlenb.) Fries. Novit. Mant. HI. p. i;53; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV. p. 22. 

siibspec. pediineulata Aschers. et. Graebn. Synops. Mitteleurop. Fl. I (1913) p. .%9; 
f. //rof/fcHagstrom. in Baagoe in Videnskab. Medd. Nat. Foren. Kjobcnhavn (1903) p. 
183; Graebn. Poldinogclondccde in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 31 (IV. 11, 1907) p. l.")(). 
Zanniclu'llidpiiluslris L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1375; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 197; Kpi.i.i. «>.,. 
A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1206. 

This species in commonly to be found floating on salt and brackish water in the 
swamps at Ust Kamuishto, where I have gathered it flowering and with ripe fruits in 
the second half of June. The ripe fruits are about 2 mm. long, on peduncles about 1 
mm. long. The dorsal carina is slightly toothed, the ventral one smooth. The style is of 
about the same length as the fruit, generally quite straight, or slightly curved near the 
summit. 

Distribution: The species is distributed nearly all over the globe, only wanting in 
Australia. 



J II II f a i£ i II a c e a ( LIMILEY) AscHi: us. 

Triglochin marifima L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 483; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 62; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1083; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 830; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 35; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, III) p. 31. no. 1079; Buchenau, 5c7ie»c/j- 
rer/aceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 16 (IV, 14. 1903) p. 8; K|ii,i.i. <I>.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1280. 

Very common on saliferous soil at Ust Kamuishto. where vigorous specimens, 
to 60 cm. high, have been gathered by me. Collected with flowers and fruits in 
the second half of June, at Tagarski osero with ripe fruits at the beginning of July. 

115 



Distribution: Europe, temperate portions of Asia, North Africa, North and South 
America. 

Triglochin palustris L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 482: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 62; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1084; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. FI. .\ll. no. 831: Lcdeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, 35; Turczan. Fl. Baical. -Dahur. (1854, III) p. 35 no. 1080; Buclicnaii, .Sc/i<'//c/i- 
zeriacea in Engl. Pflanzenr. 16 (IV, 14, 1903) p. 9; Kpw.T. <D.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1280. 

In moist moss-grown depressions on the Abakan Steppe, at Askys, near the river. 
In flower in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, excepting the extreme south-western portions, temperate 
portions of Asia, North and South America, Greenland. 

Allsmatafeae (Lam.) K. KR. 

Alisma Plantago L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 486; Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 64; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1080; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 829: Lcdeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
39; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, III) p. 56, no. 1082; Buchenau, Alismalaccae. 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 16 (IV, 15, 1903) p. 13; Kpi.u. O.i. A.ix. VI (1912) p. 1282. 

siibspec. Michalettii Aschers. et. Graebn. Synops. Mitteleurop. Fl. I (1913) p. 582; 
Buchenau 1. c. 

In the swamps at Ust Kamuishto, and here and there on the margins of ponds, 
and the like, along the road between Minusinsk and Kushabar. Collected flowering in 
June and July, and with fruits in .\ugust, near Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: The species in distributed over Europe, except northern Scandinavia, 
nearly all over Asia, North America, North Africa, and Australia. 

Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1410; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 247; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1081; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 41; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854, III) p. 57, no. 1083; Buchenau, Alismalaceaein Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 16 (IV, 15, 1903) 
p. 46; KpM.i. <]).i. A.TT. VI (1912) p. 1283. 

The leaves of this species observed here and there in still places in the Yenisei, 
between Krasnojarsk and Minusinsk. Specimens with fruits at Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Over the greater part of Europe, excepting the extreme northern and 
southern portions, south-western and central Asia, Sil^eria northwards to 66 K>^ nortli 
latitude, northern Mongolia, eastern .\sia, Ihe East Indies. 

Sagittaria natans Pallas, Reise Prov. Russ. Reich. Ill, Anhang (1776) p. 757; 
Buchenau, Alismalaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 16 (IV, 15, 1903) p. 46. Sagittaria alpina 
Willd. in L. Spec. PI. ed. IV (1805) p. 410; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 247; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1082; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 41; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, III) p. 
58, no. 1084; Kpuj. $.i. A.it. \T (1912) p. 1284. 

In swamps near Ust Abakansk, and between Minusinsk and Kushabar. Found 
with young flowers in the second half of June and the first half of July. 

116 



I)i.slril)uliuii: 'I'lic iioilli of I'.Liropc from iiorllu-iii I-'inliiiHl, iioillicni lUissiii. 
Sil)('ii;i, Maiu'lio()ii;i. 



B u I o m a c- e a c ((jKAV) Ml( MKI.I. 

Buloimis uiiihfllalus L. Spec. PI td. 11 (17()2) j). y.VI; Lcdol). 1"1. All. 11, p. 93; 
'rurczaii. Cat. Haicai. no. 1078; Kaivl. el Kiril. Emmi. IM. I'l. All. no. 828; Ledeh. Fl. 
Ro.ss. IV, p. 43; Buclienau, Biilonmrvac in Engl. Pflanzeiir. 11. l(i (IV, K), VM):\) [>. (j; 
l.'lii.i.i. 'I'.i. A.iT. VI (HI12) p. 1285. 

Ill .s\vain])y places on Ihe banks of the Bel-kcni, near Ihc junclion of that river 
with the Tara-kcm. Nearly done flowering in Ihe first hall' of August (Var. /;i//(o/-Li:im;ij,). 

Dislrihulion: Temperate portions of Europe and Asia, north-western India 
(Cashmere and Punjab). 



(ir a III ill a As( HERS. i:t Graebn. 

Phalaiis aiundinacea L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 80; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 76; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1311; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 903; PoiKeniiui., 
IJ.iMi.ii ll-i!b 'I'c.vii'iiKii, <I).i. A:iiaT. Pucciii VI (1914) j). 95. Dkjraphis aiundinacea (L.) 
Trin. Fundamenta Agrostograph. (1820) p. 127; Ledeb. F"l. Ross. IV, p. 454; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 7, no. 1285; Kpw.T. $.1. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1549. 

On the borders of a swamp near Askys, and between Minusinsk and Kushabar. At 
the beginning of July only with leaves. With fruits, near the Upper Bei-kem, on the Dora 
Steppe, in the middle of August. 

Distribution: Europe, excepting the extreme southern portions, the Caucasus, 
south-western Asia, northern and eastern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Noi-lh America. 

Anthoxanthuni odoratum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 40; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 45; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1291; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 408; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 10 no. 1290; PmKeimni, 3.iaKii Il-n-b <I>e,v]eiii;(i, $.1. .\;!iaT. Pucciii VI (1914) i). 
98; \\yu\.\. <I>.i. A.rr. Vll (19141 p. 1551. 

/: (jlabiescens Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohni. (1867) p. 29. 

Rather common in meadows and similar places near Kushabar, and in the sub- 
alpine tracts of the Amyl valley, at Ust Algiac, in the .\ltaian, ascending to above the limit 
of tree vegetation. The species varies considerably in the length and breath of the 
leaves, in the height of the culm, and especially in the floweriness and the density of the 
flowers in the panicle, some specimens having the jjanicle nearly unilateral. All the 
specimens collected are quite glabrous, only the ligules being furnished with a tuft of 
hairs. The glumes are, in all of the specimens collected, completely glabrous. 

Distribution: Greater part of Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, south-western 
Asia. Siberia, North Africa, North America, Greenland, Australia (introduced). 

117 



Hierodiloe odorata (L.) Wahlenb. Fl. Ups. (1820) p. 32; Poa-CBimi,, 3.Tai;ii II-m> (fo;;- 
'iom;o. <IJ.T. A;ii:iT. P.icciii VI (1914) p. 103; Kjimj. <Im. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1552. Hierochloc 
borcalis Room. ct. Schult. Syst. Veget. II (1817) p. 513; Ledeb. Fl. All. I. p. 92; Tiir- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 1289; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 913; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV. p. 407: Turezan. Fl. Baical.-Dalmr. (1856, I) p. 9. no. 1287. [Tab. 11, Fig. 2]. 

The specimens belonging to 
this one, gathered by me in 
South Siberia, constitute, in 
many respects, an intermediate 
form Ijetween the typical spe- 
cies Hierochloc odorata (L.) 
Wahlenb. and Hierochloc da- 
hnrica Trim. Ihe culms are 
rather short, from 20 to 30 cm. 
high, slender, and glabrous. The 
leaves of the fertile shoots are 
from 1 to 2cm. long, the sheaths 
rifled and very hairy (f. pubes- 
cens). The barren shoots have 
leaves, generally rising above 
the panicle. The leaves are 
smooth, the margins only being 
somewhat scabrous. The panic- 
le is short, lax, open, and broad, 
nearly ovate, the spikelets 
rather numerous, and the bran- 
ches of the panicle straightly 
spreading. The spikelets are 
small, oblong, or neaily circu- 
lar, from 2,5 to 4 mm. long. The 
glumes are broad, of unequal 
length, one of them general!}' only half enclosing the florets, the other one generally 
only slightly shorter than the florets, never projecting Ijeyond them, membranous, with 
a green base, and generally furnished with one dorsal nerve only, lateral nerves wan- 
ting. At the summit more or less obtuse, never drawn out or pointed. 1 he pales are of 
a shining browu, glabrous, or rarely sparingly pubescent but much fringed with long 
hairs. 

All the florets of the spikelet attain the same height. In point of the structure of 
the spikelets these specimens agree best with Hierochloc dahiirica Trin. but, according to 
their considerable height, their numerous spikelets, and spreading panicle more parti- 
cularly with Hierochloc odorata. Upon a rather large material, H. odorata and H. 




Fig. 72. Hicrocliloc odorata (\.) \V.\iilenb. C'l) 

a. Spikelet. — b. Spil;elet, tlie glumes are removed and llie 

florets distended. — c. Emplj' glumes. 



lis 



(Idliiiricd sccni. on llic wliolc lo Ijccome completely ineigcd. Syslcnialicall\ . //. 
(Iiiliiiricii niusl llieiefi)re, most properly, be regarded as an easterly geographical sub- 
species ol' Ilic lyi)i(;il //. odorald. Tlie specimoiis found l)y me and mentioned liere, 
thus seemed to remind mueli of liiis H. odorala subspec. odomlu (Thin.) Hather com- 
mon in sandy places near Minusinsk and on tiie Abakan Steppe, and in grass-grown 
places on the islets in the ri\ers Yenisei and Aliakan. l-lowering in June. 

Distribution: Northern lemjierate zone of the old and the new world. 

HierochhW' alpiiia (I.ilj.) Koem. el. Seliull. Syst. Vegel. II (1.S17) p. Jl."): Ledeb. 
I'l. Alt. I. p. 92; Turizan. Cat. Baical. no. 1290; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. IV, ]). 108; I'o-.i.viimhi,, 
li.iai.ii 11-111. <l>(M,'i('iii;(i, 'l>.i. .V;!l;!r. I'.icciii VI (1914) p. lol : 'I'urczan. l-"l. IJaieal. Dalinr. 
(,l^!i)l), 1;' p. 9. no. IL'S'.I; I.'i.i.i.i. <t>.i. A. 11. VII (1914' |). ir)r)4. 

The specimens collected are distinguished by their small spikclels, the length of 
which varies from 4 to 5 mm. The structure of the glumes and the florets, for the rest, 
agrees with Ihc typical form. This one is separated b}' me as: 

subspec. niicrostachya nuv. subspec. 

Spiculae ininores quain in forma lijpica, fere h — .5 mm. longae. 

Collected flowering at the end of July, in the Altaian, above the limit of trees, in 
places grown with moss and lichens. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of the northern hemisphere, and on New- 
Zealand. 

Slipa pennata L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 115; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 84; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 450; K|n.i.i. <I'.i. A.n. VII (1914) p. 1557. 

subspec. Joannis (Celak.) Richt. PI. Eur. 1 (1890) p. 32; l>o;i,ei!iiin.. ii.iai.ii Ill-in. 
<I>e;i'UMn,o, <I>.i. A;iiaT. I'tJCiiii XII 0911),! p. 157. 

Very characteristic plant of the steppes, about Minusinsk, and on the Abakan 
Steppe, where I have gathered it flowering in June, and on the I'lu-kem Steppe past 
flowering at the end of August. 

Distribution: Middle, southern and eastern Europe, and adjoining portions of 
Asia to Turkestan, Persia, Afghanistan, Siberia, northern Mongolia, India. 

Stipa capillata L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 116; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, i). 84; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1272; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.56, 1) p. 16. no. 1297; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
p 44S; 1,"|, 1,1.1. il>.i. A. II. VII (1914 p. luGO; PuvKemiHi,. ;{.iai,ii Ill-i;i. 't>eA>ieiii;i). il>.i. A:^iar. 
Pmriii XII U916) p KiT. 

On the Abakan Steppe, and scattered on the steppes about the Ulu-kem, between 
Tapsa and Cha-kul. Done flowering in August. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe, Turkestan, northern Persia, southern 
Siberia. Mongolia, and northern CJiina. 

119 



Stipa sibirica (L.) Lam. Illustr. 1 (1791) p. 158; Ledeb. Fl. All. I, p. 82; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 15, no. 1296; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1271; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, p. 448; KpLi.1. $.i. A.iiT. VII (1914) p 1562; PovKCBimh, 3.iai;ii III-ut, '&c^whi;(i. $.1, Ayiar. 
Pocciii XII (1916) p. 124. Avena sibirica L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 117. 

On the steppes between Tapsa and Bjelosai'sk, here and there accompanying the 
preceding one. Done flowering in August. 

Distribution: South-western and central Asia, Mongolia, north-western China, 
Sakhalin, Japan. 

Phleum pratense L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 87; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 457; JVpi.i.T. 
•D.T. A.1T. VII (1914) p. 1572. 

In natural meadows, near Ust Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate portions of Asia, North .\merica. 

Phleum alpinum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 88; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 73; Karcl. et 
Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 900; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 458; Kin.i.i. «I\i. A.n. VII (1914) 
p. 1573. 

Rather common in the Altaian, in sub alpine tracts of wood as well as above the 
limit of tree vegetation, ascending right up into the lichen belt. In full flower at the 
end of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Asia Minor, central Asia, Siberia, eastern A.sia, Japan. North 
and South America, Greenland. 

Phleum Boehnieri Wibel. Primit. Fl. Werth. (1799) p. 125; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
456; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 6. no. 1283; 1,'im.i.i. <I>.i. Am: VII (1914) 
p. 1574. Chilochloa Boehnieri P. de Beauv. Agrost. (1812) p. 158; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
85; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1267; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 909. 

subspec. decurtatuni nov. siibspcc. 

Gliimis ab forma lijpica difj'erens superne obtiisioribus. paene irclis angulis seclis. 
neque, iit in forma ti/pica, superne sensim attenualis vel obli(iue truncalis. (ilumae 
semper valde scabrae. 

llie glumes are rather short, the length being only about 2 mm., generally broadest 
near the summit, where nearly cut off square, not tapering upwards or cut off obliquely, 
as in the typical form, which will also appear from the drawings by Rkichem! Iconogr. 
Fig. 1488, Ani)i:p.ssox, Afbildningar Tab. XII, Fig. 132, and in Flora Danica Tab. 531, etc. 
4'he awns are comparatively short, bent outwards, diverging. The glumes are slightly 
scabrous on the keel, of a greyish-green colour, with a rather broad, membranous, 
parchmentlike margin. 

By its rather truncate glumes our plant reminds somewhat of Phleum nsperum 
ViLL and Phleum pratense L., from which, however, it is readily distinguished by its 
structure for the rest. The glumes are not quite uniform, the low er one being broadest, 
especially above, glabrous at the margin, the upper one somewhat narro\A cr. and not so 

120 



li iiiu;ilc ;iii(l siiddfiily ciil ol'i, and, besides, puhesceiU al llie margin. The glumes arc 
jjioadiy scaiious-inaigined and rough — especially so along the keel, which is nearly 
sliglilly prickly -- and ;5-nerved, of which (he midmost one, the dorsal nerve, projecls 
into (lie short awn. Tlu' Icnglh of the i'loicts is, to some extent, varying, being rougbly 
from (he same as llial of tbc yluines to about Va shorter. 

I'rom (lie slcppcs of soulliorn 
Russia I have seen specimens of 
Phh'iim liorliiucri siii)spec. Iiti'nr 
(M. HiKii. spec!) which, in the struc- 
ture of the glumes, shows some 
approach towards Ibis one: lb'' ghi- 
mes in this subspecies arc, bowcvei'. 
glabrous or nearly cpiile so. Our 
plant is, for the rest, of the same 
structure as the typical species. 

Rather common in dry meadows, 
on hot, stony slopes etc., on the .\ba- 
kan Steppe, and on the islets in the 
Yenisei and Abakan. Young, unl)lown 
flowers in the middle of June. All of 
the specimens collected belong to 
subspec. deciirldliini. 

Distribution: Temperate portions 
of Europe and Asia. 

Alopeciiriis pratensis L. Spec. PI. 
ed. II (1762) p. 88; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, 
p. 74; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1265: 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) 
p. 4, no. 1281; Kpi.i.i. a>.i. A.n. VII 
(1914) p. 1577. 

snhspec. typicus Ascher.s. el. Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. V\. II (1898) p. 132: l.'in.i.i. 
1. c. p. 1578. 

The species varies rather much in the dimensions of tlic panicle, the length and 
hairiness of the spikelets, and in the breadth and length of the leaves. Collected flowering 
in June. Rather frequent on grass-land on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, 
and also at Ust Sisti-kem, near the Bei-kem, and at Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south-eastern jiortions, south-western 
Asia, Siberia, Mongolia, Japan. 




Fig. 7.3. Phlcnin Dochmcri WuiEL subspec. itccurlatuin 

nov. subspec. ('" i) a. SpiUelet. — b, c, d. Glumes. — 

c. Floret, seen IVoui tlie side. — f, g. Pales, seen lioni 

the interior side. 



13 



121 



Alopecurus vcntricosus Pers. Syn. I (1805) p. 80; Kptu. 'I'.i. Air. VII (1914) p. 
1580. Alopecurus rutln-nicus Weinm. Cal. Dorpat. (1810) p. 10; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
p. 463. Alopecurus pralensis L. var. ruthenicus Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 74. 

In moist, grass-grown places on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys. Flowering in 
the middle of June. 

Distribution: Middle and northern Europe, south-Avestern and central Asia, 
northern Mongolia. North Africa. 

Alopecurus fulvus Smith. Engl. Bol. XXI (1805) t. 1497; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 464. 

subspec. sibiricus Kryl. $.i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1581. 

On moist, grassy banks of rivers, on the Amyl, near Kushabar, and on the banks 
of tJie Sisti-kem, near Ust Sisti-kem, and near Ust Algiac. With flowers at the beginning 
of July. Taken with fruits at Ust Tara-kem in the middle of August. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over the gi'eater part of Europe, south- 
western ,\sia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin. Japan. 

Agrostis canina L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 92; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1. p. 86; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 440; Ki.u.i. <&.t. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1585. 

Rather common in somewhat moist places in the territory explored. At Ust 
Abakansk, on the banks of the Amyl, near Kushabar, on the Sisti-kem, near Ust 
Algiac, scattered on the Upper Bei-kem. With flowers in July and August. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, norUiern Mongolia, eastern Asia, North America, 
Greenland. 

Agroslis alba L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 93; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 436; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 17, no. 1298; K1.1.1.1. <l>.i. Ajt. VII (1914) p. 1586. Agroslis 
polyinorpha Huds. Fl. Angl. I (1762) p. 31; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 85. 

subspec. genuina Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. II (1899) p. 174: KpLi.T. 
1. c. 1587. In moist meadows on the banks of the Amyl, near Kushabar. With flowers 
in the middle of June. 

Distribution: The species is spread over Europe, temperate portions of Asia, 
North America, Greenland, North Africa, introduced into Australia. 

Agrostis vulgaris With. Bot. Arrangem. Veg. Great-Brit. IV. ed. II (1776) p. 132; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 438; K].i,i.i. <I>.t. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1588. 

In moist, grass-grown fields, on islets in the river Abakan, near Ust Kamuishto. 
Specimens collected in the second half of June, bearing flowers not yet full-blown. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia, western Siberia, roughly to the Yenisei, 
North Africa, North America. 

Agrostis clavata Trin. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck, II, p. 55: Kpw.T. il'.i. xV.tt. VII 
(1914) p. 1589. Agrostis laxiflora R. Br. Verm. Bot, Schrift. I. p. 472: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 

122 



IV. ]). Ill; Tmc/an. l''l. Jlaiciil.-Daiuii-. (KSr.d, I) \). 18, no. KiOO. Afiroslis Michuu.vii irin. 
])(' (iiaiiiiii. I'liilldr. (liS'^l) |). 2(KJ; Tuiczan. Cat. iiaicai. no. 1271. 

Tiu' ciilins ol the specimens gathered are from 20 to iiO em. Iiii^li. very slender and 
fine, fioquenlly soniewlial lax and weak. The leaves are to 1,5 nun. broad. It llicre- 
fore seemed to have to he referred to /. /laccida Kini..!. c. 

In moist, subalpine meadows in woods in the Altaian. Specimens eoUecled at the 
end of Jnly nearly done flowering. 

Distri))uti()n: Siberia, eastern .\sia, Sakhalin. .lapan. iioitli-weslern part of North 
America. 

Calamagrostis ncglccia P. de Bcaiiv. I'^ss. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 1.57; Ledei). V\. 
Ross. IV, p. 428; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (185(i, I) p. 2.5. no. i;51(): i;|,i.i.i. <i>.,. A. it. 
VII (1914) p. 1597. Anindi) slricla Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1283. 

On the borders of a small lake on an islet in the Yenisei, near Minusinsk, in moist 
pastures on the Sisli-kem, near Ust Algiac, in moist meadows on the Bei-kem, near the 
mouths of the rivers Kamsara and Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Arctic Islands, northern, central, and eastern Europe, Siberia, nortli- 
ern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, Noi-th America, Greenland. 

Calamagrostis Langsdorffii (Link) Trin. De Gramin. Uniflor. (1824) p. 225; Turczan. 
Fl, Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 23, no. 1306; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 430; .Iniiiiiiiniri,, 
Cnhuungroslis Langsdorffii fLink^ Trin. ii fuiinK. <j)()|)5jax i. i:h Tjiyj;. lior. ily;i. IImiu']!. 
.\i,a,i,. HavKb, VIII, p. 50; Kiii>i.i- *I'.i. A.m. VII (1914) p. 15lts. (^alamagroslis lanceoUda 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 8(). Calamagroslis Halleriana f. nutans Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
431. Calamagroslis villosa Mnlel i>ar. Langsdorffii (Trin.) Hack, in Somm. N. G. B. 
It. XX Y (1893) p. 98. 

Scattered in moist meadows in woods, on the banks of rivers, and on the borders 
of swamps. Rather common on islets in the river Abakan, at Kushabar, in the Amyl valley, 
at Ust Algiac, on the banks of the river, at Ust Sisti-kem. in moist, grass-grown islets 
in brush-wood in the Bei-kem. near the mouths of the rivers Kamsara and Tara-kem. 

The species occurs in a nuiltitude of varieties, which hardly possess any systema- 
tical value, connected as they are by intermediate forms. The glumes are partly comple- 
tely glabrous, and partly pass through various intermediate types into forms with the 
outer glumes finely and densely pubescent, and the sheaths vary from being quite 
smooth to markedly rough. In subalpine pine-woods in the Altaian, I have gathered 
specimens belonging to this species, distinguished by a more delicate and slender growth, 
the panicle being shorter, poorer, and more flaccid, and the branches more spread and 
open than in the typical form. The glumes are generall}^ slightly and finely hairy (f. 
gracilis). Taken flowering at the end of July. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over eastern Europe, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

123 



Calamagrostis elata Blytt, Norsk Flora (1847) p. 143; Jiitbiihoi!-!). CaI(ini(tciroslis 
Langsdorffd Cl-ink) Trin. ii ainai;. (Jjopjiaxt-Bii Tpy;;. Fxit. Myy. Ibiiicii. Ai>a,T. Hayi.h. VIII, 
p. 50; KpLi.i. $.1. A.1T. VII (1914) p. 1600. 

On islets in the Yenisei, in moist brush-wood. Specimens gathered at the beginning 
of June, not yet bearing full-blown flowers. 

Distribution: Northern Europe, Siberia, eastwards to the Yenisei. 

Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth, Tent. Flor. Germ. I (1788) p. 34; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
I, p. 87; Turrzan. Cat. Baical. no. 1279; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. lY, p. 432; Turczan.Fl.Baical.- 
Dahur. (1856, I) p. 23, no. 1305; Kpbi.T. $.i A.n. VII (1914) p. 1603. 

In di-y brush- wood on the islets in the junction of the river Abakan with the 
Yenisei, near Kalna in the Amyl valley, scattered along the Upper Sisti-kem. Flowering 
in July and the first half of August. 

Distribution: Temperate portions of Europe and Asia, South Africa. 

Aera caespitosa L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 96; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 90; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1292. Deschampsia caespitosa P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 
160; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 421; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 31, no. 1317. 

Common in moist meadows in woods, near Kushabar, in subalpine and alpine 
tracts near the Sisti-kem and in the Altaian, where full-blown at the end of July, and also 
on the banks of the Bei-kem, near Tara-kem, and at Sebi. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate portions of Asia, Africa, North America, Australia. 

Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 88; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. I, p. 91; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1296; L'pi.i.i. $.1. A.ix. VII (1914) p. 1609. Avena 
flavescens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 118; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 417; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 32, no. 1319. 

subspec. copiosiim siibspec. nov. 

Caulibus validis el foliis latis praecipiie dislincUim. Caides j)liis minus 1 ni. (dii, 
rigidi, erecti, sulcati, semper glabri. Folia 8—10 mm. lata, vaginae semper laevissimae. 
Ghima superior longiludine paleas aecpians vel paululum brevior, comparale angusta, in 
medio lalissima, ulroque sensim anguslior, in apice atlenuala el rolundaia. nunquam exlracla 
vel acuminata, sed nonnunquam oblusa et truncaia, trinervia. Gldma inferior angusta, 
paene recta, e basi sensim atlenuala el acuminata, uninervia. Utracjue gluma secundum 
nervum medium scabra. Palea inferior anguslior quam in forma typica, infra medium 
semper lalissima, superne sensim anguslior et arista longiore scabra inslrucla. Panicula 
satis mulliflora, rami paene omnino glabri, sub ipsa spicula lantuni nonnunquam 
scabriusculi. Spiculae pauciflorae, plerumque 2, nonnunquam 3. flores ferenles. 

The widely distributed species Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. de Bkaiv. varies con- 
siderably, especially in hairiness, richness in flowers, size, and colour of the spikelets, 
density of the panicle etc., and has been divided into a great number of forms, of 

124 



which sonic, al Ifasl. scrnu'd lo lie prelly (Icfinilcly characterized gcograpliical races. 
The specimens belonging to Uiis species, lo be found in my collections, seemed, in some 
respects, to differ from those already described. They are readily distinguished in tlieir 
vigorous growth, witii erect. rii)bed, but always completely glabrous culms, to alxjve 1 m. 




Fig. 74. Trisettim parcscens (L.) P. de Bealv. siibspcc. copiosiim nov. 
siil)spec. {^'/i). a. Lower pale. — b. Spikelet. — c and d. Glumes. 

high. Even below the nodes, the culms are always completeh' glabrous. The sheaths 
are round, slightly inflated, considerably shorter than the internodcs, which is also the 
case in the lower ones. Owing to this fact, the specimens remind of /. glabraliim 
AscHERS. Fl. Prov. Brandenb. 1 (1864) p. 830. The ligules are broad, short, from 1 to 2 
nun. long, rounded at the top, slightly indented or tattered, the margin never hairy. The 
leaves 18 to 20 cm. long, and comparatively very broad, 8 to 10 mm., tapering and point- 
ed towards the summit, the margin completely smooth or slightly scabrous, and some- 
times with some long, fine, scattered hairs on the upper side. The under side is always 
smooth. The panicle is 10 to 12 cm. long, and 3 to 4 cm. broad, brownish green, erect. 
The branches long, tender, frequently somewhat relaxed, smooth, sometimes rough to 



125 



the touch in their upper part, immediately below the spikelets. Our plant, however, 
is especially distinguished in the structure of the spikelets. The upper glume is gene- 
rally somewhat longer than in the typical species, about 6 — 8 mm. long, thus attaining 
about the same height as the pales; it is comparatively narrow, broadest about the 
middle, and tapering towards the summit and towards the base, gradually narrowed 
at the top, stubby and rounded or sometimes nearly truncate, not like the typical form 
broadest about the upper third of the glume, from where, towards the summit, being 
rather suddenly concavely emarginate, and prolonged into a fine point. It is, moreover, 
broadly scarious-margined, 3-nerved, the nerves, the midrib as well, gradually vanish- 
ing towards the summit, and never prolonged into a point, which is generally the case 
in the typical form. This structure of the upper glume is especially characteristic of 
this subspecies. 

The lower glume is about half as long as the upper one, one-nerved, tapering up- 
wards from the base, and pointed, rough to the touch along the keel. The spikelets are 
comparatively few-flowered, generally with 2 or 3 florets only, rather far apart on the 
hairy axis. Length of the spikelets from 7 to 9 mm. The lower pale in suijspccies 
copiosum is considerably narrower than in the typical form, broadest below the middle, 
and never above, tapering upwards, bicuspidate at the apex, never projecting as in the 
ordinary form. The awn is slightly scabrous, its length varying to about the same length 
as the pale itself. The upper pale is of about the same length as the lower one, com- 
pletely membranous and tiansparent, 2-keeled, with scabrous keels, pointed at the top, 
and slightly 2-toothed, with fine hairs along the margin. The caryops in all the speci- 
naens collected are very young and small, but seemed to be completely glabrous. 

This variety resembles much the subspecies alpestre in its nearly glabrous panicle- 
branches, and in having a smaller number of florets in the spikelets, moreover in having 
the upper pale broadest about the middle, or more commonly, below the middle. 

It is, however, markedly distinguished from the above subspecies by its culms, 3 
times as high, and, upon the whole, by its more vigorous growth, the leaves being lon- 
ger and broader, the panicle far richer, and by the shape of the awns, etc. It seemed, 
accordingly, in many respects, to be intermediate between the subspecies pratcnse and 
alpestre. 

Specimens of this type gathered by me in several places in the territory explored, 
at Kushabar and in subalpine regions about Ust Algiac, near Ust Sisti-kem, and at Ust 
Kamsara. Taken with young flowers in July and August. 

Distribution: The species is distributed nearly all over Europe, except the 
extreme north, Caucasia, Asia Minor and south-western Asia, the Thian-Shan, the 
Himalayas, Siberia to 61° north latitude, and eastwards to Sakhalin, the Amoor Province. 
Manchooria, introduced into North America. 

Trisetum subspicaluni (L.) P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 88: K'pi.i.i. <l>.i. 
Ajt. VII (1914) p. 1612. Trisetum airoides Roem. et. Schult. Syst. Veget. II (1817) p. 

126 



(■)(•)('.; Lc(lcl). I'l. All. I, |). 02; Tun/.m. C.jil. liairal. no. 12'.)7; 'liiiczan. I'"l. IJaical.- 
Daluir. (18.")(i. I) p. :\:\. no. i:i20. Arciui siihspinihi C'.laiivill. Man. (1,S11) j). 17; Ledel). 
l"'l. Hos.s. IV. p. 118. 

in alpine tracl.s of llie Allaian, in places grown with inos.scs and lichcn.s. l'"lowcring 
at (he end oi .July. 

Distrihulion: luirojic, noilhern, central, and eastern .\sia, North America, Green- 
land. 

Aveiia desertoriim J.e.ssing in Linnaea IX (1831) p. 208; I.edeh. V\. Ross. IV, p. 
ll.'n Tiuczan. Fl. Haical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 85, no. 1321; l.>i.i.i. 'Ki. .\.ii. VII (1911) 
]). Kill). Ai'cnn srnipriviicus Bess. Enuni. PI. Volh. (1822) p. (1: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 
89; Turczan. Cat. Haical. no. 1291; Karel. el Kiril. Fnuni. I'l. I'l. .\h. no. 911. Aut-nn 
Besseri Giles, in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 415. 

In dry grass-fields, and on the steppes aljoul the river .\bakan. Taken in full bloom 
in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Soutli-eastern Europe, southern Siberia, northern Mongolia, central 
Asia. 

Avena pubesccns Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. I (1762) p. 42: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 413; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 34, no. 1321: i;i,i,i.i. <|..i. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1617. 
Avena pratensis L., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 90; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 912. 

On islets in the river Abakan, in grass-grown places, and in the ITrjankai country, 
at Ust Tara-kem. Some of the specimens collected belong to /'. a//^/na (i.vio. Fl. Helvet. 
I (1828) p. 334. 

Besides, I have collected specimens distinguished from the typical form chiefly by 
broader leaves, and having the spikclets larger and more numerous. This form is sepa- 
rated by me as: 

f. latifolia nov. f. 

Luxiiria et foliis Idtis ab forma liipica differens. Folia us(iiic ad I'l nun. lata, in 
extremis in parinim acumen suhilo contractu. Panicnia lata el multijlora. rami valde 
scabri. Gluma longissima paleas logitudine aequan.'i vel longior. Paleae fere aequales. 

Culm to 1 m. high, vigoious, erect, or somewhat ascending at the base, round, fur- 
rowed, and glabrous. Sheaths somewhat inflated, nearly as long as the internodes, 
striped, densely covered with long, white, somewhat descending hairs, especially the 
lower sheaths nearly quite downy and whitish. Ligules prominent, from 5 to 8 mm. long, 
rounded, and frequently slightly tattered at the top. 

Leaves broad, to 14 mm. in breadtli, and to 30 cm. in length, flat, equally broad, 
suddenly rounded and shortly pointed at the apex, densely hairy beneath, glabrous, 
or only with scattered hairs above. Panicle 17 to 20 cm. long, spreading, of a greyish 
green or palish yellow, often somewhat relaxed and unilateral, and exceedingly flowery. 
Rachis erect, or sometimes slightly twisted, equally thick, in the lower part smooth, in 

127 



tlie upper part generally somewhat rough. Branches generally from 5 to 8 at each of the 
lower nodes in the panicle, to 5 or 6 cm. long, slender, very rough, bearing to 7 or 8 
spikelets. Pedicels from 1 to more than 2 cm. long, rough, generally somewhat thicke- 
ned at the end. 

Not unfrequently there occur long, vigorous panicle-branches serving for main axes 
of whorls of second order, and may thus bear up to 20 spikelets, giving the panicle 
an irregular appearance. Sjjikelels up to 18 — 19 mm. long, 2 to 4 flowered, not unfre- 
quently with an incompletely developed terminal floret, with the florets rather far apart. 
The upi^er glume about 18 — 19 mm. long, 3- or sometimes 5-nerved, tapering to a point, 
rough along the nerves, of the same length as the florets, or sometimes a little longer, 
Ihe lower one about % shorter, 1-ncrved. with a long point, and rough nerve. Both of them 
are membranous, greenish only along the nerves, frequently with a tinge of violet at 
the base. The whole panicle is of a pale yellowish green colour, like f. jhivescens 
Gaud. Axis of the florets beset Avith long, erect, rather stiff hairs, often reaching 
higher than up to the middle of the floret, while, in the typical species, they are com- 
monly only V'' to Vo as long. Lower pale 13 to 15 mm. long, gradually acuminate, lan- 
ceolate, terminated by 2 short acute teeth, roughly dotted on the back, 4-nerved, and 
about the middle furnished with a long, geniculate, rougli awn, projecting 15 to 18 
mm. beyond the apex of the pale itself. The upper pale only slightly shorter, awnless. 

Occurring in meadows, and in thickets of Salix on islets in the river Abakan, near 
Askys. In full flower in the middle of June. 

Besides, I have collected, in the neighbourhood of Kushabar, some specimens of a 
very few-flowered form, differing also in other characters from the typical species. I 
enter this one as: 

f. depauperata nov. f. 

Panicnla ex paiicis spicidis composilct piaecipue distincta. Rami 2-3 ex nodis 
singulis encdi. brevissimi, longitndine 0,2-0,3 nun. plerumqiie non excedentes, non furcati. 
Sua cuique ranw spicula una. Spiculae igiiiir pediculo brevissimo a.vi ipsi (if/i.vae. Spiculae 
singulae 2-3 (losculos in .se conlinentes. (ilunia superior saepius lanla ul spiculam 
lotam circumclndal. 

Culms 70 to 80 cm. higli, cylindrical, furrowed, always completely glabrous. 
Sheaths, especially the lower ones, densely long-haired, the upper ones more or less 
glabrous. Leaves 8 to 10 cm. long, and 6 to 7 mm. broad, equally broad, rather suddenly 
contracted and pointed at the apex, hairy, but not rough beneath, glabrous above. 
Ligules about 5 mm. long, somewhat pointed at the top, and slightly tattered. The lower 
part of the rachis smooth, the upper part more or less rough. Panicle narrow, 10 to 
12 cm. long, its branches 2 or 3 in the lower nodes, very short, from 2 to 9 mm., gene- 
rally from 2 to 5 nun. long, slightly rough, always unbranched, and reduced to pedicels, 
each one only with one solitary spikelet. The pedicels slightly thickened immediately 
below the spikelet. Spikelets 2- or 3-flowered, 13 to 15 mm. long. The upper glume, pro- 
jecting beyond the summit of the florets, is 3-nerved, acuminate, more or less tattered 

128 



al llic lop. Willi a l)ioa(l incinbianous edge. The lower glunie only % as long, 1-nervcd. 
The pales are sunouiuled by a lull of hairs at llie base, the lower one l-nervcd, some- 
what roughly dolled, bicuspidale or slighlly lalleicd al liic lo|). about Ihc middle fui- 
nished wilh a long, rough, geniculate awn, projecling 12 lo VA nun. beyond Ihe apex ol 
Ihe pale ilself. The upper pale is slighlly 2-nerved, 2-loolhed al Ihe apex, of the same 
length as Ihe outer one. 

Thus, tliis 1(11111 is especially characterislic in having a narrow, Icw-ilowered panicle, 
always witli unramil'ied branches reduced lo pedicels. Tlic u|ip(i- glume is generally so 
large as lo enclose the -spikelet completely. 

This variety may possibly have a greater systematic value; however, this question 
must be left undecided, as my material is too scare to enable me lo I17 the value of Ihe 
various chai-acters. (lathered in thickets near Kushabar, in full flower at the end of 
.Inly. 

Distribution: The species Avena pabescens is distributed over Europe, except the 
extreme northern and south-western portions, Caucasia, Asia Minor, south-western and 
western Asia, Siberia, eastwards to Ti-ans Baikal. 

Avena pratensis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 119; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 414 
ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 34, no. 1322 ex parte; KpLu. <lJ.i. A.it. 
Vn (1914) p. 1619. Avena pratensis L. var. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 90. Avena pralensis 
L. var. tijpica Korshinsky, Tent. Fl. Ross. Orient. (1898) p. 471, no. 1451. 

In dry grass-field, and on steppes near Buistraja and near Askys, on the Abakan 
Steppe. In full flower in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Middle and northern Europe, Siberia, North Africa (?). 

Avena Schelliana Hackel in Act. Hort. Petropol. XII (1893) p. 419. Avena pra- 
tensis L. in Ledeh. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 414 ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) 
p. 34, no. 1322 ex parte. Avena pratensis L. var. Schelliana (Hackel) Korshinsky, Tent. 
Fl. Ross. Orient. (1898) p. 471, no. 1451; Kptu. $ji. Ajit. IV (1914) p. 1619. 

Rather frequent on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys. Specimens taken in the middle 
of June, bearing young flowers, not fully opened. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, southern Siberia, Manchooria, North Africa. 

Avena planiculniis Schrad. Fl. German. 1 (1806) p. 381; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 414; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 35, no. 1323. 

Pretty common on an islet in the Yenisei, near Usl Abakansk, among grass, in 
somewhat moisl brush-wood. With young flowers at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, Manchooria. 

Beckmannia eruciformis (L.) Host, Gram. Austr. Ill (180.')) p. 5; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. I, p. 94; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1310; Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 917; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 453; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 8. no. 1286; Kpu.T. 
(D.T. A.iT. IV (1914) p. 1622. 



U 



129 



Rather coninum in Ihc Icnilory explored. In moist Ihiclicls and meadows, on 
river-banks, etc., on islets in the river Abakan, in moist pastures, near the banks of the 
Bei-kem, on the Sebi, as well as on muddy river-banks at the mouth of the river 
Kemchik. The species flowers in July. The specimens gathered have mostly 2-flowered 
spikelets, and are therefore to be referred to /'. conimiinis Krvlow. 1. c. 

Distribution: Southern Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, 
eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

Phragmiles comniunis Trin. Fundam. Agrost. (1820) p. 134: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
88; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1299: Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 910: Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 28, no. 1314: Kptu. (P.i. A.it. Vll (1914) p. 1624. Arniulo 
Phragmiles L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 120: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 393. 

On the banks of small lakes, in moist meadows, etc., along the river AJjakan. 
Specimens collected in the middle of June are young, with flowerless culms, only about 
K> m. high. 

Distribution: Europe, and temperate poilions of Asia, North and South America, 
Australia. 

Diplachne squarrosa (Trin.) Richter. PI. Eur. I (1890) p. 72: Kptu. ^j. A.it. VII 
(1914) p. 1625. Molinia squarrosa Trin. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 105; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1315; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 396: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856. 1) p. 48, no. 
1342. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe, on dry slopes, in dried up beds of brooks, etc. 
With young flowers at the end of June. 

Disti-ibution: South-eastern Russia, southern Siberia to Trans Baikal, northern 
Mongolia. 

Eragrostis minor Host, Gram. Austr. IV (1809) p. 15. Eragrostis poaeoides P. de 
Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 162; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 94: Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1856, I) p. 42, no. 1334; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 381; Kpti.i. m.i. A.it. VII 
(1914) p. 1627. 

Rather common at Kemchik-bom, among sand on the river, and on the cliffs 
near the mouth. Taken with ripe seeds at the beginning of September. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Em-ope, southern Siberia, northern Mongolia, 
the East Indies, eastern Asia, North Africa, North America (introduced). 

Eragrostis piiosa (L.) P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 162; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. I, p. 95; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 918; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 382; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 42. no. 1335: KpM.i. <I>.t. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 
1627. 

On the banks of the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk. Witli young flower-buds at the 
beginning of July. 

1 ?.n 



Dislriliiilion: Soiillieni and luiddlc luiiopi', U'lnpciule porliuns of Asia, North 
AlVica. Norlli Aiiiciica, and Australia (introduced). 

.■Melica iiiilaiis L. Spec-. Pi. cd. II (17G2) p. <)8; Lidt-I). Fl. Alt. I, |). 'XU Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. i;512: Kard. ctKirii. Kiium. PI. Fl. Alt. no. <Jl.j; Ledeb. Fl. Uoss. IV, p. :W9; 
Turc/an. Fl. Baical.-Dahur (^185t), I) p. 49, no. 1343; KpLi.i. <I>.i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 

ll'ilii. 

In dry Ihic-kcts, t>lc-., near Kuslialnir and Fst .Mgiac. Spccinicns taken in liic middle 
of .Inly nearly past flowering. 

Distribution: Europe, .Siberia, noiLliern Mongolia, eastein .\sia, Sakiialin. .Iai)an. 

Koeleria glauea DC. Cat. llort. Monsp. (IHi;')) p. IIIJ: Ledei). I"l. I'.oss. IV, p. 102; 
Domin, Monograjjli. Call. Koclcrict in Bibl. Bot. II. (i.^i (1907) p. !J5; Kphi.i. 'I>.i. A.rr. 
VII (1914) p. 1()29. Knclnid crislala Pers. in Karel. ct Kiril. luiuin. Pi. V\. Ail. no. 927. 
Koeleria crislala /- in Ledel). Fl. \\L I, p. 103. 

sabspec. lypica Doniin, 1. c.; Kpm.i. 1. e. 

Scattered in dry, sandy places in open woods of Piuiis silnrslris. near Tagar- 
ski osero. Taken flowering at the beginning of ,Iuly. 

Dislrilnition: Middle and soutliern Europe, Siberia, eastern .\sia, Africa, North 
America. 

Koeleria gracilis Pers. Synops. Plant. I (1805) p. 97: Domin. Monograph. Gatt 
Koeleria p. ITli; I>pi,i.i. <lu. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1633. Koeleria crislala Pers. in Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. I, p. 103 ex parte: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. TV, p. 401 ex parte: Turczan. FL Baical.- 
Dahur (1856, I) p. 51, no. 1346 ex parte. 

This species is very common on dry steppes and in dry, sandy situations in open 
l)ine-wood about Minusinsk. On the Abakan Steppe almost exclusively covering 
the ground over large tracts of land. It appears from the rather rich material brought 
home by me from the Minusinsk district that it occurs in those regions in a multitude of 
varieties. From the diagnosis only of the numerous subspecies, varieties and forms 
belonging to this species, given by Domin. 1. c, I dare not classify my material defini- 
tely. Some seemed to be intermediate forms, passing into the following species, and may 
possibly have to be regarded as hybrids between them. I have also observed this species 
in many places on the steppes on the river Uhi-kem. 

Distribution: Over the greater part of Europe, except the northern and southern 
parts, temperate portions of Asia, .\frica. North .\merica. 

Koeleria Dclavignei Czern. subspec. barabensis Domin, Monograph. Gatt. Koeleria 
p. 249; KpLu. <I).i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1636. 

Seemed to be of rare occurrence in the territory explored. A few specimens gathered 
by me in di-y, sandy places on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto. With young 
floweis at the end of June. 

131 



Distribution: South-eastern Russia and western Siberia. Siibspec. barabensis has 
previouslj' been found only on dry steppes at Baraba in western Siberia. 

Dactylis glonierata L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 105; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 104; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 928; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 368; KpLi.i. <t}j. Ajt. 
VII (1914) p. 1644. 

Scattered in dry meadows and in thickets on the islets in the nvers Yenisei and 
Abakan, in dry brush-wood at Kushabar, near Ust Algiac, at Ust Sisti-kem, and Ust 
Tara-kem. The specimens gathered are distinguished by completely glabrous sheaths. 
The lower panicle-branches are comparatively long and spreading, thus giving the 
panicle a pvramidical appearance. The glumes are generally furnished with rather long, 
stiff hairs along the keel and the margin, whereby the specimens somewhat approach 
/". ciliata Petehm. Fl. Lips. (1838) p. 80. Spikelets of a light yellowish-green, a charac- 
ter which these specimens have in common with/. /?fu;e5ce/JsScHKOTER,D. B. G. X. (1892) 
p. 132. Flowering in June and July. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate portions of Asia. North Africa, North America 
(introduced). 

Poa altaica Tiin. in Mem. de I'Acad. de St. Petersb. Ser. VI, T. I, p. 382; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. 1, p. 97; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL FL Alt. no. 920; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1320; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 373: Kpbi.i. O-i. Ajt. VII (1914) p. 1657. 

In diy places, near Ust Sisti-kem. 

Distril)ution: South-western and middle Asia. 

Poa tianschanica (Regel) Hackel in OeAueiiKo, 'lu. IIumiiiiu (Act. HorL Peti^opol. 
XXI, 1903) p. 441. Poa macrocalyx Traut et Mey. Floi-ula Ochotensis in Midd. Reise 
p. 103 var. lianschanica Regel, Descr. PL Nov. Fasc. VIII (Act. HorL Petropol. VII, 1881) 
p. 619. [Tab. Ill, Fig. 1]. 

This characteristic and fine species, hitherto known only from Turkestan and 
Pamir (Fedschenko, 1. c), was collected by me in some places on the steppes about the 
Lower Abakan. In full flower at the end of June. 

Distribution: Turkestan, Pamir, Siberia. 

Poa annua L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 99; Ledeb. FL Alt. I, p. 95; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1317; Ledeb. FL Ross. IV, p. 377; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 40, 
no. 1334; Kpbiji. (I>j. Ajt. VII (1914) p. 1649. 

Rather common in the regions explored, along road-sides, in court-yards, etc., in 
settlements, and camps of gold-diggers in the Amyl taiga, where occurinng in a multitude 
of different forms. A form with spikelets of a deep green occurring near Kushabar (f. 
viridis Leijeune et Courtois, Comp. FL Belg. I (1828) p. 80), and another one with 
broad, to 5 or 6 mm. broad leaves, in the Amyl taiga (f. lati folia). 

Distribution: The species occurs nearly all over the globe. 

132 



subspcv. supiiia (Sclirad.) Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Excuis. I (18;i()) p. 4(). I'ou siiinna 
Scluad. Fl. Germ. I (1806) p. 289. 

Rather common al Fst Algiac, on roads, in conrl-yards. elr. In lull liowcr at the end 
of ,Iuly. 

Dislrihulion: Western and nortlicrn Europe. Sil)eria. Norlli Aliiea. 

Poa Chaxii Yillars. Fl. Delphinalis in Gilibert, Syst. I'l. l-.ur. I (178.5) subspec. 
remold (Fries) Richt.. Kpi.i.i. <l).i. A.n. VII (1914) p. IBBO. I'od siidrliai Ilaenkc, Rei- 
sen naeli dem Riesengeb. (1891) p. 120; Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. IV, ]>. 380. 

In open l)rusli-\vood and in grass-grown places at Kushabar. Flowering in ,Iuly. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, 
and eastern Asia. 

Poa irrigata C. A. M. Lindman in Botan. Notiser (1905) p. 7:5. Poo luimilis Ehrh. 
Ind. Calam. no. 115, et Beitr. VI (1791) p. 84 p. p. Poa rif/rns Ilailm. Ilandb. Skand. FL 
ed. I (1820) p. 448. 

This species collected by me in moist meadows and swamps on the river Abakan, 
and oil the islets in that river, near Askys, where of rather connnon occurrence. The 
specimens collected agree perfectly with authentic material, determined by the autlioi- 
himself. \Yith young flowers in the first half of ,Iunc. 

Distribution: The species has fii'st been indicated for Sweden. As it is also to 
be found in my material from southern Siberia, it must be supposed to be very widely 
distributed. 

Poa ncnioralis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 102; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 99; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1321; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 924; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
375; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 40, no. 1330; IVpi.i.i. (I>.i. .V.rr. VII (1914) 
p. 1653. 

In thickets at Kushabar and in the Amyl valley. In full flower in the first half of 

July- 
Distribution: Europe, western and central Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern 
Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

Poa attenuata Trin. in Bunge, Verz. Suppl. Fl. Alt. (1830) p. 9; Trin. Gramin. 
Suppl. in Mem. de I'Acad. de St. Petersb. Sen VI, T. IV, p. 64; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
371; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 37. no. 1326; Kpi.i.i. (D.i. Ajt. VII (1914) 
p. 1655. Poa ferlilis Host in Ledeb. Fl. All. I, p. 98 ex parte. Poa allaica in Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1320. 

Very common on the steppes near Minusinsk and about the river Abakan, where 
associated with Koelcria gracilis, covering large tracts of land. The specimens are 20 
to 30 cm. liigh, the panicle about 0,5 to 1 cm. broad, with spikelets frequently of a brow- 
nish or light violet colour. Flowers not fully opened in the first half of June. 

133 



DislribuUon: Soullierii Siljeria, south-western Asia, central Asia, northern Mongo- 
Ha. the Amoor Province, Manchooria. 

Poa palustris L. Sysl. ed. X (1751)) p. 874, Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 98: Kptu. <I>.i. 
A.rr. VII (1914) p. 16o7. Poa feiiilis Host, Gram. Austr. Ill (1805) p. 10 ex parte; Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. I, p. 98 ex parte: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 923. Poa srrolina 
Ehrh. Beitr. VI (1791) p. 86; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1322; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 375; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856. 1) p. 39, no. 1329. 

In the territory explored this species varies considerably both in breadth and 
roughness of the leaves, richness and density of the spikelets in the panicle, size of the 
spikelets, and number of the florets of each spikelet, varying from 2 lo 6. Some of the 
specimens collected have the branches of the panicle very short, stiff and pointing 
upwards along the rachis, unbranched, each branch with one spikelet onlv, the plant 
thus assuming, in point of habitus, a much deviating appearance. 

The species is common in the tei'dtory explored, in moist meadows, on Lhc banks 
of small lakes and rivers. 

On Ihe banks of the river Abakan, near Askys, and on Ihe islets in the river, between 
Minusinsk and Kushabar, the Amyl valley, Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem, and at Ust 
Kamsara. In moist, grass-grown depressions on the Abakan Steppe I have collected a 
form furnished with long stolons (f. slolonifera). 

Distribution: The species is distributed over the greater pari of northern and middle 
Europe, Italy, The Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Caucasia, Siberia, northern Mongo- 
lia, central and eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

Poa cacsia Smilh, Fl. Brit. (1800) p. 103; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 925; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 374. 

In the Sayansl< mountains, in moist places, above the tree limit, some specimens 
belonging to a very fine and slender form were collected by me. Tliis form is separated 
by me as: 

snbspec. esuriens iioiK sabspec. 

Caulibus tenliibus et sublilibiis ab forma liipica di/ferens. Spiculae pannte. 2-?,.) 
nun. longae, fusco-violaceac, flosculos sinfjnlos vel binos in se contincnles. lianii panicii- 
lae summae lenmialis. capillacci, diimricati, valde scabri, flexiiosi, feie 1-2 (vel raiiiis 3) 
spicidas pedicellis longis singidi ferentes. 

It is chiefly distinguished by having the spikelets very small, from 2 to 2,5 mm. 
long, each one containing 1 or 2 florets only. Panicle about 10 cm. long, rather 
rich in spikelets, rachis flexuous, rough, and furrowed, its branches capillaceous, 
from 2 to 3 in a whorl, of a greenish-violet colour, rough, spreading, flexuous, 
each branch generally with 1 to 2 dark, brownish-^'^olet spikelets. Glumes neai4y equally 
long, 2 nmi. in length, tapering to a point, the upper one with 3, not very prominent ner- 
ves, greenish-violet, with a broad membranous margin of a A'iolet hue. slightly rough 

134 



;iU>ii,i; Ihf kcH'l. lor llic ri'sl siiiodIIi. iiol ;ili;iiiiiii^ llir suniniil ol llic llorcl.s. I'lic llorcts 
siin-oundcd nl llii' l);isf l)y loiij;. ;u:icliiH)i(l liaiis. Pales (■(|iiallv loiif^, nboul '1 mm. in 
Iciit^lli. llic lower one hroad. ovate, rallier sul)ol)lu.se al llie apes, willi a niemhianous 
mar,<>in. .Vnerved. near llio apex willi a violet or yellowi.sh-hrown slain, in llie lower half, 
alonj^ the keel, wilh long hairs. The iij)por pale is narrow, membranous, wilh a hairy 
margin, rounded at the apex, with a copper spot, so characteristic for the species. Cuhiis 
cacspitose, Ihin, slender, hut erei l and straii^hl. Iioin 20 to iJO cm. high, completely glab- 
rous. Leaves to 2 mm. broad, like the narrow sheallis slightly rough, or nearly smooth, 
gradually finely i)oinli'd towards the sunnnit. Ligules short. (I,.") nnn. in length, tiuncatc, 
or subobtuse. 




Fig. 75. Poo caecia Siuiii subspec. esitricns nov. suhspec. 
a and b. Spikelets. — c. Glumes. — d. Floret. 

In point of external habitus this plant somewhat resembles Pod ncmoidlis var. 
inonldiui. but is distinguished by having marked ligules and the panicle-branches long, 
spreading, flexuous and very rough, the spikelets hardly one half as large, each one 
with 1 or 2 flowers only, the pales of which are rather oliliciue-truncate, obtuse al the 
apex, and the leaves more tapering to a point upwards. 

In point of its small and reduced spikelets it may also somewhat resemble Poa 
nemonilis var. micranlha Harim. 

Our plant also seemed to bear a rather close resemblance to Poa Balfoiirii. but differs 
distinctly from it by liavdng the culms solitary, much higher and more slender, and with 
visible, uncovered nodes. The upper interuode of the culm is not so much prolonged. 
The ligules are shorter, only about 0,.5 mm. long, obtuse. The leaves are very narrow, 
nearly completely glabrous, from 5 to 7 cm. long. It differs from Poa Balfourii especial- 
ly in the shape of the panicle and in the considerably greater floweriness. Thus, it 
is not contracted, but distinctly sjiread out. wilh very fine, flexuous, and scabrous 

isr. 



stalks, each one bearing 1—2 (rarely 3) spikelets. These spikelets have 1 or rarely 2 
florets. The pales are also more obtuse at the apex than in the said species. 

Distribution: Poa caesia is distributed over Europe, western, northern, and central 
Asia, America. 

Poa sibirica Roschewitz in IIsBtCT. IlMncpaxopcK. C. nexepGyprcK. Botuh. Ca;i;. IV (1912) 
p. 121-123; Kpbiji. $.1. A.IT. VII (1914) p. 1661. [Tab. Ill, Fig. 2]. 

In the specimens collected the sheaths are completely glabrous. Leaves from 2 to 
4 nun. broad, flat or slightly channelled. Ligules, especially the upper ones, prominent, 
to 2 or 3 mm. long, the summit often somewhat subacute, and the margin sometimes 
toothed. Glumes of a greenish-violet colour, generally with white membranous margins. 
Taken with flowers in July. In meadows in woods near Kushabar, and at Ust Algiac, 
near the Sisti-kem. 

Uistribution: Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

Poa trivialis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 99; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 96; Turczau. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1319; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 379; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 41, 
no. 1333; Kptu. c&j. Aax. VII (1914) p. 1662. 

f. glabra Doll, Rhein. Fl. (1843) p. 92. 

In moist meadows on islets in the Abakan, and on the Amyl, near Petropawlowsk. 

/. vulgaris Reichenb. Iconogr. I, T. LXXXIX (1843) Fig. 1653; Aschers. et 
Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. II (1898) p. 426. 

In moist meadows and thickets on islets in the lower parts of the river Abakan. 

siibspec. multiflora Reichenb. Iconogr. 1. c. Fig. 1655; Aschei-s. et Graebn. 1. c. p. 427. 

Common in meadows on the Islets in the river Abakan, near Askys. The species 
flowers in June and July. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, the Mediterranean countries, south- 
western Asia, Siberia, eastern Asia, North America (introduced). 

Poa alpigena (Fr.) Lindman, Svensk Fanerogamflora (1918) p. 91. Poa prate nsis 
var._ alpestris Anderss. Gram. Scand. (1852) p. 35. Poa alpestris (Anderss.) Lindman 
in herb. p. p.). 

Seemed to be rather common in the regions about the river .\bakan, where 
gathered by me in several places near Ust Kamuishto and Askys. In full flower in the 
second half of June. I have also collected it in the Urjankai country, at Ust Algiac. 

The specimens agree perfectly with authentic material collected in Norway and 
determined by the author himself under the name of Poa alpestris. 

Distribution: The species w^as formerly only recorded from Scandinavia and the 
Pyrenees (?). 

Poa pralensis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 99; Ledeb. Fl. All. I, p. 96; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1323; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 919; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 378; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 41, no. 1332; Kpw.i. «D.t:. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1663. 

136 



("oiiiinoii in llic Iciiilory explored, wlicre occiii riiif^ under inimy I'oiins, the most 
ficqucnt beinf<: 

/". vulcjuris (iaiid. Af{iostf)lot,'. Ilelvelica I (1811) p. 212; l>|ii,i.i. 1. c. p. 1004. 

Meadows and liills along the river Al)akan, Ku.sliahar, and I'st Aloiac. 

/: angmlifulia Sniilli, Fl. Hril. (1800) p. 105: K|.i.i.i. 1. c. ]). IGGl. 

Rather common on llie Aliakan Slei)pe. and at I'st Algiac. 

f. latifolin Weilie. Deutsche Griiser 31 M. u. K. D. Fl. I (182:i) ]>. (512. 

Common about Minusinsk, and on the river Abakan. The s|)ecies ilowers in .Tunc 
and Jul}-. 

13islril)ulion: The s])ecies is distributed over Europe, uorliiern and temperate por- 
tions of .\sia, North Africa, North America, Greenland. 

Glyceria aquatica (L.) Wahlenb. Fl. Goth. (1820) p. 18: Ledei). Fl. Ross. IV, p. 392; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 47, no. 1310: h'pi.i.i. «l).i. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 
1608. Glijceria spectabilis Mert. u. Koch, Deutschl. Fl. I (1823) p. 586; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
I, p. 102; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1301. Glyceria remola Fr. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
391 ex parte. 

siibspec. aruiidinacea (AI. Bieb.) Aschers. Fl. Brand. I (1864) p. 851; Kpbu. 1. c. 
p. 1668. 

In swamps on the Abakan Steppe, near Askj-s. The specimens in bud. a very few 
only, with fully opened flowers in the middle of June. The species also collected by me in 
the Urjankai country, near Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Eurojje, Asia Minor, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakha- 
lin. Japan. 

Atropis distans (L.) Griseb. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 388: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 45, no. 1338; Kpi,u. ^j. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1670. Glijceria dislnns Wahlenb. 
Fl. Ups. (1820) p. 36; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 102; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 
913 var. 

Very common on the borders of salt swamps on the Abakan Steppe, for instance 
at Ust Kamiiishto. where I have taken it with young flowers at the end of June. 

Distribution: Middle and northern Europe, temperate portions of Asia, North 
America. 

Atropis tenuiflora Griseb. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 389: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 46, no. 1339. CAiiceria dislnns Wahlenb. var. Icnnillorn Turczan.. Rcgcl in 
Act. Hort. Petropol. VII, p. 624. 

Veiy common on the bonks of the salt swamps on the Abakan Steppe, for instance 
at Ust Kamuishto, where forming loose tussocks, associated with the pi-eceding one. With 
young flowers in the second half of June. 

Distribution: Eastern Europe, temperate portions of Asia. 

15 137 



Festuca ovina L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 108; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 107; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1302: Kaiel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 930; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
350; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 52, no. 1347; KpM.i. «>.i. Ajt. VII (1914) 
p. 1672. 

siibspec. sulcata Hackel, Monogr. Festuc. Europ. (1882) p. 100. Festuca Vallesiaca 
Schleich., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 351. 

Very common on the dry steppes about Ust Abakansk, where, in places, covering 
nearly sole prevailing large areas, or associated with Koeleria gracilis and Poa attenuata. 
The species flowers in June. 

siibspec. supina Hackel, 1. c. (1882) p. 88. 

Rather common in the subalpine and alpine regions of the Altaian. 

Distribution: Arctic and temperate portions of Europe and Asia, North Africa, North 
America, Australia, New Zealand. 

Festuca rubra L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 109; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 108; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 352; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 53, no. 1348; Kpi.i.i. cE).t. Ajt. 
VII (1914) p. 1676. 

Scattered in dry places on the Abakan Steppe, where occurring under different 
forms. The colour of the spikelets varies between yellowish-green and violet, and the 
number of florets of each spikelet from 3 to 9. 

/. arenaria (Osbeck) Fr. Fl. Halland. (1818) p. 28; Kpw.i. 1. c. p. 1676. 

Accompanying the preceding one on the Abakan Steppe, where apparently more 
frequent than the main species. Each spikelet contains rather few florets, generally 
from 3 to 5, most frequently 4. and the panicle is rather slender and relaxed. 

/. grandiflora Hackel, Monogr. Festuc. Europ. (1882) p. 138. 

The specimens belonging to this form, collected by me, are distinguished by their 
large spikelets, to 18 mm. long, each spikelet with to 15 florets. The awn is rather long, 
the glumes only slightly hairy. Dispersed on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys. The 
species flowers in June in those regions. 

. Distribution: The species is distributed over Europe, northern and temperate 
portions of Asia, North Africa, North America, Greenland. 

Festuca pratensis Huds. Fl. Angl. ed. I (1762) p. 37; Kpi.i.i. $.i. A.it. VII (1914) 
p. 1677. Festuca elatior siibspec. pratensis Hackel, Monogr. Festuc. Europ. (1882) p. 
150. Festuca elatior L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. Ill ex parte; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 109; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1307; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 353; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1856, I) p. 53, no. 1349. 

In meadows and in thickets on tlie islets in the river Abakan, and in several 
places between Minusinsk and Kushabar, in dry meadows. The species flowers in July. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, North Africa, America (intro- 
duced). 

138 



Fcsluca i<i{>:uitea (I,.) Vill. Ilisl. I'l. Djuipli. II (1787) p. 110: Hackel, Monogr. 
Festuc. Euro]). (1882) p. 159; Ledcl). Fl. All. I, p. 108; IauIoI). KI. Hoss. IV, p. :{r>l; K|)m.i. 
<I>.i. A.n. VII (I'.ll I) p. 1(;7>.I. 

In lliickits (Ml the rivi'i- Aniyi. near PcOojjawiowsk. Flowering in the middle of 
July. 

Distiihulioii: North-eastern and niidillc lunope to northern Sj)ain and Switzerland, 
central Italy, Serhia, south-western and eentral Asia. Siberia, eastern Asia to norlliern 
Corea, Sakhalin, Iropieal AlViea, and North America (introduced). 

Fe-stuca altaica Trin. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1, p. 109: Turezan. dii. Baical. no. 1.306; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, [). 354; Turezan. 1'"!. Haical.-Dahur. (18.5(1, I) p. 54, no. 1351- 
Kpi.i.i. ^-.i. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1(380. 

In the Altaian, in al])ine situations, among moss and ling, at altitudes of about 
2000 m. above sea-level. The lower leaf-sheaths of a pretty violet hue, the glumes 
violet. Specimens taken at the end of July with fully opened florets. 

Distribution: South-western Asia. Siberia, and northern Mongolia. 

Bromus inermis Leyss. Fl. Hal. ed. I (1761) p. 16; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. Ill; 
Turezan. Cat. Baical. no. 1308; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 936; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 357; Turezan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 56, no. 1353; KpLi.i. <I>.i. A.it. 
VII (1914) p. 1683. 

/. liipiciis Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. (1890) p. 106; Kpbu. 1. c. p. 1683. 

Common on the islets in the river Abakan, near Ust Kamuishto, in meadows and 
in thickets; in the Urjankai country, near Ust Sisti-kem, Ust Kamsara, Ust Tara-kem, 
and on the steppes on the Ulu-kem. 

/: pellitus Beck, 1. c. (1890) p. 106. 

The specimens referred to this form, are distinguished by their broad leaves, to 11 
mm. broad. The leaves scattered pubescent above, and the nodes, especially in the lower 
parts of the plant, with short, silky hairs. The glumes are always completely glabrous. 
The pedicels slightly rough. Near Ust Abakansk, on the islets in the river. 

/. aristatus Schur, Enum. PL Transsilv. (1866) p. 805: K[ii.i.i. 1. c. p. 1683. 

In my collections are only a few specimens belonging to this form, taken on an 
islet in the river Abakan, about half way between Ust Kamuishto and Ust Abakansk, and 
near T^st Abakansk. The specimens are distinguished by panicles with few and scattered 
spikelets; the panicle-branches unramified, each branch bearing one spikelet only, 
generally containing from 2 to 5 florets, so as to approach /. paiiciflorns Ronr.i.XA. The 
glumes, of a greenish violet hue, with a markedly biown membranous margin, are slightly 
hairy, especially so along the nerves and the margin. The awn brownish, from 2 to 4 
mm. long. The species begins flowering at the end of June. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over northern and middle Europe, Russia, 
Siberia, the Caucasus, south-western and central Asia, northern Mongolia, China, 
North America (introduced). 

139 



Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 155; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 345; Kpu-i. <l).i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1686. Bromiis pinnatns L. 
Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 115; Ledeb. Fl. Alt.I, p. 112. Triticiim macrounim Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1328; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 59, no. 1357. 

In dry thickets, near the mouth of the river Sisti-kem, and at Ust Tara-kem. Nearly 
done flowering at the beginning of August. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north, Siberia, northern Mongolia, south- 
western Asia, North Africa. 

Triticum caninuni L. Spec. PI. ed. I (1753) p. 86; Schreb. Spicilegium Fl. Lipsicae 
(1771) p. 51; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 340; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 58, 
no. 1356. Agropyriim caniniim (L.) P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 146; 
K])u.T. <P.j. A.1T. VII (1914) p. 1690. 

subspec. altaicum Ledeb. 1. c. p. 310; Kpti.i. 1. c. p. 1691. Triticiiin repens a Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. I, p. 117. 

In dry thickets on the river Abakan, near Askys. Young, not yet fully opened 
flowers in the second half of June. 

Distribution: Siberia. 

subspec. geniculatum (Trin.) Regel. Descr. PI. Novar. etc. Ease. VIII, p. 592 (sub 
Trilico). Triticum geniculatum Trin. Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 117; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 342. 
Triticum pubescens Trin. et Triticum Hungeanum Trin. in Bunge, Enum. Alt. No. 35 et 
37. Agropyrum caninum (L.) R. et Sch. f. geniculatum (Trin.) Regel, Kpi.i.i. <I>.i. A.it. 
VII (1914) p. 1691. Agropyrum geniculatum (Trin.) Roshew. — bi. ^eAqeimo, CnHCOKt 
PyccKnxT) PacT. XXI. 

Very markedly distinguished from the typical species by its shorter awn and nar- 
row and conduplicated leaves. The lower parts of the culm generally geniculate. Rather 
common on steppes and dry sloping mountains about the river Abakan. Witli young 
flowers in the second half of June. 

Distribution: Siberia. 

Triticum repens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 128; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 116; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1327; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 943; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 340; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, 1) p. 59, no. 13.58. Agropyrum repens 
P. de Beauv. Ess. Agrostograph. (1812) p. 146 Kj.li.i. <E>.i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1692. 

subspec. vulgare Doll, Fl. Bad. (1857) p. 128; Kpbi.i. 1. c. p. 1692 (sub Agropyro). 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe, and on the steppes about Minusinsk. With young 
flowers in June. 

subspec. aristatum Doll, 1. c. p. 128; Kptu. I. c. (sub Agropyro). 

In dry meadows, and on islets in the lower parts of the river Abakan. With 
young flowers in June. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, 
south-western and centi-al Asia, eastern Asia, North Africa, North America (introduced). 

140 



Trilit'uni (iineliiii (Lfdrh.) nov. noin. Trilicutnslrif/o.siim Less. var. (imi'lini Ledeb. 
Icon. Fl. Ross. tal). 2 IS. p. 10. .{(iiopiinun (iiiirlini (Lcdcl).) Krylow, <I>.i. A.ir. YII (1914) 
p. KiOf). Triliniiii cdiiiniim in Ledeb. Fl. All. 1, p. 118 cum var. Gmclini Tuic/an. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1329 ex parte. 

In dry meadows, and on tlie slopes on llie .Vbakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto. 
Young flowers, not yet fully opened, in the second half of June. 

Distribulion: Tlie Crimea, south-western Asia, Siberia, noiihern Mongolia. 

Triticum ramosum Trin. in Ledeb. Fl. Ait. I, p. Ill; Karel. et Kiril. Enuni. PI. V]. 
All. no. 911; Ledeb. Fl. Uoss. IV, p. 343. Agvopijmm ramosum (Trin.) Uicht., Kpuu. 
$.1. A.rr. VII (1914) p. 1G9G. 

In a dry, sandy meadow on an islet in the river Abakan, near Ust Karnuishto. 

Distribulion: South-eastern Russia, Trans Caspia, Siberia. 

Trilicuni crislalum (L.) Schreb. Gram. II (1779) Tab. 23, Fig. 2; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, 
p. 113; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1326; Karel. et Kiril. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 940; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, p. 337; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 57, no. 1354. Agropynim cristalum 
Bess., KpLu. 4>j. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1699. 

subspec. imbricatum (M. Bieb.) Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. (I'JOl) 
p. 669. 

f. abakanense nov. f. 

Gliimis distimia bdsi lalissimis superne sensim 
ciineiforme atteniialis, et in arislam longiorem saepiiis 
pctuliiliim reciirvalam prodiiclis. 

The lower pale is 8 — 9 mm. long, the upper one 
only K' to % as long as the lower one. It is especially 
the structure of the glumes and the great difference in 
the size of the 2 pales by whicb this form is charac- 
terized. But, on account of the scarce material I have 
had at my disposal, I cannot express any opinion on the 
constancy or systematic value of these characters. Each 
spikelet generally contains 4 florets. On sandy soil on 
the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, and in the neighbour- 
hood of Ust Abakansk, and also in the Urjankai country 
on the rivers Sisti-kem, Tara-kem, and Kamsara. Scat- 
tered on the steppes on the Ulu-kem. 

Distribution: Southern Europe, western Asia, southern Siberia eastwards to Trans 
Baikal, northern Mongolia. 



\ 




1 
f 




. 




, 




■V 




\ \ 


/ 








\ j 






i i 




a. 







Fig. 76. Trilicnm crislahim (L.) Schkeb. 

f. abakanense nov. f. ("/i). a. Glumes. 

b. Lower pale. — c. Upper pale. 



Triticum pscudo-Agropyrum Griseb. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 343. Aqropifrum 
pseudo-Agropijnim (Trin.) Franchct David, p. 340. Elijmns pseudo-Agropyriun Trin. 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1343; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 63, no. 1364. 



141 



Common in dry. sandy places on the Abakan Steppe, near the river. With young 
flowers in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Eastern Siberia, eastern Mongolia, Manchooria. 

Hordeum secalinum Schreb. Spicilegium Fl. Lipsicae (1771) p. 148; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
I, p. 123; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 951. Hordeum pratense Huds. Fl. Angl. 
ed. II (1778) p. 56: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 328; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 
60, no. 1359. 

In meadows near Askys. Taken with young flowers in the middle of June. 

siibspec. brevisubulatum Trin., Kptu. <&.t. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1703. 

Veiy common about the river Abakan, in grass-grown places, frequently accom- 
panying Cypripedilum macranlhiim, Herminium Monorchis, etc. Taken with young flowers 
in the second half of June. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over Europe, except the northern por- 
tions, temperate Asia, Africa, North and South America. 

Elymiis sibiricus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 123; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 123; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1330; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 330; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1856. I) p. 61. no. 1360; Kpu.i. $.1. A.tt. VII (1914) p. 1705. 

Rather common in meadows, etc.. near the Upper Bei-kem and at Ust Tara-kem. 
With ripe fruits at the end of August. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, southern Siberia, northern Mongolia, central and 
eastern Asia, Sakhalin. 

Elymus dahuricus Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1331; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 331; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 61, no. 1361; KpLu. $j. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1707. 

In meadows on the river Abakan, near Ust Abakansk, with young flowers at 
the end of June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, central and eastern Asia. 

. Elymus dasystachys Trin. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 120 ex parte; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1333; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 333 ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) 
p. 62, no. 1363; Kpti.i. «'.i. A.u. VII (1914) p. 1708. 

In dry, sandy places on the right bank of the river Abakan, near Ust Abakansk. on 
somewhat saliferous soil, near Ust Kamuishto. and in the Urjankai country, on the river 
Tapsa. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, soutliern Siberia, south-western and central Asia, 
noiihern Mongolia. 

Elymus salsuginosus Turczan. PI. Exsicc; K])u.t. <I).i. A.it. VII (1914) p. 1709. 
Elymus dasystachys Trin. ;- salsuginosus (Turczan.) Griseb. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
333; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1856, I) p. 63. no. 1363. Elymus dasystachys Trin. b. 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 120: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL FL Alt. no. 937. 

142 



Accompanying [\iv preceding one al Usl Abakansk. Young flowers at the end of 
.Inne. 

l)istiil)urK)n: Eastern Russia, soutiicrn Siberia, south-western Asia, nortii-western 
Mongolia. 



•&^ 



Klyimis junceus Fisch. in Mem. de la Soc. des Naturlists de Moscou I (1811) j). 
45; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 119; Bunge, Enuni. Alt. ]>. 7; Karcl. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fi. All. 
no. 915; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 333; Ki„.i.i, <lu. A.ii. VII (1914) p. 1711. 

In dry meadows, among dry sand, etc., rather conunon about Minu.sinsk and near 
Tagarski osero. Taken with flowers at the end of .June and the beginning of July. 
Observed with fruits al Tapsa at the end of August. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, southern Siberia. Trans Caspia, Turkestan, 
Afghanistan, northern Mongolia. 

Elymus giganteus Vahl, Symbolae Bot. 3 (1794) p. 10; Ledeb. Fl. All. I. ]>. 122; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 950; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 332. Elymus sabulosiis M. 
Bieb. J- giganlcus (Vahl) Schnialii. <I>.i. C\>('j,- n I()/i,ii. Puoc. II, p. 667; Kpbi.i. <1>.t. A.rr. 
VII (1914) p. 1708. 

In sandy places on the Abakan Steppe, and in dry thickets near the river, at Askys. 
Taken with young flowers in the middle of June. At list Tara-kem and on the Bei-kem, 
near the Dora Steppe, with fruits in the middle of .\ugusl. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, southern Siberia, Caucasia, Trans Caspia, Tur- 
kestan, northern Mongolia. 

C y p e r a c e a e ST. Hilaibe. 

Carex obtusata Liljebl. in Vet.-Akad. Handl. (1793) p. 69; Kiikenth. Cgpcr.- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 87; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 267; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 323, no. 1223; Kiikenth. Cyper. Sibir. in 3>e,i;i!PiiK0, 
jMut. <1i.t. CiiH. II (1912) p. 36; KpM.T. <I>.i. A.ix. VI (1912) p. 1461. Carex microcephala C. 
A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 205. Carex decipiens Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1212. 

In open wood of foliferous trees, in sandy places near Tagarski osero. 

Distribution: Sweden, Germany, Russia, Caucasia, Siberia, Manchooria, North 
America. 

Carex pauciflora Lightf. Fl. Scot. II (1777) p. 543; Kiikenth. Ci/per.-Caricoid. in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 110; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 268; Kiikenth. Cyper. 
Sibir. in <I>e,vii"iii,(,, Jlar. <I>.i. Cii.',. II a912) p. 40; KptT.i. $.t. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1462. 

Rather common in Spbayniim-hogs in the Amyl taiga, in the Altaian, and at Ust 
Algiac, where collected by me with nearly ripe fruits in the second half of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Asia Minor, North 
America. 

143 



Carex stenophylla Wahlenb. in Vet.-Akad. Handl. (1803) p. 142; Kiikenth. Ci]per.- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 120; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 208; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1217; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 270; Kiikenth. Ci/per. Sibir. in 
•PeAWHKo, Max. <£>j. Ciio. II (1912) p. 46; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 324, no. 
1226; Kpw.i. $ji. Ajit. VI (1912) p. 1463. 

Very common in di-y, sandy meadows on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and 
Abakan as well as on the steppes in the neighbourhood, here and there accompany- 
ing Carex supina Wahlenb. The species varies rather much in the length of the 
culms, the length and breadth of the leaves, the floweriness and density of the spike, and 
there seemed to occur intermediate forms between this one and the following sub- 
species, especially in the structure of the spike. The perigynia, now and then completely 
destitute of nerves, are, by the way, sometimes shorter, sometimes longer than the 
broad, lanceolate glumes, which are furnished with a membranous margin, and a 
distinct dorsal midnerve, frequently prolonged into a shorter or longer point. Taken 
flowering and with ripe fruits in June. 

Distribution; Middle and south-eastern Europe, temperate portions of Asia, south- 
wards to the Himalayas, eastern Asia, North America. 

suhspec. enervis (C. A. Meyer) Kiikenth. 1. c. (1909) p. 122; Kpw.i. <I).i. Ajit. VI (1912) 
p. 1464. Carex enervis C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 209; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
p. 272. 

In dry, sandy meadows on an islet in the Yenisei, near list Abakansk. 

Distribution: Middle Asia. 



Carex curaica Kunth, Enum. PI. II (1837) p. 375; Kiikenth. Cyper.-Caricoul. in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 124; Kiikenth. Cyper. Sibir. in ^catohko, Max. $.i. 
Clio. II (1912) p. 47; Ki>i,i.i. $ji. Aat. VI (1912) p. 1465. Carex ovala C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. IV, p. 207; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1222; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 
888. Carex inciirva Lightf. /3 Trev. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 270. Carex curaica 
a latifolia inTurczan. FL Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 326, no. 1228. Carex horotalicola 
Regel in Act. Hort. Petropol. VII (1880) p. 566. 

In moist, subalpine meadows near the Aigiac Pass as well as on the moist bank 
of the river, near Ust Aigiac and Ust Tara-kem. The specimens flowering and with 
ripe fruits in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Turkestan, Dzungaria, Siberia, Japan. 

Carex praecox Schreb. (non Jacq.) Spic. Fl. Lips. (1771) p. 63; Kiikenth. Cijper.- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 129; Kiikenth. Cyper. Sibir. in 
<&eAueHKO, Max. <I).i. Cno. II (1912) p. 49;KpMj. <I\T. A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1466. Carex brizoides a 
campeslris Wimm. Fl. Schles. ed. II (1844) 1, p. 401; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 210; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 889; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 284. 

144 



In IliukcLs (il lolil'iTous Irccs. nciir llic hnnks of llic river Alj;ik;iii, id Askys. The 
specimens in inll iiowcr in (lie Tniddic of .luiic. 

l)istiil)ulion: Europe, except llic noiilicin pails, Siheria, Manchooria, Corea. 

Carex diandra Scluank in Ada Acad. Mot^unl. (1782) p. 19; Kiikcniii. (Aipcr.- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 158 (IV, 20, KM)'.)) p. 175; Kiikenlli. Cfipcr. Sihir. in 
<l>(M,'iciii;n. Mar. 'I>.i.('iiu. 11 (1912) p. .'')7: IVin.i.i. <l).i, A.n. VI (1912) p. 1171. Cdirx Icrcliiisciila 
(iood. in Trans. I.inii. Soc. 11 (1794) ]). Ki;}; Ledcl). l-"i. I'.oss. IV, j). 27G. 

In swampy i^'iass-ficld, south of Minusinsk, on liu' way to Kuslial)ai-. With flowers 
and fruits at the l)egiimin_i( of July. 

Distribution: Noitlu'in and middle Europe, Siheria, Nortli Africa, North America, 
New Zealand. 

Carcx cypcroides I.. Sy.st. Veget. ed. XIII (1774) p. 703: Kukentii. Ci/pen-Caricoid. 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 191: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 206: Turczan. 
('at. Baical. no. 1215: Ledch. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 271; Kiikenth. Cyper. Sihir. in fliejwni.-n, 
Mar. <l>.i.C'iin. 11 (1912) p. 00: 'lurezan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (185.5, 11) p. ;')2(i, no. 1229: i;pi.i.i. 
'l).i_ A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1473. 

On the borders of a swamji, near the road between Karatus and Kushabar. Spe- 
cimens taken in the middle of .July, are past flowering. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, western Asia, southern SiJjeria to the Amoor Pro- 
vince and Manchooria. 

Carex intennedia Good, in Trans. Linn. Soc. II (1794) p. 154; Kiikenth. Cqper.- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 135: Kiikenth. Cijper. Sibir. in 
^eATOHKO, Max. O.t. Ciiu. II (1912) p. 51: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 210; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1226; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 273: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (185,5, II) p. 327, no. 1230; 
h>i.i.i. <l).i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1468. 

Rather common on the islets in the river Abakan, especially in moist, sandy 
meadows, in thickets, etc., where flowering in the second half of June. The material 
collected is rather polymorphous. According to the structure of the spike, the following 
forms may be separated: /'. distacliua Lang., /'. penni.iia Bf.ck, f. pangijna Beck, and 
/". longibracteala Scni.EicM. 

Distribution: Nortlu'in and middle Europe, Siberia, central and eastern Asia. 

Carex leporina L. Spec. PI. cd. 11 (17()3) p. 1381: Kiikenth. (hipei-.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 210: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 278: Kiikenth. Cifper. 
Sibir. in il>e^iieiiKO, Mar. <Im. (no. II (1912) p. (^2; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.55, II) 
p. 330, no. 1236: Kpu.:. <1m. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1474. 

Common on moist river-banks, and in moist thickets on the islets in the rivers 
Yenisei and Abakan, as well as in swampy, grass-grown places in depressions on the 
Abakan Steppe, near .\skys. It appears from the rather rich material collected by me, 

10 145 



Ihal il differs in various respects from llie ordinary type of this species. The root is 
generally rather nuicli prolonged in a root-stocklike manner, the culms growing in tufts, 
to 50 cm. high, thin and slender, relaxed, triangular, slightly rough to^Yards the apex. 
The leaves are narrow, only to 2 mm. broad, mostly of the same length as the culm, or 
somewhat longer, slightly rough. The spike is generally formed from slightly separated 
spikelets, ovate, or more commonly, longer, nearly cylindrical. The shape of each flower 
agrees, for the rest, with the typical species. 

Distribution: Europe, we.stern and northern Asia, North Africa, eastern parts of 
North America, New Zealand. 

Carex cancscens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1383; Kiikenth. Cyper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 216; Kiikenth. Ciiper. Sibir. in (I)e,iHeiii;n, Max. ^j. Cii5. 
II (1912) p. 66; Meinsh. Cijpemc. p. 329: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1223; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 280; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (185.5, II) p. 330, no. 1238; Kpbi.i. tl>.r. Ajit. VI 
(1912) p. 1475. Carex curia (iood., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 211. 

Rather common in the subalpine woods between Kushabar and Ust Algiac, wiiere 
occurring in moist soil, here and there in peat-bogs. 

Some specimens have the lowest bract foliaceous, well developed, frequently equal- 
ling the apex of the terminal spike, or a little longer. In the Altaian, growing on the 
mountains to above the limit of tree vegetation. Taken with nearly ripe fruits at the 
end of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, eastern Asia, central Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, Green- 
land. North and South America, Australia. 

siibspec. siibloliacea Laest. in Harlm. llandb. Skand. Fl. ed. IV (1843) p. 299; 
Kiikenth. 1. c. p. 217. Carer gracilis Meinsh. in Act. Hort. Petropol. XVIII (1901) p. 328 
ex parte. 

In my collection there occurs only one specimen of this one, taken on the Upper 
Sisti-kem, at the end of July. With nearly ripe fruits. 

Distribution: Northern Scandinavia, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, North America. 

Carex tenella Schkuhr, Riedgr. I (1801) p. 23; Kiikenth. Cyper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 223; Kiikenth. f;(//)pr. .Si7>;V. in «I)c,x.iciii,(,, Mux. <l).i. Ciio. 
II (1912) p. 69; h-i-bu. <I>.t. A.tt. VI (1912) p. 1478. 

1 have only few specimens of this one in my collection, taken in swampy, shady, 
moss-grown places, near Ust Algiac, at an altitude of about 900 m. above sea-level. The 
specimens bear ripe fruits, sometimes fallen off at the end of July. The perigj^nia of a 
brownish colour, much swollen, about I'A mm. broad, and 2 mm. long. 

Distribution: Subarctic Europe, Siberia, norlhcrn Mongolia, eastern Asia. Saklialin, 
Japan, North America. 

Carex loliacea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1382; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1218; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 281; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 331. no. 1239; 

146 



Kiikciilli. Ci/prr.-Cdiiroid. '\n 1'".iil;I. I'llaii/tiir. II. ll.S (1\', L!(). VMM) j). 22."); Kiikciith. 
Ciiprr. Sihir. in ||v,^M.•lll,■(^ Mar. 'Im. (ho. 11 ( 1!)12) p. 71; i;|,i,..i. <l>,i. A.ir. VI (1912) p. 1180. 
(jurx sihiricd SpiciiLi.. l'i'<l<li- I'l- All. I\' p. 212. 

Sc;ilk'ii'(l in liiiiniil pliiccs. |)cat-l)ugs, ck'.. in llic .sul);ilpini' lai;L;:i Icrnlorv. bclvvcen 
Kn.slialiai' and U.sl .Vlyiac. 

Di.strihulion: Norlliciii and middle Europe, Siberia, uoilliein .Munyolia, ea.sleiii 
Asia. 

Carex lemiil'lora Waldenh. in Vel.-Akad. Ilandl. XXIV (USO:!) p. 117; Kukenili. 
Cuper.-Cnricoid.m Ennl. Pflan/enr. H. 38 (IV, 20. 100'.)) p. 221; Tuie/.an. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1219; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 282; Kiikeulh. (hipcr. Sihir. in 'I'ci'iciii.n. M:ir. 'I>.i. Cun. II 
(1912) p. 70; Turczan. Fl. Haical.-Dabur. (18;jj, II) p. 311, no. 1210; J.-pi.i.i. <1m. A..r. 
VI (1912) p. 1179. 

Scalteicd in subalpinc woods about tlie river Aniyl. as well as near I'sl Algiae, in 
moist, mossy soil. Witb ripe fruits in the second ludt of .lulv. 

Distribution; Subarelie lunope and Asia, North .\nieriea. 

Carcx rigitla Good, in Trans. Linn. Soe. II (1791) p. 1911; Kidvcnth. I'Aipcr.-Cdiicoid. 
in Engl. Pflanzcnr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 299; Meinsh. in Act. Hort. Petropol. XVIII (1901) 
p. 336 ex parte; Kiikenlh. Cijper. Sihir. in 'l>e,i,Meiii,(i, Mar. <l>.i. Cin'.. II (1912) p. 81; KpM.i. 
<l).i. A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1482. Carc.v saxalilis Wahlenb., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 223 ex parte; 
Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 83; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1246; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 896; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 309 ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, 
II) p. 338, no. 1250. 

In grassy and moss-grown places in the Altaian. The specimens are characteristic in 
having the glumes equalling the perigynia, or, frequently, even longer, rather narrow 
and acuminate, completely black, not wing-margined, arched in a boat-shaped way, with 
a more or less distinct dorsal nerve. The dorsal nerve is never of a light, but of a dark 
colour, like the glume. The spikes are rather loosely flowered, the lower one ralliei- 
dislant and long-stalked. The leaves arc of about the same length as the culms. It 
recalls var. infiiscata, according to the description in Dhe.ieh, Revis. Caric. Bor. 
(1841) p. 43, taken in north-eastern Siberia, on the rivers Lena and Kolyma. I have 
had no opportunity of comparing with authentic material, and therefore dare not defi- 
nitely refer it to this one. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, northern and central Asia, arctic 
America. 

Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. in Vel.-Akad. Nya Handl. XXIV (1803) p. 165; Kukenlh. 
Ci)per. Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 309; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
p. 312; Kiikenth. Cijper. Sihir. in 'te^'iCHKo, Max. $.^. Ciio. II (1912) p. 83; Kpbi.i. *.i. A.rr. 
VI (1912) p. 1 184. 

147 



On llie banks of the river Algiac, near Usl Algiac. In flower and incipient fruil for- 
mation at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and subarctic Eurojie, Siberia, northern Mongolia, Noiih 
America, Greenland. 

Carex gracilis Curt. Fl. Loudin. IV (1777—87) p. 282; Kukenth. Cyper.-Caricoid. 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20. 1909) p. 319; Kukenth. Cyper. Sibir. in <DeA'ieni;o, Mar. 
<l>.i. Ciio. II (1912) p. 86; Kpi.i.i. (I>.i. A.ix. VI (1912) p. 1485. Carex acuta Good, in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. II (1794) p. 203; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 222; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
262; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 313; Meinsh. in Act. Hort. Petropol. (1901) p. 335. 

Very common on the banks of the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, as well as on the 
banks of the Sisti-kem, near Ust Algiac. Taken flowering in June, and with ripe fruits 
in July. 

subspec. tricostala (Fries) Aschers. Fl. Brandenb. I (1864) p. 776; Kukenth. 1. c. 
(1912) p. 86. Carex iricoslata Fries, Nov. Mant. Ill (1842) p. 152. Carex gracilis f. erecia 
Kukenth. in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. Ill (1897) p. 170. 

In moist, grass-grown places on the river Abakan, near Ust Kamuishto. Flo\\er- 
ing and with young fruits in the second half of June. 

Distribution: The species is distributed all over Europe, except the extreme northern 
regions, northern and western Asia, northern Mongolia, North Africa. 

Carex Goodcnoughii Gay in Ann. Sc. Nat. II, Ser. XI (1839) p. 191; Kukenth. 
Cyper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 313; Kukenth. Cyper. Sibir. in 
<I)esqonj;(i, Max. <I).i. Cnft. II (1912) p. 84; Ki>u.i. O.i. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1490. Carex vulgaris 
f. communis et f. sabulosa Meinsh. in Act. Hort. Petropol. (1901) p. 333. Carex vulgaris 
Fries, Nov. Mant. Ill (1842) p. 1.53; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 311. 

Very common on the banks of the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, frequently together 
with the preceding one. Not unfrequently there occur specimens with a long-stalked 
pistillate spike starting from the base (f. basigyna Rkicuenh.) Flowering and w ith young 
fruits in June. 

Distribution: All over Europe, Siberia, Mongolia, eastern Asia, North and South 
America, Greenland. 

subspec. tornata Fries, Nov. Mant. Ill (1842) p. 1,54: Kukenth. 1. c. (1909) p. 316. 

Occurring together with the typical species on the banks of the river Abakan, 
near Askys. With flowers in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Together with the main species. 

Carex Goodenoiighii Gay X Carex gracilis Curt, Kukenth. in Aschers. et Graebn. 
Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. II, 2 (1902) p. 99; Kukenth. Cyper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. 
H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 373. 

148 



Generally accompanyiny llii' main sjji'tii's. 1 lie pcriqynia fii'([iR'iill\ siciilc. Tiic 
iiikMiiu'dialc forms seemed sometimes lo a])pr()acli one, soinelimes llic ollui- ol the 
]ian'iil,s, and al limes lo lie ink riiiediale between lliem. 

C.arex eaespilosa L. Spee. Pi. ed. II (17G3) p. I'MH: Kukenlli. ('.iii)cr.-Caiicni(i. in luigl. 
I'ilanzenr. 11. 38 (IV, 20, lUO'J) p. 328; Ledeb. Fl. All. IV, p. 222; Turezan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 12(i3; Ledeb. Fl. Hos.s. IV, p. 310; Turezan. Fl. Haieal.-Daliur. (185;3, II) p. 337, no. 
1218: Kid^enlh. Q//;c/-. .SV/xr. in <|i(M'iciii;ii, .Mar. 'I>.i. ( iiri. II (]'.)12) p. 'JO; lV|ii,i.i. <l'.i. .\.n. VI 
(1912) ]). I 181). 

Very eommoii in the territory explored, where occurring in a multitude of rather 
different forms, wJiich hardly posses any systematical value, connected as they are by 
intermediate forms. Frequent in moist places on the rivers Yenisei, Abakan, and Aniyl. 
Near Ust Algiac, in moist meadows and swamps in woods, I have gathered a well-grown, 
vigorous form, willi culms from 80 lo 90 cm.high. w illi 1 staminate spike, and 2 lo 3 pistil- 
late spikes, about 2 cm. long, and from 0,5 to 0,0 cm. broad, of which the lower one is 
shortly stalked, the ujjper one or the upper ones sessile. Growing in large tussocks, 
from 0,5 to 1 m. high. This one may be identical with f. major, Fetehm. in Flora 
XXV (1844) p. 33. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia. 

Carex Goodenoughii Gay X Carex eaespilosa L., Appcl. in Jahresber. Schles. Ges. 
(1892) p. 158; Kukentli. Cyper.-Caricoid. 1. c. (1909) p. 377. 

Scattered among botli the main species on the islels in the river Abakan, near 
Ask\s. Perigynia empty. 

Distribution: Previously ol)served in northern Europe. 

Carex alrata L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1380; Kiikenth. Cijper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 390; Kiikenth. Ciiper. Sibir. in 'T'ct-ichko. Mar. <l\i. Ciio. 
II (1912) p. 107; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 214; Turezan. Cat. Baical. no. 1229; Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 891; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 287; Turezan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1855, II) p. 336, no. 1247; K|.m.i. (Ki. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1495. 

Of rather frequent occurrence in the Altaian, at a height of about 2000—2200 m. 
above sea-level, where taken by me witli young fruits at the end of July. The specimens 
collected seemed in many respects to approach Carex nigra All., especially so in their 
narrower leaves, only 2 to 3 mm. broad, moreover, in their spikes densely congested 
in a head, consisting of 3 to 4 i-ather coarse, ovoid spikes, which are more or less 
erect, and very shortly stalked. The lower stalks are generally from 2 to 3 mm. long, 
the upper spikes sessile, or nearly so. The bracts are shorter, sometimes nearly 
setaceous, never reaching above the summit of the head. The glumes are shorter than the 
perigynia, to equalling them, never longer, a character recalling Carex nigra. The perigynia 

149 



arc of a daik l)io\vn, to quite black. These specimens may also resemble var. recliiisciila 
Hartm. in their congested spikes, but differ very distinctly from this one in having the 
spikes rather coarser, to 18 mm. long, and 8 mm. broad, and the culms solitary and 
smooth, or nearly so above, never distinctly rough. 

In places covered with moss and lichens, at an altitude of about 2100 m. above sea- 
level, in the Altaian, I have collected some young specimens belonging to a form with 
culms onlv from 4 to 6 cm. high, and rather broad leaves, protruding considerably 
above the culms. The culms are, in the upper parts, sharply triangular and rough. 
The head consists of from 2 to 4 rather approximate, very loosely flowered and narrow, 
nearly cylindric spikes, from 8 to 14 mm. long, and only from 3 to 4 mm. broad, all 
of them very shortly stalked. The glumes are more acute than in the typical atrata, 
and considerably longer than the perigynia. In point of external habitus this form re- 
sembles much Carex sli/losa C. A. Meveh, but differs distinctly, for one thing, in having 
the glumes more acute and narrow. Occurring together with Carex rifjida, and may 
possibly have to be regarded as a bastard between Carex atrala and Carex rigida. 

Distribution: Carex atrala occurs in the northern and alpine regions of Europe, 
southwards to the Pyrenees and the Balkan Peninsula, south-western Asia, Turkestan, 
Siberia, northern Mongolia, Manchooria, eastern Asia, North America, Greenland. 

subspec. alerrima (Hoppe) Haiim. in Svensk och Norsk Excursions-Flora (1846) p. 
331; Kiikenth. Cyper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzcnr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 398: Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. IV, p. 215. Carex alrala fi Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 287; Turczan. Fl. Baical- 
Dahur. 1. c. p. 336: Kiikenth. Cyper.-Sibir. in <lHM'ieiii;(i, JMar. <I>.t. Ciio. II (1912) p. 108. 

This subspecies is characteristic in having the culm i-elaxed, rather rough, and in 
having the lowest bract large and foliaceous, equalling or exceeding the terminal spike. 
The specimens collected have 3 to 4 rather densely congested spikes on short, erect, not 
relaxed or drooping stalks. The leaves rather narrow, 3 to 4, rarely to 5 mm. broad, and 
are, consequently, narrower than usual. Intermediates between this one and the typical 
(Mrex atrala seemed to occur. 

Distribution: Together with the main species. 

Carex tomentosa L. Mant. I (1767) p. 123: Kiikenth. Cijper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 434; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 303; Kiikenth. Cyper. Sibir. 
inA'CATOHKO, Mar. *.t. Ciio. II (1912) p. 115; Kpi.i.i. <1).t. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1498. 

In moist, grass-grown depressions on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys. Not very 
common. Taken past flowering and with fruits in the middle of June. The specimens 
collected are low, the height of the culms not exceeding 20 cm. The glumes are of a 
light brown colour, with a midrib of the same colour as the glume, rarely slightly 
lighter, never green. 

Distribution: Europe, except the northern parts, Caucasia, western Siberia, east- 
wards to about the Yenisei. 



150 



Carcx j^lolmLnis I.. S|i(i'. I'l. rt\. 11 {IHYA) p. liiS."): \s.nkv\\[\\. (Aipcr.-fAiiicoid. in 
\'a\'j,\. I'lhiii/ciir. II. ;;<S (IV. 20. r.KI'.t) ]>. 1:17; Tuiczaii. ('.:»l. Haiciil. no. 1241: Lcdcb. Fl. 
Ucss. IV, p. i'llU: Kiikciilli. (jijxt. Sihir. in <|ic iin'iii.n, M;ii. 'l>.i. (110. II (I'.ll'J) p. 11(1; 
'I'uicv.an. l'"l. liaic-ai.-Dalinr. ( KS.Y). II) ]). 'Mil no. 12(11: 1;|,m.i, <1>.i. A.ii. VI (1912) p. 1199. 

I'lclly c'oninion in liic Sayan.slv di.sliicl, on moi.sl, nios.sy LjroniKl in conifci'ou.s 
wood.s, amonii llijpnuin. oli., in llic siibalpino woods ahoul Ihc ri)i)oi' Aniyl, the I'pper 
Sisli-kem, and at I'.sl Ali>iac. In flower and partly past fiowerin.^ in Jnly. 

Distrii)ution: Xorliicrn and middle Emope. Siberia, nortluin Mont<olia, ea.slci n 
Asia. SaUlialin. 

Carcx supina Waldenb. in Vel.-Akad Hand!. XXIV (1803) p. 158; Kid.enlli. Oy/w.- 
Cnricoid. in luii>l. I'flanzenr. H. 38 (IV. 20, 190U) p. 455; Ledeb. V\. .\it. IV, p. 218; 
Tnrczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1240; Karcl. el Kiril. iMunii. I'l. ¥\. Alt. no. 893; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IN', p. 305; Knkenth. Ci/per. Sibir. in <l)e,i,Mi'iii,(i. War. <I).i. (no. II (1912) p. 112; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahnr. (1855. JI) p. 348, no. 12(18; Kpu.i. <I'.i. A.ir. VI (1912) p. 1,503. 
Carex mucronola Trev. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 308 ex parte. 

Very common in dry, sandy meadows, on sandy steppes, etc., aliont tlie rivers Yenisei, 
Abakan, and rin-l;eni. Frccincntly accompanying Carex slenophijllii imd Feslnca oniiiii. 
Willi nearly ripe fruits in Ibe first half of June. The pi.slillatc .spike is sometimes 
reduced to a single flower: /'. pseudomoiwslnchiis Aschers. in Verb. Dot. Ver. Brandenb. 
XL (1897). On the steppes near Ust Abakansk, I have collected a coarser form, with 
culms from 20 to 25 cm. high, not unfrequcntly with longer leaves, in which the pistil- 
late spikes are rather large, to 8 mm. in liiameter. and rather flowery, each with to 9 
flowers. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe, Caucasia and south-western Asia to 
the Himalayas, North .\merica, Greenland. 

Carex pediforniis C. A. Meyer in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. I (1831) p. 219; Knkenth. 
Ciiper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 490; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 
225; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 290; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1244; Kiikenlh. (Ufper. 
Sibir. in <I>i',uiem;u, Max. <l>.i. C'liu. II (1912) p. 135: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) 
p. 339, no. 1252; Kpi.i.i. iI>.t. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1506. Carex obliqua Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 12l;i. 

Rather common in dry, sandy and .stony places on the steppes along the rivers 
Yenisei and Abakan. With flowers and ripe fruits in the middle of June. 

subspec. rhiziiia (Blytt) Kiikenth. Cijper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (1\', 20, 
1909) p. 491: Kptu. 1. c. (1912) p. 1506. 

Scattered together with the preceding one. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Europe, northern and eastern Asia. 

Carex limosa L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1386: KuX^anWx. Cijper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 504: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1252; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 

151 



IV, p. ;)()7: Ki'ikenth. Cijper. Sibil, in <1>(',i,'ioiik(i, jMut. $.i. Ciu'i. II (1912) p. 142; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.HDahur. (1855, II) p. 343, no. 1258; Kpw.T. 3>.i. Ajt. VI (1912) p. 1509, forma. 

The specimens collected by me are not the true Carex limosa, but they are charac- 
lerislic in having the bracts always very short and slender, 1 to 2 cm. long, not quite 
sheathing, but furnished at the base with narrower or broader auricles of a brown 
colour. The culms are sharply rough in the upper parts, and are of about the same 
height as the leaves, which are very narrow, only from 1 to 1,5 mm. broad. The spikes 
■are 2 in number, the ui^jier one staminate, the lower one pistillate, frequently very 
few-flowered, and not unfrequently sterile. The glumes of the pistillate flowers are 
narrower, and at times considerably longer than the perigynia, the dorsal nerve always 
produced into a mucro, always of a uniform reddish brown, and always wanting a green 
median stripe. The pistillate spikes frequently rather few-flowei'ed and short, sometimes 
nearly globular. The style always much projecting. 

Of veiy common occurrence in very humid Sphagnum -hogs, near Ust Algiac, on 
the right bank of the river Sisti-kem, where growing together with Care.r magellanica, 
Care.v pauciflora, Andromeda polifolia. Ranunculus radicans, and others. Past flowering, 
and partly with nearly ripe fruits at the end of July. 

These specimens may partly, at any rate, have to be regarded as the bastard Care.v 
limosa X C. magellanica, with which they seemed to agree perfectly, according to the 
diagnosis in Kukenthal. Cgper.-Caricoid. 1. c. (1909) p. 507. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over Europe, except the extreme southern 
regions, Silxnia, eastwards to the Amoor Province, Manchooria, Corea, Sakhalin, North 
America. 

Carex inagellanica Lam. Encycl. Ill (1789) p. 385; Kukcnlh. Cgper.-Caricoid. in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 505; Kiikenth. Cgper. Sibir. in *o/i,>iciii;ii, Max. 
iDji.ChG. II (1912) p. 142. C«re.r /rn^/m Smith ex Hoppe, Caric. German. (1826) p. 72; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 307; Kpu-T. <l>.j. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1510. 

Rather common in Sphagnum-hogs at Ust Algiac, together with the preceding one. 
Neaily past floweiing and with nearly lipe fruits at the end of June. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, northern 
and southern America. 

Carex panicca L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1387; Kiikenth. Cgper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 510; Kiikenth. Cgper. Sihir. in <I>eAneni,o, Max. a>.T. C'lio. 
II (1912) p. 145; Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. IV, p. 291; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1850. I) p. 341. 
no. 1255; KpLi.i. *.t. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1513. 

In moist grass-fields on the river Abakan, near Askys, where collected by me in 
abundance, in full flower about the middle of June. I have also collected, beside the 
typical form, some specimens about the river Abakan, with pistillate s]:)ikcs of a pale 
yellow, /; pallida Bi.ytt, Norges Flora (1861) p. 235, as well as forms with a loosely 

152 



llowcrcd pislillnlc .s])il<(', starling diicrtly IVom llu' hasc on a slender stalk. /'. /7i;ro(////(a. 
S()MU> of the speeiincns are dislinetlv intermediate lo C.arcx s/xirsijIoKt (\\'aiii.i:nij.) 
Stkui), aiul may possiiily iiave lo Ije regarded as bastards between these two species. 
Quite lypieal sjx'eimens oi Cnrrx spdisipora do not, however, orrm- in my collcetions. 

Distribution: Tiie species is distributed nearly all over Europe, except the extreme 
south, western and northern Asia from Caucasia through Turkestan and Siberia to 
Baikal. Introduced into Noilli America. 

Carex displodoiis nor. spec. [Tab. 1\'. V\<>,. 2\. 

Ciilnuis ">j-'il) cm. (illii.s. tener. plus minus inclinidus, Iriulcr tiiuiuhilus. sulcaliis. 
Fulid dimidium longiludinis culmi. la.vd. (ingustissima, /-'?,.> mm. lulu — fere /,.;-2 //i/;i. 
laid — pliiiid. iti dcunwn loiu/um. pdcnc 
(iliforme productd. mdigine scabni. 
colore oleagineo. uuginis su/fuscis. Spi- 
culde vulgo ,'i, diskintiores: termiudlis 
mascula, (S'-i? /7ini. longa. 2-.'i mm. laid, 
lalerales femineae, 10-15 mm. longde. 
:i-'i mm. Idlae. mulli/lorde el densi- 
florne, perlonge peduncukilue, peduncu- 
lis capilldribus. plus minus hi.ris, lereli- 
bus, gldbris vel puree .sc(d)ris. liructeue 
folidcede, longe iHiginunles. contructne, 
laminis angustis, attenuatis, spiculum 
superantibns. Squdmne /loris femineue 
Idle ovatae, parvuhie, plus minus 1-1, J 
mm. longue. slrumineo-virides. paene 
omnino hgdlinue, apice rotunddlo vel 
late acuminato.S nerviae, media distinc- 
ta. Idterales minus conspicuae. Utriculi 
immaturi cum squamis aequilongi. ma- 
hiri circa V3 longiores. late fusiformes. 
:/,.)-? m777. longi. Irianguhili, chire uiri- 
des, fere membrduacri, hdnslucidi, 
glabii, enervii, in summis Utleribus spi- 
culi.-t panels, e.iiguis prnediti, adversus 

basin in slipitem brenem, crassum dltenudli. apice obluso, integro, eroslrato. Ulriculi 
semper directi. niuKpiam obli(pii. \uce adolescente. ulricnlus disploditur. Xu.v late 
ovdld. dislincle trigoiui. Idlerihus concdvis, inferne breviler slipitala. supcrne slglo breviore, 
subcglindridco praedila. Stigmata 3, longiludinis mediocris. 

The species is especially distinguished by its slender, frequently slightly relaxed 
and recurved culms that arc glabrous, nearly round, and slightly furrowed. The re- 




rig' 77. (Uirc.v displiidcn.'; nov. spec. .'■'!). a ami h. 
Glumes of i)i.stillate flowers. — c. Young flower, 
d— g. Various stages oi fruit formation; in h tlie 
])erigynium has been burst by the nearly mature 
nut, in i the nut is visilile thiough the nearly hy- 
aline perigyniuni. — I and g. Nuts. 



17 



1.^:; 



la\i'<l leaves are aboiil liall llie leiiylh of (lie eulni. of a peeuliar olive tii-ecn. al any rate 
Avlien dried. The leaves are comparatively narrow, commonly about 1,5 to 2 mm. 
broad, and produced at the summit in a long and fine point, slightly rough along the 
margin. The number of the spikes is 3, of wich the upper one is wholly staminate, 
long-stalked, and densely flowered, about 1 cm. long, 2 to 3 mm. broad, with light yel- 
lowish brown glumes of a narrowly ovate to nearly lanceolate shape. The number 
of the pistillate spikes is 2. on long, erect, or more or less relaxed, cappillaceous, 
glabrous, or slightly rough peduncles. The pistillate spikes themselves are from 1 to 
1,5 cm. long, and from 3 to 4 mm. broad, rather densely flowered. As a rule, the 
spikes are rather distant, but I have also collected specimens in which they are more 
approximate near the summit of the culm. In Ihc plate (Tab. lY, Fig. 2) the spikes 
may possibly appear to be too loosely flowered, owing to the fad, however, that the ripe 
perigynia have fallen off. The bracts have long and narrow sheaths, with a rather 
long, but narrow lamina, overtopping the sunmiit of the spike, but shorter than the 
culm. Each flower is characterized by its small dimensions. The glumes are from 1 
to 1,5 mm. long, broadly ovate, rounded or slightly narrowed at the summit, of a light 
brown, nearly completely membranous, with one dorsal nerve, and 2 slightly shorter 
lateral nerves. The nerves are frequenlly slightly greenish, usually not reaching the 
apex of the glume. 

The glumes are rather persistent, and remain on the spike after the ripe perigynia 
falling off. Thus, in dried specimens all of the glumes on the spikes may frequently be 
remaining, while the ripe perigynia have fallen off. At times it also happens that the 
nut itself, when having burst its perigynium, falls off, so that, here and there, open, empty 
perigj'nia may be found in the spikes. The perigynia are very small, 1,5 to towards 2 
mm. long, with flowers about the length of the glume, later on somewhat prolonged, 
when ripe projecting about Vs beyond the glume. The shape of the perigynium is 
broadly fusiform, straight, never aslant, tapering upwards, and completely beakless at 
the summit, which is obtuse, tapering into a very broad and short stalk at the base, 
broadly egg-shaped and triquetrous from the distension of the ripening nut. The species 
is, for the rest, very characteristic in having the perigynia too narrow for the ripe nut, 
so as to burst its perigynia when ripening. When young the perigynia are fusiform, 
but are gradually distended by the growing nut. taking gradually its triquetrous shape. 
The perigynia are glabrous and nerveless, save for the summits, near which a couple 
of small and short prickles are to be found on each side, and the empty perigynium 
exhibiting 2 lateral, rather faint nerves, which are generally not visible as long as 
enclosing the \n\{. The perigynium is of a light green, nearly hyaline, frequently so 
as to make the nut shine through (Fig. 77, h— i). The nut is about 1 mm. long, broadly 
ovate, triquetrous, with concave sides, with a short stalk below, and a persistent, cylindri- 
cal style above. Stigmas 3, of medium length. 

In this Canw. as in many others, there sometimes occur specimens with a very 
long-stalked pistillate spike starting from the root. /; //i;ro(/(//;a (See Tab. IV, Fig. 2). 

1.51 



In exlein;il IkiImIus, (',(Ui:v disjilodciis ii<)\. spci'. sonu'wiial resnuhlcs (jiit'.r cdiiil- 
Idiis. lull is. lor llu' rcsl. in sci t';ir ili;ii;nlcii/c(l liy ils iiiiiiiilc. Iiioiidiv ru>>iloiiu. sliiii^lil. 
coinplc'lt'ly lii;iki('ss. iiaiiow pciii^yiiia. i)i'iiij^ always hiiisl i)y llic ri|ic mil llial il can 
hardly he fonrouiidi'd wilii any oIIut species. 

r.i)llecled on the .\hakan Slep])e, near I'sl Kaiiiuisiilo. espeeially in inoisl, loamy 
and saiiferous soil, toi<ellier with various halophilons |)lants. as (Haiix nuiriliiiut suhspee. 
pcditnnildltt. l'l(iiil(ii/() lUdiiUniii snhspee. cilialii. liitiiiinciiliis pldnhif/iiiil'nliiis. I.ciiiiliiiiii 
crassi folia, I'riiniild lonniscdpa. and olheis. 

In flower and willi lipi' IVuils in the seeond half of .Inne. 

Carex atro-lusca Srhkuhi, Hiedgr. I (1801) p. lOd. 

siihsppc. coriopliora (l'"isrliei ) Kiikenth. (hipcr.-Cdiicoid. 11. i)^ (IV. 'H). HKlli) p. 
T)!")!; Kiikenth. Ci/prr. Sibir. in il>e,vieiii,ii. iMai. 'I>.i. Cnn. 11 (1012) p. l.")(l. Cair.v iisliildla 
var iS Tiev. in Ledeh. Fl. Hoss. IV. p. 295. (Jurex iistulala y C \. Meyer in Ledeh. Fl. 
All. IV. J). 233. Carex usluldUi var. Turczan. Cat. Baieal. no. ]2();?. |Tal). II. Fig. 1|. 

This subspecies is especially characterized by its short and Ihick spikes, of a |)allid 
yellowish brown colour. The culms arc erect, from iiO to 10 cm. hiyh. The leaves 
are flat, comparati\ely broad and short, 
to 6 mm. broad, of a greyish green 
colour, rough at the margin and along 
the nerves underneath, from % to H 
of the length of the culms. The number 
of the spikes to 7, nearly ovoid, on 
capillaceous, relaxed .stalks, from I to 
2 cm. long. The upper spike is com- 
monly wholly staminate, or, at limes, 
with some few pistillate flowers at the 
summit. The pistillate spikes are com- 
paratively short and obtuse, broadly 
obovate, to 1,5 cm. long. The glumes 
are ovate-lanceolate, subacute, 3 mm. 
long, 1 mm. broad, mostly broadest 
above the middle, not distinctly sca- 
rious-margined, of a shining yellowish 
brown colour, with a greenish midrib, 
reaching the summit of the glume. The 
perigynia are rather broadly oval, 
inflated, from 3,5 to 1 nun. long, and 

2,5 mm. broad, longer and broader than the glume, nerveless, slightly trigonous b<'Io\v. 
compressed above, of a yellowish brown colour, with greenish margins, nearly hyaline, 
.slightly rough along the margin in the upper part, furnished above with a short scarious- 
margined, truncate beak. The nut is long-stalked. 




Vig. IS. Care.v olro-fiisca Sc.hkuhr .sul)spcc. corio- 
pliora (I-'ischkh) Ivckknth. ("i1. a. Pistillate llower; 
tlie perigyniiim is ratlu-r Iransparent, and tlic lon^- 
slalUed acliene may l)c' seen llnough. — I). Pcriay- 
niuiii willi IIr' Illume. — c. CilLimc. 



155 



Taken on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, in moist grass-grown depressions, near 
the river, where associated with Core.r capillaris subspec. densiflora. Carex panicea, 
Orchis spec, div., Ciipripediliim macranthiim, Carex tomenlosa. etc. In full flower and 
with young fruits in the middle of June. 

Distribution: This subspecies is distributed over central Asia from Turkestan to 
Trans Baikal. 

Carex fuliginosa Schkuhr, Riedgr. I (1801) p. 91: Kiikenth. Ciiper.-Caricoid. in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 556; Kiikenth. Cijper. Sibir. in 4>eA>ieHK0, Mar. ^a. 
Clio. II (1912) p. 151. 

This species is of very rare occurrence in Asia, where heretofore only indicated 
for Siberia by Lessing, on the Ssogutici mountain, in the government of Yenisei. From 
the Altaian I have brought home a rather rich material of it, taken in moist, grass- 
grown places, among stones and gravel, at altitudes of about 2000 m. above sea-level. 
Specimens collected here at the end of .July, are nearly past flowering, and with nearly 
ripe fruits. 

These specimens from central Asia do not agree perfectly with the European ones, 
as they appear, in some respects, to be intermediate to Carex macrogi/na Tuhczax. 
(Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, 1838, p. 104), as well as to Carex frigida All. (F1. Pedem. II, 
1785, p. 270). 

The culms are, by the way, higher and more vigorous than usual in the typical 
Carex fuliginosa, from 30 to 45 cm. high. The leaves are comparatively broad, from 
4 to 6 mm. broad, about half as long as the culms. The sheaths of the bracts are always 
completely green, not brownish. Number of spikes as a rule 5, of which the 2, or rarely 
3 upper ones are staminate and densely approximate at the summit of the culm, shoiiJy 
pedunculate. They are rather long and narrow, from 1 to 2 cm. long, and 2 to 3 mm. 
broad. In this character the specimens resemble much Carex iimcrogijna, but differ 
distinctly from the latter in the structure of the pistillate spikes, being the typical one of 
Carex fuliginosa. The pistillate spikes occur in a number of from 2 to 3, and are from 
1 to 2 cm. long, from 0,5 to 0,8 cm. broad, on long peduncles, more or less relaxed, 
drooping and glabrous. 

At the apexes of the pistillate spikes there are sometimes some few staminate 
flowers. The glumes are ovate, subacute at the summit, of a dark chestnut colour, and 
furnished with a membranous margin, which may be broader or narrower. The peri- 
gynium is somewhat longer than the glumes, oval lanceolate, 5 to 6 muL long, nerveless 
and glabrous, tapering upwards, and drawn out into a distinctly 2-cleft beak, more or 
less distinctly membranous at the orifice. In many specimens this hyaline orifice is 
altogether or nearly wanting, and as these specimens are destitute of a membranous 
margin in the glumes as well, such specimens may resemble considerably Carex frigida. 
The perigynia tapers doM'nwards into a broad stalk. The margin of the beak-is distinctly 
scabrous in the upper half. 

156 



(Juili' t}i)ic';il s|i('(iiiH'ii.s ui ddici fiili(/iii<)S(i do iiol oic'ui ill iii\ collccUun! 

Besides tliese sixcimciis I lia\e collected, in the Allniaii, ;i iiuinix'r of specimens 
belonf^iii!^ lo ;i siiiallcr loini. iiiiiili ic-ciiililiiig suljspcticM iiusdiidin. Iml diilc rinj^ IVoin 
llic laltcr ill |)i(ll\ essential eliaiacleis. 

This one is scpaialcd liy me under the name of 

siihsprr. pronella hod. siihspcr. [Tab. \', V'l^. 2 and !)|. 

I'diicildlc spiniliiiiiiii db fonud Ijipicii (Ujfi'rrns: apinildc mnucro noii pliirrs iiiidin 
t? ('('/ .')'. pediiiiitilis loiu/is. Icnuibus. pronis. Icrclihus. f/hihris iiisriiae. 

Spiciildc Icrmiiidli piiri's Idiiliiinniodo ludsculi. spifulac infrrian. ncl duohiis spicidis 
iii/crioiihus.. semper fcininci, pedunciilis loiu/is. tenuihiis, la. eis. prom's iiisrrli. Spieuhip omnes 
lomjdc et angiistde, Vi-tH mm. longar. "2-'i mm. Iidde. Sipmmde compdrale hilae. 
nmrfiinibii.t lale nembrdrniceis, nervo dor.sali (lisliiiclo iii.slnirUie. delrni .sub.sprriri mi- 
.sdndnie .similis. 

In j)c)inl of external liahilus, this subspecies resembles, at first sight, Cr/re.r /tilif/i- 
nosd subspec. mi.idndni to sueli a degree that they may be confounded, but is definitely 
distinguished from the latter by having the spikes longer and very narrow, only 2 or 3 
in number, unisexual, the upper one wholly staminate, the lower one wholly pistillate. 
The spikes are always more than 1 cm. in length, generally from 12 to 15 mm., and 
from 2 to 4 nnii. broail, while in subspecies misdndra the spikes are more numerous, 
shorter and broader, frequently nearly globular, never exceeding 1 em. in length, the 
terminal .spike androgynous, staminate at the base, and pi.stillate at the summit, and 
the other ones only having pistillate flowers. Resides, the glumes have a very broad 
membranous margin, being on both sides fully as broad as the dark central ]iart of the 
glume, the whole of the spike thus becoming much paler and lighter. The glumes are 
also generally comparatively broader, and furnished with a very marked midvein. The 
perigynium is 5 mm. long, somewhat longer than the glumes, nerveless, glabrous, of the 
same shape as in the typical species. The leaves are short, from about % [o % oi the 
length of the culm rigid, slightly channelled, and recurved-spreading. All of the spikes 
are long-stalked, and, like the upper parts of the whole culm, with the staminate spike 
overhanging and drooping. The culm is about 10 to 25 cm. high. This subspecies also 
somewhat resendjies Carex sempervirens var. pendiiliiia KOkentii. (in Bull. Herb. 
Boiss. 2. Ser. IV, 1904, p. 58) but differs from the latter, above all, by having the perigynia 
glabrous and nerveless, only rough along the margins, and only slightly projecting be- 
yond the glumes, which are broader, broadly ovate, and more obtuse, and furnished with 
a very broad membranous margin. 

This species and the allied ones, with their many varieties and forms, seem to be 
in great need of a more minutely systematic investigation. 

Distribution: The main species is distributed in alpine and subalpine regions of 
central Europe, the Caucasus, Siberia (Monies Ssogutici, Lessixg), northern Mongo- 
lia (the Altaian); subspec. misandra occurs in the arctic regions of northern Europe, 
the arctic islands, arctic Asia, on the tundras on the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, on the 

157 



rivers Olonek and Lena, tlu TscIiuktscluT Peninsula. 
Norlh America and Greenland. 



he Arakam Island, as well as 



Carcx senipervirens Vill. Pi. Daupli. II (1787) p. 211. 

suhspec. tristis (Marsch.-Bieb.) Kiikenth. (A/pcr.-Curicoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 
(IV, 20, 1909) p. 569. Kiikenth. Cijper. Sibir. in (Ikmicuw. .Mar. 4>.i. Cii.-). 11 (1912) p. 154; 
Kpi.i.i. $.1, A.TT. VI (1912) p. 1515. Carex Irislis Marsch.-Bieb. Fl. Taur. Cauc. Ill (1819) 
p. 615; C. A. Meyer in Ledcb. Fl. Alt. IV. p. 228; Bunge, Enuni. Alt. p. 83; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1256; Trev. in Ledeb. Fl. Boss. IV, p. 294; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1855, II) p. 349, no. 1271. Carex frig id a l\ege\ in Act. Horl. Petropol. VII (1880) p. 569. 

In the Altaian, in moist. grass-gro\\n places, at an allitude of ajjout 2000 m. above 
sea-level. Partly done flowering at the end of July. 

Distribution: The subspecies occurs in the Caucasus, Asia Minor, south-western 
Asia, Dzungaria, the Altai and Sayansk regions, the Baikal region, Taimur, the Hima- 
layas, Cashmere. 

Carex capiilaris L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1763) p. 1386; Ledel). Fl. Alt. IV. p. 227; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1254; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. IV, p. 295; Kiikenth. (h/per.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20. 1909) p. 590; Kiikenth. Ci/per. Sibir. in <l>c,vieiii,(>. Mar. 'I).i. Cud. 
II (1912) p. 157: Ki,i,i.i. <I'.i. A.n. VI (1912) p. 
1517. • 

siibspec. densiflora nov. subspec. 

Spiculis femineis praecipue nobdnlis, 
densifloris el midiifloiis. "20 fere flores singu- 
lis ferentibus, ideo giiam spiculac formae 
Igpicae longioribiis. iiumero fere 3-.). 

Spicula tcrniinalis mascula siiminam 
spicidam femineam fere paido exccdciis. 
Utricidus in roslrnni breve, crassum. coni- 
cnm. nonnuniiudm (ddiipunu. in diiobus 
laieribiis scabriii.sculiini. cunlracliis. Folia 
comparale longiora. plus minus l^-.j mm. lalu. 

This sub-species may somewhat resemb- 
le the Turkestan subspecies Regeliana in the 
several, very densely and flowery spikes, but 
is readily distinguished from the latter bv the 
shape of the perig^^nia. In our plant the 
perigA'nium is % longer than the glume. 
ovoid, drawn out above into a rather short 
and broad, conical, generally slightly oblique 

beak, membranous and obtuse at the orifice, •"'§• ''•'■ '-arex capiilaris L. subspec. densi- 
.,.irl K;i„t„,.,ii 1 1 -1 • 1 . //07fj nov subspec. C'/i). a and b. Pislillnte flo 

and bilaterally rough, ^^•hlle, m subspecies ^^.^..^ 1 ^__j. (^^^nmes. 




1.58 



I\c<ii'lliiiiiii llii- l)(;ik is \(My Khil;. I'lic iiuuiIilt ol llic spiUes is gcneraliv 1 lo (1, of which 
liir u|)|)('i- onr is a latlu'i' small and t't\v-fk)\veic(] slaininate spike, piolriidinj^ nearlv 
as liif^li as (lie uppermost iiislillalc spiki\ or somcliincs slitjlitly hif>Iicr. Tlic numher of 
liic i)isliUal(' spil<('s is. Iiy liic way, from 'A h) ."). vi-ry I'iowciy and (Iciisc, containing 
ai)oul 20 llowcrs cacli. The pisliilah' spikes are olilont^ or cvniuhieal. from 12 to ].") 




Via SO. Carex cdiiillaris I., sulispcc. dciisi/lora iiov. siibspec. .',i. 



159 



mm. long, and from 2 to 3 nmi. l)roa(l. 'I'lie pcrigynium is of a light green colour, with 
3 rather short stigmas. The glumes are broadly ovate, the margin is membranous, of a 
pallid yellow colour, more or less distinctly suljobtuse at the summit, and furnished 
with a distinct dorsal nerve, which is sometimes rough. The peduncles of the spikes 
are long, to 3 cm., capillaceous, during the flowering season, anyway, more or less 
erect. The bracts have long and narrow sheaths, the lower ones with large and well- 
grown laminas, reaching considerably above the spike itself, but are shorter than the 
culm, the upper ones more reduced, only small and setaceous. The culm is from 10 to 
20 cm. high, and furnished with some few leaves. The leaves are comparatively long, 
about half the length of the culm, or longer, somewhat relaxed, from 2 to 3 mm. broad, 
pointed upwards, and slightly rough, of a fresh, light green, with brownish, sometimes 
fibrillose sheaths at the base. 

Taken on the Abakan Steppe near Askys, in moist, grass-grown places, near the 
river. In flower in the middle of June. 



Carex decipiens noi>. spec. [Tab. IV, Fig. 1]. 

Ciilmiix ad basin vaginis fibratis obieclus. '20-25 
cm. alius, tenuis, inferne ripidus. direclus. superne 
la.vus, (jlaber. sulcalus. Folia 'Is-'l-^ loncjitudinis cidnn, 
1-2 mm. lata, plana, leviter canaliculala, rigida. saepius 
incurvata, ad apicem attenuata et acuminata, margins, 
el nonnunquam secundum nervos lateris infeiioris, 
leviter scabra. Spiculae 3 dislantiores, longe peduncu- 
lalue: lerminalis tantum mascula, 10-15 mm. longa, 
?-'/ mm. lata, densiflora et multi flora et spiculas femineas 
distincte superans, latcrales lantnm femineae, paribus 
panels et sparsis, 10-15 mm. longae, pedunculis capil- 
laceis, erectis, vel leviter la.vis. teretibus, pnrtim parce 
scabris, nunqnam pubescentibus af/i.rae. Vaginae bracte- 
arum longiores, angustiores, inferior distincte laminifera, 
fere circiler ujedinm spiculae attingens, superior lantum 
lamina brevi et reducta. Squamae floris femineae oblunge 
ouatae, versus apicem leviter atlenuatae, rotundatae 
vel acuminalae, marginibus nembranaceis dislinclis, 
carina dislincta, fere scaberrima, instruclae. Ulriculi 
2.5-3 mm. longi. squamas ae(iuantes. ferme ovali, 
triangulati, apice abrnple conlracti, et in rostrum sub- 
cglindriacum, nonnunquam paululum obliquum, ore 
hyalino, fere distincte bidentato. productum, basi in stipi- 
tem subcglindriacum abrnple attenuali. Ulriculi pallide 
flavi, glabri. enervii, paululum compres.si et duabus 




Fig 81. CciiT.v decipiens nov. spec. 
(I'/i). a— c. Perigynia. ~ d. Side- 
view of a i)erigynium, with tlie la- 
teral rib. — e and 1'. Glumes, 
f. Side-view. 



160 



iiKiiyiiiihiis Idlcnilil'us iiislnicH in roslniin conliiuiiilis. in pciili- iliinidiit snpcrioif tlrnsr 
(iciilealis. \ii.v Idle ovala. l,.')-'-J miu. lonijd. Irifjona, lalcribns coniavis, apice sli/lo 
cijlindiidci) inslnuiii. Slifiintild .)'. lomjioKt. 

In point of oxlcinal li;il)iliis Ihis species rescnil)lrs uol :i \\\\\q Caicx (■apilldiis, cs\k'- 
cially so the sul)spt'tit's Lcdchuiiriand C A. Mi:vi;[t - (autx Irnnccnsis KCkkntiiai., 
Cciriceae Cajandciidndc {WHYA) p. 10. with the description of which it agrees in many 
respects. Care.r frdiiilidans nay. spec, iiowcvci-. is dislinclly flivcrgent in its consideiahly 
larger spikes, with Ihc pi'(hiiu'les glabrous or slightly lough, never hairy. Tlic iiiacls have 
ralhcr long and narrow slicallis, llic lower one wilii a lamina levelling tile middle of 
the spike, llie upjicr one only with a very small and nnicii reduced lamina. The sta- 
minate spike is larj^e, dense and flowery, iong-slalked. fre(]ucnllv slightly drooping, 
distinctly much overtoj)ping the upper pistiUale sj)ike. Tiic glumes in the pistillate 
.spikes are of the same ienglh as the perigynia, about :5 mm. long, gradually tapering 
upwards, rounded or subacute at the sunnnit. of a light yellowish i)rown, broadly 
scarious-margined, and furnished wilii a distinct dorsal nerve, wliicli is frequently rough. 
They are persistent, not deciduous. In other respects, the species is characterized by 
having the perigynia of a light yellow, the beaks of which are very long, about equally 
narrow throughout their length, and — not as in Carex capillnris and its varieties, more or 
less conical — distinctly apart from the perigynium itself, the orifice of which is hyaline, 
more or less distinctlv 2-cleft. The base suddenlv narrow ed into a rather long, cvlindrical 
stalk. The perigynium is distinctly triquetrous, with concave sides, somewhat compres- 
sed, and furnished with 2 longitudinal lateral ribs, continued right out into the beak, and 
distinctly beset with rather long, dense, vigorous prickles, spreading, or more or less 
appressed. As for the rest, glabrous and nerveless. 

The perig\nia are of about the same length as the glumes, by which character this 
species is distinctly divergent from Carex koreana Komakow. which it resembles in the 
structure of the perigynium, l)ut in the latter species the perignnia are twice as long as 
the glumes. The nut is about I'j to 2 mm. long, broadly ovate, triquetrous, with con- 
cave sides, furnished above with a subcylindrical beak, truncate at the summit, and 
filhng up the whole of the perigynium. The stigmas are 3, rather long. 

There can he little doul>l that this species systematically is rather nearly allied to 
Carex capillaris and must be reckoned in the same section, but differs from the latter in 
its long beak, distinctly apart from the perigynium, and etiually broad throughout its 
length, 2-cleft at the summit, moreover in the two lateral ribs, beset with dense and long 
prickles, and in its narrowed, frequently subacute glumes, of the same length as the 
perigynium; moreover, in its long-stalked staminale spikes, nuicli overtopping the 
upper pistillate spike. The stigmas are also considerably longer than in Cari-x capilldiis. 

Collected in the Altaian, at an altitude of about 2000 m. above sea-level, in some- 
what moist, grass-grown ])laces. In flower and with ripe fruits in the second half of 
.lulv. 



lb 



161 



Carcx Arnellii (Lluisl apud ScIrhU/,, IMaiil. Vascul. Jcnis. p. 177 in Sveiisk Vcl. 
Akad. Handl. N. F. XXII (1887): Kiikcnlh. Cijpcr.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 
(IW 20. 1909) p. 609; Kiikenlh. Cijper. Sibir. 
in ^e^'ioHKO, Max. <I>.ii. Cii5. 11 (1912) p. 159: 
KpM.T. «5.T. A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1519. Carex 
Tiirczaninowiana Meinsh. Cijperac. d. Fl. 
Riissl. p. 363. Carex siilvatica /? Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 344, no. 1260. 
Carex sijlimlica Hiids., Lcdeb. Fl. All. IV, p. 
230; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 295 ex pailc. 
Carex Drifiuejn Turczan. Cat. Baical.no. 1249. 

The .specimens collected are distinguish- 
ed by having the jjistillate spikes, especially 
the lower ones, very loosely flowered, 1'. 
sparsa Kukentii. 1. c. (1912) p. 161. The 
distance between the lower flowers in the 
spike is to 1 cm. The terminal staminate 
spike is 2 to 2,5 cm. long, on slender, fre- 
quently slightly relaxed peduncles, 2 to 3 
cm. long. The upper pistillate spikes now 
and then androgAnous, with staminate flo- 
wers at the summit. The glumes of tiic 
pistillate spikes are very short, about 2 mm. 

long, broadly ovate, with a very long and produced, narrow midrib, to 9 or 10 nmi. 
long, rough along the margin, f. longearislala Kom.viujw, <I>.i. JMaui.T.i.x |iiii I (1901) p. 
378. The central i:)art of the glume and the drawn out midrib are green, for the 
rest membranous. The perigv'nia on each side with a distinct lateral nerve, which is 
continued upwards in the beak. The perigynia, including the beak, are from 6 to 7 mm. 
long, and projecting far beyond the glume itself, which is only 2 mm. long, and 1,5 mm. 
broad. The leaves along the margin and on the midrib rather rough. The nut is triquet- 
rous, with concave sides, from 2 to 2.5 nun. long, with a long, generally fragile style. 
The specimens taken in the first half of June are in flower, and partly past flowering. 

Scattered in thickets of foliferous trees along the Yenisei, and in moist thickets 
on the islets, near list Abakansk. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Asia. 




Fig. <S2 Carcx Arnellii CiiiusT /'. luiiycarislala 

IvoMAR. (■*/!). a. Glume. — b. Pistillate llower 

with incipient fruit formation. — c. Nut. 



Carex diluta Marsch.-Bieb. Fl. Taur.-Cauc. II (1808) p. 388 et III (1819) p. 014; 
Kukenth. Cijper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 659; Turczan. Cat 
Baical. no. 1251; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 898; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 299; 
Meinsh. Cyper. Fl. Russl. (1901) p. 382; Kukenth. Cijper. Sibir. in <lJe;i,Heiii;o, iMar. <l>,i. 



162 



Clin. 11 (I'Jlli) |). 171; Turczaii. l"l. i5aiial.-l);iluii-. (^IS.m, II) p. Ml, no. 12(11; l,'|pi,i.i, i|>.i. 
A.iT. VI (1912) ]). ir)2(). 

ill salitVrous soil, near I'sl Kaimiishlo, associalcd willi various lialopliiloii.s [)lanls. 
In riowor ami willi IViiils al llic end of June. 

To.m'llu'i- willi llie typical form I have collected sonic K|)ecimen,s difl'ciinf> e.sjic- 
cially in llieir Ioiil;. narrow leaves, only about I'j nini. broad, relaxed, of a deep green. 
1 lir leaves are nearly as long as Ilic culms. Tlic number of Ibe spikes commonly 3, 
slioil. and nioic loosely flowered. Vhv perigynia when ri|)e, are of a dark brown colour, 
wilb very prt)iiiineiit nerves, and with a liroad, deeply 2-clcfl beak, with latlier much 
divergeni teeth. I'or the rest, agreeing wilb the typical form. According to the descrip- 
tion in .Mi;i.\sn.'irsi;N 1. c. (liJOl) p. 381, this form resembles latber much var. 
chorgosica (Mhinsh.xi'skn spec), which is recorded, however, to have considerably 
broader leaves and a greater nundier of spikes. 

Distribution: South-eastern Europe, Caucasia, south-western and western Asia to 
Turkestan and Afghanistan. Cashmere. Siberia eastwards to Daliuria. 

Carcx Oederi Retz. Fl. Scand. Prodr. (1779) j). 17'.l: Kiiki'iilh. ('.iipvr.-Caiicoid. in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV. 20. 1909) p. 673; Kiikenth. Ciiprr. Sihir. in 'i'ei/ieni.u. .Mm. "t.!. 
Ciif). II (1912) J). 173; Kin.i.i. <I).i. A.n. VI (1912) p. ir)21. (jirrx jhim L. /. minor Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. IV, p. 300. 

In moist meadows on the river Abakan, near Ask\s. I'lowering in the middle of 
June. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia. Silieria. the Azores, Madeira, North 
America (introduced ). 

Carex pscudo-cyperiis L. Sjiec. PI. cd. II (1763) p. 1387; Kiikenth. Cijper.-Caricoid. 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 695; Kiikenth. Cj/ptT. Sibir. in <l'e.uieiii;(.. Mar. 4>.i. 
Clio. II (1912) p. 175; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 308: Ki,i.,.i. <i«.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1523. 

Oil the liorders of a swamp, south of Minusinsk. Flowering and with parllv ri|)e 
fiuits al the beginning of July. 

Distribution: Europe, except Ihe extreme north, Caucasia, south-western Asia, 
southern Siberia, central Asia, Japan, North Africa, North America, Mexico, New Zea- 
land. 

Carex rostrata Stokes in With. Arraiig. Rril. PI. ed. II, 2 (1787) p. 10.59: Kiikenth. 
Cijper.-Caiicoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. II. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 720; Kiikenth. Ciipcr. Sibir. 
in (iH'j'ieiiKo, ]MaT. «l'.i. (no. II (1912) p. 181. Carex ampiilkicen Good., Ledeb. Fl. Alt, IV, 
p. 219; Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 82; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1261; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
318; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 351, no. 1271; Kpi.i.i. -Im. A.it. VI (1912) 
p. 1524. 

On the banks of the Sisti-kem, in still, muddy places. With fruits in the first half 
of August. 

163 



Distribution: Noriliein and middle Eiuope, Siberia, northern Mongolia, south- 
wcsUra and cenlial Asia, Greenland. 

Carcx lacviroslris Blytt et Fries in Bol. Nolis. (1844) p. 24; Kiikcnlii. Ci]pci:- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 724; Ktikenth. Cijper. Sibir. in 
(I>eAm'iiK(\ Mar. <i.i. Ciio. II (1912) p. 182. Carex rhijnchophysa C. A. Meyer. Ind. Sem. Hort. 
Petropol. IX Scippl. (1844) p. 9; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 318; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1855, II) p. 350, no. 1273; Kj.w.i. <D.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1525. 

Scattered in the subalpinc regions along the Upper Amyl, above Kalna, and on the 
I'pper Sisti-kem, near Ust Algiac. With flowers and young fruits in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Northern Europe, Siberia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan. 

Carex vesicaria L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1388 (cxcl. var. fi )\ Kiikenth. Cijpei:- 
Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 725; Kiikenth. Ci)per. Sibir. in 
4)eAieHK0, Max. Oj.l CiiG. II (1912) p. 183; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 220; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1260; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 894; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 317; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 350, no. 1272; Kpuji. ^a. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1526. 

This species apj^ears, in the territory explored, to be rather polymorphous. In 
swamps, on banks of rivers, etc., very common in the district about Minusinsk, on the 
islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, where flowering in June. In the Urjankai 
country rather frequent on river-banks. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern 
Asia, Sakhalin. Japan, North Africa, North America, Greenland. 

siibspcc. alpigena Fries. Mant. Ill (1842) p. 124; Kiikenth. Cijper.-Cavicoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 727; Kiikenth. Cijper. Sibir. in ^cawiiko, Max. <l>.i. 
Clio. II (1912) p. 185; Kpw.i. 1. c. (1912) p. 1527. 

In swampy places on tlic banks of the river Abakan, near Askys. In full flower 
about the mid.dle of June. 

Distribution: Northern Europe, Siberia, Greenland. 

./". brarlnjslachijs Lindeb. Bot. Notis. (1855) p. 12; Kiikenth. Cijpcr.-Caricoid. 1. c. 
p. 727. 

Of this form there occurs only one specimen in my collection, taken in a swamp 
between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk. 

Distribution: Norway (the Dovrefjeld), Siberia. 

Carex riparia Cud. Fl. Lond. IV (1783) p. 60; Kiikenth. Cijper.-Caricoid. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 735; Kiikenth. Ci/per. Sibir. in tI>eATOHKO, Max. <I).i. Ciio. 
II (1912) p. 188; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 221; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 314; Kpti.T. (I>.i. A.ix. 
VI (1912) p. 1529. 

On the banks of the Yenisei, and in swamps on the islets in the river, near Ust 
Abakansk, rather common. Taken flowering at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: Europe, western and northern Asia, North Afiica. 

164 



Carcx vcsicaiia L. ',\ (larcx riparia Cm I., Siiiu)iik;ii, luuiiii. I'l. I'lanss. ( lX8(j^ p. 
550; KiiUenlh. CAjper.-Caricoid. in Kii<^l. Pflanzenr. II. :58 (IV, 20. 1909) p. 759. 

Togellu 1 wilh llu' main sprcics in a swamp on an islet in liic Ycni.sci, near Ust 
Abakansk. 'I'iio i)erigynia aro sicrilc. 

Disliiiiulion: Mmopc, Silicria. 

("arex nufaiis llosl, liram. Aiislr. I (1801) j). 01: Kiikcnlli. (Aipcr.-Caricoid. in 
Engk Pllanzmr. II. 38 (IV. 20. 1909) j). 710; Kiikciilli. (Aipcr. Sihir. in iI'c.imciii.-o. iMai. 'iM. 
Cim. II (1912) p. 191; Li'dci). I'l. All. IV. p. 220; Karol. ft Kiiil. Kiunn. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 
895; Ledeb. Fl. Ro.ss. IV, p. 315; 1;|,m.i. <i..i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1.530. 

In diy grass-field at Minusinsk. ^Vitll neaily ripe iVuils at l!ie beginnini^ of .Inly. 

Distribution: Middle and southern l^uro])e. south-western and central Asia, SiJjeria, 
Mongolia, eastern Asia. 

r.arex hcteroslachya Bunge. Enum. PI Chin. Bor. (1832) ]). 09; Kiikenth. Cijper.- 
Carivoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (\\ . 20, 1909) p. 711; Kiikenth. Cy/w. Sibiv. in 
<I>e,viem,ii, iMaT. $.i. Ciio. II (1912) p. 192; Kpf,u. <l>.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1531. Caiex 
sooiujuiicd Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. .Soong. no. 808; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, j). ;510. 

Scattered on islets in the river Abakan, near Askys. The specimens collected with 
nearly ripe fruits at the end of June. The specimens have rather broad leaves, from 
4 to mm. broad. 

/. brevidens Krylow, <1m. A.n. VI (1912) p. 1532. 

Of this one there occurs in my collection only one specimen, taken in a moist mea- 
dow on an islet in the river Abakan, near Askys. In full flower in the middle of .lune. 

Distribution: The species occurs in Persia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia. 

Carex orthoslachys C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV. \>. 231; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1258; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 310 ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 
348, no. 1270: Kjibi.T. it.i. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1533. Cavex arislala R. Br. in Richardson, 
Fi-anklin. Narr. Journ. Bot. App. (1823) p. 30 subspecies orthoslnchijs C. A. Meyer, 
Kiikenth. Cfiper.-Caricoid. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 38 (IV, 20, 1909) p. 751; Kukenth. 
Cyper. Sibir. in 'l>e,T,>ienKo, Jim. <I>.i. C'liu. II (1912) p. 195. 

Pretty common in swampy meadows, and in thickets on the islets, and along the 
banks of the river Abakan, here and there accompanying Carex caespitosa. Taken flo- 
wering in the second half of June. The leaves are pubescent beneath and on the 
sheaths, and the specimens collected accordingly belong to /'. lijpica Krylow 1. c. 
(1912) p. 1334. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Asia. 

Cobresia spec, (ad filifoliam?) [Tab. I, Fig. 1]. 

In moist, grass-grown places on the Abakan Steppe, near the river, at Askys, only 
about 300 m. above sea-level, I have collected some specimens of a Cobresia which I 
have not been able to identify with absolute certainty. It is especially characterized by 
having always 2 stigmas only. All of its hundreds of flowers examined by me, were 

165 



found, with no oxccplion whatever, to have only 2 slignias each. Of the 29 species of 
Cobresia described heretofore, there is known only one distigmalic species, viz. 
Cobresia mciciantha Boeck, from western Tibet, from which, however, our plant is 
distinctly divergent in its structure in other respects, as in its much higher and more 
slender culms, narrower leaves, and in the structure of the spikelets themselves, and the 
appearance of the nut. so as to preclude the possibility of a mistake of identity. In 
Cobresia /ilifolin 'I'ihczan. ^= Cobresia capillifolia (Decne) C B. ("lahke var. jilifolia 
(TuRCZAN.) IvOkenth., the number of the stigmas is reported to vary between 3 and 2. 
To judge from the various descriptions and the comparatively numerous mistakes, this 
variety seemed to be rather varying, and there is, accordingly, a possibility that my spe- 
cimens might have to be referred to this one, perhaps as a special variety, having 
constantly 2 stigmas only. Nor is it quite precluded that there aie concealed several 
distinct species under the name of Cobresia filifolia. This is the more probable because 
the home and centre of the genus Cobresia is central Asia, where occurring endemical- 
ly in regions as yet comparatively little explored in point of botany. I think it expedient 
to give the following description of the specimens in question: 

Rhizoma breve, repens. Ciilmi dense caespilosi, ad basiin saepiiis bulbose Inmescen- 
les. vaginis brei'ibus, cinnamomeis. Icnuiler fibratis, dense veslili, '20-'iO vel saepissime 30-35 
cm. alii, graciles. sed rigidi el erecti, sulcali, Iriqiietri, basi laeves, siiperne scabrinscnli 
el siniililcr ac folia pallide virides aid cano-i>irides. Folia filiformia, 0.5 mm. lata, 
canaliculala, in seclione transversa paene triquetra. longiludine sacpins dnas paries cnlmi, 
rarius prope toliiis cnlmi longiludinem aequanlia, longe allenuala. in marginibns el prae- 
cipne in parlibus superioribus scabriuscula. Inflorescentia spicala, in circnilu oblonge- 
elliplica, lO-W mm. longa. i-7 mm. lala. su/Jiisca. Spicidae propriae ll-S, lineares, 
subdensi florae, e vario numero spicnlarnm parlialium composilae. Spicnlae propriae 
inferiores ma.iimae. bracteis sqaamiformibiis su/fullae. 6-10 spiculas parliales ferenles. 
snperiores appru.vimalae. ebraclealae, sensim breviores. paucioribns spiculis parlialibus 
inslniclae, snmmae singnlas tanlummodo parliales spiculas continenles. Bracleae inferiores 
magnae, lu.viiriantes, ad basim cidmiim prope complectenles. paene reclangnlatae, su- 
perne rede abscissae vel leviter emarginatae, el carina dorsi scabri inslrncla. in mncronem 
breviorem longiorem, ad 10 mm. longiim, prodncla. Bracleae snperiores minores. Spicula 
parlialis ex uno fere flore femineo basilari el 3 jloribus mo.sT/;//.s- superioribus composita; 
numerus jlorum musculorum inter 1 el 5 varians. Squamcw pallide fuscae, 3,.j-'f mm. 
longae, oblonge ovatae, attenuatae, subaculae, neruo dorsali scabro. sub apicem evanescenle, 
instructae. Prophgllum floris feminei 3-'i mm. longum, 1.5 mm. ledum, fu.scum. mcnd>ra- 
naceum, oblongum, superne fere rede abscissum. enervium.in marginibus basi leviter con- 
nalum. Prophgllum floris masculi membranaceum, circa 3 mm. longum, anguslum, 
scaphiforme, superne attenuatum, carina dislinda. acuta, saepias scabriola inslruclum. 
Nux obovcda, circa 3 mm, longa, compressa, pallide flava, inferne slipite brevi, crasso 
instruda, superne in rostrum rectum, conicum vel subcglindriacun} produdunv, marginibus 
summis nonnunquam aculeis gracilibus instruda. Stigmata semper "2. 'i-li mm. longa. 

IG6 




F'ig. 83. CobiTsia spec. (,",i). a— d. Bracts. — e. Scale. — I' and ii,. Pistillate flowers with propliyls, 
seen I'lom the interior side. — h, i and k. Achenes, i from the side. — j. Transvcisal section of 
aduMU'. - 1 and ni luuplv jiropliyls of pistillate flowers. — n and o. Propliyls of staniinale flowers, 

n as seen fioni tlie interior side, o from the side 



In the structure of the vegetative shoot, tliis species is charactei-izcd by its long, very 
fine and slender, but rigid and erect cuhns, slightly rough at the summit, to 40 cm. high. 
The leaves are very narrow, filiform, only 0,5 mm. broad, infolded, or, in transverse sec- 
tion, nearly triangular, from one half of the height of the culms to towards equalling 
them. The flower cluster is from 10 to 20 mm. long, and from 4 to 7 mm. broad, and 
is made up of a varying number of spikes (spiculae propriae), densely congested, and 
appressed to the rachis, so as to look like one terminal spike at first sight. In this 
structure of the flower cluster it resembles Cobresia caricino, and has — like the lat- 
ter — to be referred to the sect. Eiicobresia, while Cobresia fdifolia, according to the 
structure of the flower cluster, is referred to the sect. Elyna. 

The lower spikes are the largest ones, to 13 mm. long, each containing to 10 
spikelets (spiculae partiales). The spikelets are androgj'nous, each formed from one 
pistillate flower below, and a vaiying number, from 1 to 5, generally 3, of staminate 
flowers above. In the spikelet is sometimes to be found, besides a fully developed 
pistillate flower, also another one that is more or less reduced. Towards the sunmiits 
of the spikes the pistillate flower is frequently reduced, so that the upper spikelets in 
the spike are formed from staminate flowers only. The upper spikes are smaller than 
the lower ones, and contain a smaller number of spikelets, and the uppermost ones are 
reduced to only containing one spikelet each. These spikelets are, accordingly, — at 
any rate the lower ones — enclosed by 2 glumes, of which the lower one must be con- 
sidered as the bract, having also its more or less rectangular shape, and the upper 
one as the glume. The outmost one, viz. the bract, is gradually reduced upwards, so 
that the upper spikes are supported only by one glume, whereby the upper part of 
the flower cluster may really be regarded as a single terminal spike. 

In less vigorous specimens the flower cluster is at times found to be formed only 
from one terminal linear sjjike, with a varying number of spikelets of the common 
androgjmous structure, the lower spikes here also being reduced to a single spikelet. 
The bracts as well as the empty glumes of the spikelets are rather uniform. The lower 
ones are large and rather well developed, brown, scarious-margined, nearly square cut 
above, and furnished with a distinct midrib, frequently drawn out into a shorter or 
longer, to 10 mm. long, slightly rough awn. The upper bracts are smaller, and gene- 
rally destitute of a protruding midrib, frequently more or less tapering upwards, but 
are easily identified by the midrib. The glumes are from 3K> to 4 mm. long, of a slight 
yellowish brown, narrowly ovate, tapering upwards, and pointed, and furnished with 
a midrib. The prophyllums of the pistillate flowers are fine, nearly membranous, of a 
light yellowish brown, nerveless, from 3 to 4 mm. long, and 1'. mm. broad, tapering 
upwards, only slightly united at the base. The nut is oval or obovate, about 3 mm. 
long, witli a very short and broad stalk below, tapering and drawn out into a rather 
long, conical or subcylindrical beak above, compressed, elliptic or slightly trigonous in 
transverse section. The nut is of a pale yellow colour, smooth, or rarely furnished 
with a number of fine prickles along the margin in its upper half. The number of 

1(18 



llic slij^mas is always 2. lallicr loiii;. I lie pi ophx Hums of llic slamiiialc flowers arc 
naiiDW. clappcil in a lioal's sliapc. poiiilcd aljovc, IVom ','> lo I mm. ioiiy. .l;i'ih'I ail\' 
fiu-iiislio(l willi a iiioro oi' less (iisliiul i<c(l. I'iic shiKliirc of llic flower cluslcr is also, 
l)csi(lcs llic 2 sliijiiias, one of llic chief cliaraclcrs of this s])ccii's. Tlic flower clusler is 
<.;ciicial!y of llie same lype as in llic widely distiil)iiled Cohrcsid cdricind, l)ranclied, 
and. accofdiiif^Iy, lielongini^ lo sect, lutcobrcsia. 15iil owiiif^ lo Ihe fad llial Ihe U])])ci- sjjikes 
(s|)iciilac |)i()piiac) arc so much rcdiued. only cimlaiiiing one spikelet each, llic flower 
cluster is al the sumiiiil really made up of a siiii;lc Icrminal s|)ikc of Ihe h^h/ixi lype. 
Add [o Ihis llial in not quite well developed specimens the lower branches of the spike 
are also, al limes, reduced lo consi.stinfj only of one spikclel each, whereby the whole 
flower cluslcr is really formed from one terminal, linear .s])ike, quite like Kli/ii(i. l'"rom 
this appears llial the cliaraclcrs upon wliitli llic (liffcrence between the Ljenera of 
Cobrc'sid and Khjiid are based, are of a very dubious systcmalic value, and, when com- 
bined in this way, not only in the very same .species, but even in Ihc very same indi- 
vidual, they will be seen to be so in.significant that it is hardly possible lo separate these 
2 genera only upon this character. Kl'ki;nth.\l has, accordingly (1909), withdrawn the 
genus of Eli/iid as a section of Cobresid comprising the species having one linear 
Icrminal spike. 

Scirpus paluster L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 70. Eleoclmds pdhistris R. Br. Prodr. 
Fl. N. Holl. (ed. Nees) I (1810) p. 80; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 69; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1190; Karel. et Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 883; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 211: Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 311, no. 1204. Heleocharis pdlustris W. Br., h-pi.i.i. *.i. A.rr. 
\T (1912) p. 1122. 

Rather common in moist, grass-grown, and irrigated places on the islets in Ihe 
rivers Yenisei and Abakan, as well as in moist or irrigated depressions on the .\bakau 
Steppe, near the river. Taken flowering in .Tune. Specimens taken in different loca- 
lities vary considerably in the length and thickness of the culms. Near Askys I have 
gathered a form with very slender and finely striped culms, about 40 cm. high. Hereby 
it recalls /'. filiciilmis (Scnin.) A.schehs. et Graebn., but differs from the latter in its 
large spilces, to 10 mm. long. In drier places the spikes become smaller, rounder, and 
few-flowered. 

Distribution: Over the greater part of the globe. 

Scirpus iinighiniis Link. Jalirb. d. Gew. I, 3 (1818) p. 77. Elcochdiis unii/luinis 
Schult. Mant. in Syst. Yeget. II (1828) p. 88; Ledclj. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 245. Helcoclmiis 
pdlustris R. Br. /J unigluniis Schull., Kpi.i.i. (I>.i. A-it. VI (1912) p. 1422. Ekovharis df/inis 
C. A. Meyer, Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reich. VIII (1851) p. 261. 

In irrigated places near the river Abakan, at Uibat. In full flower at the end 
of .Tune. 

Distribution: The greater part of Europe, south-western Asia. Siberia. 

1!) Kil) 



Scirpus aciciilaiis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 71. Eleocharis acicularis l\. Br. 
Prodr. Fl. N. HoU. (ed. Nees) I (1810) p. 80; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 69; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1192; Karel. et Kiril. Fnuni. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 884; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 243; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 311, no. 1203. Heleocharis aciciilaiis \\. Bi-., 
Kpu.i. <I).i. A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1421. 

In swampy, irrigated places, rather common on the islets in the river Abakan, and 
on the banks of the river, in still places. Taken with young flowers in the second half 
of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme southern and northern portions, south- 
western Asia, Siberia, eastern Asia, the East Indies, America, New Holland. 

Scirpus silvaticus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 75; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 67; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1196; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 250; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, 
II) p. 314, no. 1210. 

f. typiciis Krylow, 1\i. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1425. 

Common in moist thickets, on the borders of small lakes, etc., on the islets in the 
Yenisei, between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk. Specimens taken at the beginning of 
June bearing only young flower-buds. 

/. Maximoiviczi Regel, Tentam. Fl. Ussuriensis (1861) no. 541. 

Specimens referred to this form by me, have been collected on the banks of the 
Bei-kem, near Ust Sisti-kem. The form differs from the preceding one in having the 
spikelets more pointed at the summit, and longer, from 4 to 5 mm. long, generally 
placed singly, or in pairs. Nearly past flowering at the beginning of August. 

Distribution: Europe, except the arctic and' extreme southern portions, south- 
western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, North America. 

Scirpus niaritiaius L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 74; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 68; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1195; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 882; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
249; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855. II) p. 314, no. 1209; Kpu.i. $.i. A.n. VI (1912). 
p. 1426. 

f. compactiis G. F. W. Meyer, Chloris Hanoverana (1836) p. 603; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, p. 249; Kpw.i. 1. c. 

Of very common occurrence on the liorders of the saliferous marshes on the 
Abakan Steppe, where taken flowering by me in the middle of June. The head consists 
of from 2 to 5 spikelets, most commonly 3, rarely 2, or, at times, even of 1 spikelet (f. 
nwnoslachiius G. F. W. Meyer, 1. c). The spikelets are to 1,8 cm. long, commonly 
from 1,2 to 1,5 cm. The glumes are always distinctly, densely and shortly pubescent, 
and with a far projecting dorsal nerve, of a rather light yellowish or green colour. The 
number of the stigmas always 2. The specimens collected are all comparatively 
slender, with culms from 30 to 50 cm. high, and with rather narrow leaves, to 3 mm. 
broad. 

Distribution: Nearly all over the globe, except the extreme northern regions. 

170 



Scirpus 'lahrriiiu-inoiitiiiii (iiiul. I"l. Hatkn.sis 1 ( 18().'») p. 101: Lcdtl). 1-1. All. I, p. (i(i; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. U'.M: Lcdcb. Fl. Ho.ss. IV. p. 218: Tmrzaii. Fl. Haical.-Daluir. 
(1855, II) p. ;;i;). no. 1207. Sdipus Idciisliis \. var. TiihciiKtrinmilani {L>]uv\.) UoU, Hhcin. 
Fl. (18l;5) p. Ki."): i;|,M.i. -Im A.n. VI (Hll2) p. 142G. 

(".oninioii on (lie honlcis of .swamps, etc., on llic .Abakan Slc|)pc. In full flower in 
.lunc. In the I'ljankai eountrv. in swamps on liie Dora Slep])e, near llie Bei-keni. 

Distrilnilion: The greater part of Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, the Himalayas, eastern Asia, North America, Africa, Australia. 

Scirpus nifiis (Huds.) Schrad. Fl. Germ. I (ISOC)) \). i;53: Kpi.i.i. flM. A.n. VI (l<n2) 

p. 1 12U. niiisniii.s rnfiis Link, Hort, Berol, I (1827) p. 278: Ledeb. Fl. Hoss. IV, p. 2()1; 

Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18,55. II) p. 320, no. 1219. Sdwcniis nifiis Huds. Fl. Angl. 

(17t')2) p. 15; Ledel). Fl. Alt. I. p. 63: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1188. 
siibspec. exilis nov. siibspcc. [Tab. I, Fig. 2], 

Praecipiic ah forma lypica dif- 
fcii spiculis ininurihits, 2,.5-.3 mm. 
loiigis, sinc/iilos fere /lores fcren- 
libiis. 

Rhizoma longiim, repens. Cul- 
mi numerosi, 7.5-2.3 cm. vel rariiis 
(id 'lO cm., alti graciles, siibterele.s, 
.•iiipcrne tanlummodo Icvilcr Iric/oni. 
()..')-! mm. in diam., sicci idiipie 
U'viter sidcati, nd basim vagini.'i 
fii.sci.'i. obtusis I'eslili. Folia rigida, 
erccla ciilmo dimidio fere breuio- 
ra sive aliqaanlulo longiora, salts 
crassa, siiperne leviler canalivulala, 
angiisla, O.j-1 mm. lata, apice plus 
minus oblusa. glabra sine apicem 
versus marginibus lender scabris, 
colore, ul culmus. pallide galbino. 
Inflorescentia 0,5-1,5 cm. longa. Spi- 
rulae fuscae, oblonge ountae. parnu- 
lae, 2.5-3 mm. longae. Xumerus 
spicularum inter 1 el 5 varians, 
saepius "^-'i, rarius 5. Spiculae flares 
singulos inlerdnm eiiam rudimentum 
floris superioris gerenles.: rarissime 
duo /lores in una aUpie eadem spicula. 

Bracteae infimae saepius parvulae, sipmmiformes; rarissime reli(pns longiores el brevis- 




Viji. S4. Scir/nis nifiis ^Hius.) .Schhad. subspec. f.V(7(.s- 

nov. siibspec. (■'*'i). a and f. Achenes. — b. f, g. b. Glumes. 

il, i, k. Different forms of bracts. — e. Spikelct. 



171 



.simu foliolo Icriuinanli-s. apicein inflorescentiae condngente. Squamae ?,.5-.'i mm. longae. 
caslaneae, 3-5 ncrviae. Ink- ovalae. apice plus minus rolundalae, nunquam mucronalae. 
Semen s(iuamani aequans, ellipsoideum, compressiusculum. non Idgonum, jhwum. 
glabrum. in roslrum subcglindrincum productum. Selis nullis. 

This subspecies differs, above all, from the typical species in its very small, one- 
flowered spikelets, few in number, whereby it also becomes very characteristic in point 
of external habitus. Sometimes there is to be found in the spikelets, besides the single, 
pei'fect flower, also a more or less rudimentary second one. 2 perfect flowers in one 
spikelet occur only very rarely. The spikelets are sessile: with ripe nuts they are ovoid, 
when flowering more oblong, from 3—4 mm. long, and are to be found in the spike in a 
number varying between 1 and 5, the most common number being 2 to 4. The length 
of the spike is 0,5 to 1,5 cm., and the breadth ' j to Vi of the length. The glumes are 
broadly ovate, of a shining chestnut colour, like the bracts, 3 — 5-nerved, more or less 
subobtuse at the top, never acuminate or aristate. The lower bracts ar-e geneially 
nearly ovate, rarely prolonged, sometimes exceeding the spike. The nut is of the 
same length as the glumes, elliptic, compressed, not triquetrous, as in the typical form, 
yellowish, glabrous, lustreless when dried. It terminates above in a short, persistent 
style, about 0,5 mm. long, equally broad, of a darker colour. This style seemed, ac- 
cordingly, to be comparatively shorter than in the main form. The nut itself is from 
3 to 4 mm. long, including the style. The stigmas 2, of the same length as in the typi- 
cal species. The plant in question also differs distinctly from the typical form in the 
external habitus of the vegetative shoot. Thus, the culms are much finer and more 
slender, usually only 0,5. rarely coarser, towards 1 mm. in diameter. When dried the 
culms appear to be slightly furrowed, round and slightly triangular above. Belo^^ , the 
culms are surrounded by brownish, obtuse sheaths and some leaves, about half as long 
as the culm, or slightly longer. The leaves are rigid, erect, of about the same breadth as 
the culm, chanelled above, the under side rounded and keelless. The apexes of the leaves 
are more or less obtusely rounded, where frequently of a slightly yellowish brown colour. 
The margin is glabrous, near the summit sometimes slightly rough. The whole jjlanl 
is characteristic in having a pale, yellowish green colour. Bristles seemed always to be 
wanting. 

Taken flowering and past flowering in the second half of June at Ust Kamuishto, 
where occuring on the borders of salt marshes and in saliferous soil. It is probably more 
widely distributed in Asia, but is supposed to have been confounded with the typical 
form. The ordinary Scirpus rufns does not occur in the material collected by me. 

Scirpus caespitosus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 71; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. lY, p. 246; 
Kym.i. <l).i. A.iT. \T (1912) p. 1432. 

The specimens collected are densely cespitose, with culms from 12 to 16 cm. 
high, rather vigorous, curved, glabrous and round, of a bluish green, surrounded at the 
base by yellowish grey sheaths, not distinctly shining. The upper sheaths obliquely cut, 

172 



only slii^Iitly oinarf,'iiia(c, narrowly scarious-marf<iii('(l alcove, slij^lilly inllalcd al llie sum- 
mil, and I'uinishccl with a subulate incipient leaf, about 3 mm. lony. The spike is gene- 
rally 5-flo\vercd, the lowest glume commonly 5-nerved, and the elongated leaf-like piocess 
most liTipicnlly of a green toloiir. As to tiie anatomical slrui'lure of llic cuhn, to wiiicli 
Pai.ia Ikis alhichcd some systemalic iniporlancc. may l)e noted liial Ihc iiitcivals be- 
tween the vascular iiundles arc completely filled up with green cellular tissue, the cells 
of which have quite the same form, thickness of the walls, and diameter as usual; air- 
courses are here altogether wanting. The specimens collected thus seemed to agree 
l)esl Willi f. (tiisliidciis (P.M. I. a) AsciiKUS. ct ('iiiAi;uN. Synops. Mitleleur. I'"i. 11 (11)13) 
p. 300. As the plants are so young, I have not been able to exjiress an o|)inion on 
the structure of the bristles. 

The species is of rather common occurrence in the Altaian, above the tree limit, 
in swampy fields, where collected by me, with young flowers, at the end of July. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over the greater part of Europe, Siberia, 
northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Japan, North Ameiica, Greenland. 

Scirpus alpinus Schleich. in Gaud. Fl. Helvetica I (1828) p. 108. 

sabspec. oliganlhus (C. A. Meyer). Isolepis oligantha (>. A. Meyer, Cyper. Nov. no. 
3 in Mem. Pres. Acad. St. Petersb. I; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1198; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
255; Kpbi.i. $ji. A.1T. \T (1912) p. 1433. Isolepis elongantha C. A. Meyer, Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
I. p. G4. Scirpus Meijeri Trautv. PI. Sib. Bor. sub no. 368. Isolepis pumila Roem. el 
Schult. Syst. Veget. II (1817) p. 106; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 316, no. 1212. 

This form, which I refer here, is especially distinguished by its slender, filiform 
culms and leaves, and small, ovoid spikes. The rootstock is creeping. The culms are 
densely cespitose, generally about 20 cm. high, suriounded al the base by l)rown, 
lustreless, ralher narrow sheaths, obtusely cut above. The upper sheath, or the two 
upper ones, are of a green or pale green colour, slightly membranous, with an erect, 
setaceous leaf, from 10 to 25 mm. long, with obtuse, frequently somewhat yellowish sum- 
mits. The culms are of a fresh green colour, erect, rigid, but very fine and slender, 
scarcely exceeding 0,5 mm. in diameter, furrowed, round and glabrous, or only near 
the summit sometimes slightly triangular. The spike is terminal, very small, most 
frequently 3-flowered, rarely 2-flowered, ovoid or broadly ovoid, from 2 to 3 mm. long, 
and of a light yellowish brown colour. The glumes are broadly ovate, obtuse above, 
scarious-margined, frecjuently with a greenish dorsal nerve. The two lower glumes are 
generally destitute of flowers, and with a l^ase more or less surrounding the spike, 
commonly not larger than the upper scales, apparently even smaller, and reaching only 
half up the spike. Sometimes the dorsal nerve of the lower glume is prolonged into a 
short, thick foliaceous tip, of a yellowish colour, thickened and obtusely rounded at 
the summit, whereby recalling much the lower glumes in Scirpus caespitosus. 

This tip, however, is always very short, scarcely over 1 mm. long, and generally 
reaching only to half the height of the spike, never to the summit of the spike or exceed- 



ing il, as may be the case in Scirpiis caespitostis The nuts are small, from 1,5 to 2 mm. 
long, obovoid, and al the top slightly drawn out into a very low, broad, cylindric. per- 
sistent style, rounded at the summit. Their inner sides are plain or slightly concave, the 
outer sides slightly keeled. The style has an inarticulate base and 3 long stigmas, about 
twice as long as the style. Perigonial bristles are altogether wanting. This Siberian 
form is distinctly divergent from the European forms by its rather long and straight 
culms, vei-y densely tufted, while the European ones have a long, trailing, much branch- 
ed rootstock. with scattered, shorter and frequently somewhat ascending culms. 
Compared with the figure of this typical species in Reichenbach, Icones Flor. Germ. 
8, Tab. CCC, Fig. 709, the nut also appears to be less distinctly triquetrous; as a rule, 
the inner side is nearly plain or slightly concave, and it is also destitute of the fine, sharp 
point, so conspicuous in the figure of the European form. The style in the Siberian 
form is also considerably shorter. Moreover, the rootstock is less branched. 

Of rather common occurrence in moist grass-field at Askys, near the river Abakan, 
where observed in flower and with ripe fruits in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, south-western and central Asia, north-western Mon- 
golia, North America. 

Eriophorum vaginatum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 76; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1200; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 252: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 317, no. 1213; 
Meinshaus. Cijperac. Russl. (1901) p. 269: KpM.i. «I>ji. A.IT. VI (1912) p. 1436. 

Scattered in subalpine peat-bogs in the Amy] taiga, near Kushabar, and in the 
Urjankai country near Ust Algiac, where I have taken it with fruits at the end of July. 

The specimens collected probably belong to var. brachiianlheruin ( Trai'tv.) (Erio- 
phorum brachijanlherum Thautv. Fl. Ochotens. Phaenog. p. 98; Meinshaus. 1. c). 
However, as the plants were past flowering, I have not been able to measure the anthers 
with ajjsolute certainty. Specimens from Ust Algiac are large and vigorous, with fruits 
from 2,5 to 3 mm. long, of a brownish colour. The leaf-sheaths are not much swollen. 

Distribution: The species is distributed in northern and central Europe (and also 
in northern Italy and Bulgaria), south-western Asia, Sil)cria. northern Mongolia, Sakha- 
lin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

Eriophorum angustifoliiini Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. II (1793) p. 63: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV. p. 254: Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 318, no. 1216; Kiu.i.t. fp.i. A.rr. VI (1912) 
p. 1437. Eriophorum poli/stachiou L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 76; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
71; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1203. 

Very common in the swamps at Ust Kamuishlfi, where it varies considerably as to 
the length of the culms, the breadth of the leaves, and the length of the bristles, etc. 
I have colected forms with very long-stalked spikelcts, f./«,r///7i MEivr.et Koch, Deutschl. 
Fl. I (1823) p. 456, and forms with quite sessile spikelets, f. VuiUauti (Porr. et Triu'.) 
DuBY, Bot. Gall. (1828) p. 487. In the Altaian, at an altitude of about 2100 n1. above sea- 
level, I have collected one form with lower culms, only from 25 to 30 cm. high, and 3, 

174 



nillicr siiKill spikclrls ol wliicli one is nearly sessile, llic Iwo ollicrs willi luw^. (lr()o])ing, 
i^laliious slalks. Leaves are geiuiallv 2. w illi slioil and ini|ieiieell\ developed laiiiinas, 
■^^lii'li- lil'>c ll:e basal leaves, are nearly (jnile williered al llie lime of llie ripening 
ol llie IVuil. The nul is eoniparalively nanower llian in llie lypical lonn. This one 
probably belongs lo f. (tlf)iniiin Ci.vi d. Syno])s. V\. Ilelvelicae I (KSllH) p. .'A.i. 

Dislribulion: iMirope. except Ihe soutiieni |)orlions, Caucasia, Siberia, noi litem 
Mongolia, easlein Asia. Sonlli Aliiea. Xorlli America, (li cenlaiul. 

Eriopliornin graeile Koeli in l{olli, Calaleel. II (1800) j). 2.")'.); I'lire/.an. Cat. liaieal. 
no. 1202; I. .deb. Fl. Ros.s. IV, p. 2.5.^>: Turczan. Fl. Ikucal.-Dahur. (18."w. II) p. 318, no. 
1217: |,-|,i,i.i. il>.i. A.n. VI (15)12) p. I i;;;i. 

In swampy bogs, near Knsliabar. 

Disli'ibniion: Xorlliern and middle Europe, Sil)eria, easlern .\sia. Norlli .\meiiea. 



.\ r a c e a e NECK. 

Calla paluslris L. S])ec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1373: Ledeb. Fl. All. IV, p. 178: I mezan. 
Cat. Baieal. no. 1182; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 11; Turezan. Fl. Baical-Dahur. (1854, II) 
p. 70. no. 10',)9: I.'j,,,,.,. <li,,. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1260. 

Scattered in swampy, muddy places in the forests between Kushabar and Petro- 
pawlowsk. Flowering in July. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe lo eastern France, Siberia, Sakhalin, 
Manchooria, North America. 

Acorus Calamus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 462: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 40; 
Turezan. Cat. Baieal. no. 1183; Karel. et Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 879; Turezan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 71, no. 1100; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 13: Kphi.i. (Im. A.it. 
VI (1912) p. 1261. 

On the borders of the swamps on the Dora Steppe, near Mosgalewski. Some s])e- 
cimens in flower in the middle of August. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to southern Scandinavia, and southwards to 
northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan, India, Ceylon, North America. 



L e ni II a c e a e DUMOR r, 

Leniiia minor L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1376: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 43: Turezan. 
Cat. Baieal. no. 1185; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 16; Turezan. Fl. Raical.-Daliur. (18.54, II) 
p. 68, no. 1097: Kpi.i.i. du. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1262. 

In swamps, etc., here and there about Minusinsk, and by Ihe road towards 
Kushabar. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Ihe globe, except the arctic regions. 

175 



J n II e a c e a e Vkst. 

Juncus bufonius L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 466; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 48: Turtzan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1166; Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 875; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
231: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 305, no. 1195; Buchenau, Jiincaceae in 
Engl. Pflanzcnr. H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. 105; Kpbi.i. $.t. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1404. 

Very common in the exijlored tracts of Siberia and the Urjankai conntry, where 
occurring on moist ground, along roads, in court-yards, along borders of fields, etc., 
and flowering from June to August. Besides f. tijpicus Aschers. et Graehn. Synops. Mit- 
tcleurop. FL II, 2 (1904) p. 421, there also occur forms with very low stems, and seve- 
ral flowers densely congested, f. fnsciculatus Koch, Synops. ed. I (1837) p. 732. 

At Ust Kamuishto, I have collected a form of this one, with low stems, from 4 to 13 
cm. high, and which is especially distinguished by having the inner perianth leaves con- 
siderably shorter than the outer ones, and generally somewhat more obtuse at the sum- 
mit, but never distinctly rounded. The outer perianth leaves are 4 to 5 mm. long, always 
markedly longer than the capsule, tapering upwards, and finely mucronate, furnished 
with a distinct dorsal nerve drawn out into a fine point. The inner perianth is 2 — 3 
mm. long, equalling or a little shorter than the ripe capsules, and with a midrib not 
quite levelling the summit of the leaf, which is scarious-margined. The flowers are 
either single or 2 — 3 together. The ripe capsule is light straw-coloured, not of a chestnut 
colour. The lower leaf-sheaths have a more or less markedly reddish tinge. This form 
approaches much var. halophilns Fernald et BrcHENAU in Rhodora VI (1904) p. 39, 
and is possibly identical with f. ranarius Songeon et Perrier in Billot, Annotations 
Fl. France et Allem. (1859) p. 192, which is considered by Buchenau, 1. c, to be inter- 
mediate between var. genuinns and var. hcdophiliis. The soil at Ust Kamuishto is 
slightly saline. 

Distribution: Nearly all over the globe, except the most frigid regions. 

Juneus conipressus Jacq. Enum. Stirp. Vindobon. (1762) p. 60 et 235; Buchenau, 
Jiincaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. Ill: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 229; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 304, no. 1193: Kpu.i. *.i. A.ir. VI (1912) p. 1408. 
Juncus biilbosus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 466: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 48: Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1167; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 876. 

Rather common in moist meadows, along road-sides, etc. about Minusinsk, Ust 
x\bakansk, Ust Kanniishto, Askys, and Kushabar. Flowering and with ripe fruits in 
.lune and July. 

Distribution: Europe, and temperate portions of Asia. 

Juncus Gerardii Loiseleur in Journ. de Bol. Ill (1809) p. 294: Buchenau. Juncaceae 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. 112: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 229; K|,i.i.i. <I).i. 
A.1T. VI (1912) p. 1409. Juncus bolnicus Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp. (1812) p. 11: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
II, p. 49; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 877. 

176 



l!;iilici loiniiioii in llic Iciiiloiv explored. |i;iilly lot^ellier willi llic preecdiiig one 
at Usl Ahakaiisk. I'sl Kainuislilo. and A.skxs. Al I'st Kaniiiislilo, I have eollected a series 
of forms thai seemed lo eoiislilule liansilioiis lo Ihe pi ceedint^ one, and prol)al)lv l)eing 
of a livi)rid nature i i Im sKNia.n i in Mill, deof^i'. Cus. Tliiii-. II (1881) p. 217). 

Dish ihnlion: Mmope. eeiihal Asia lo China, noilii-weslern Africa, Noilii .\merica. 

In llie maleiial bioui^lil iiome there may, besides the typieai foi ni, (vai. Ii/piciis 
Brc.ni-x.vc in Imi;.^!. .lalirh. \ll ( l.S'.Kt) p. hS.S) lie distinelly sepaialed Ihe following 2 types, 
hetwt'eii which. ho\\(\ci'. there an- lo he found numerous intermediule forms. 

siihspcr. alrifiiscus (lUipr.) Trantv. in iJnIl. Soc. Nat. Moscou (18()7) p. 1 10. ./(u(c(/s 
hiillxisiis L. var. alrofiisciis l\c<i,e\ in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosrou (18()8) ]). 272. 

This subspecies, which is especially characterized by its loose, generallv rather 
long-stalked flowers, and nearly black |)erianlh leaves, I have collected on the .\hakan 
Steppe, near .\skys. In full flowi'r in the middle of .lune. 

Distribution: Subarctic regions, and the salt steppes of the interior of Asia. 

siihsprr. salsunino.sus (Turczan.) Buchenau in Engl, .hdirb. XII (1890) p. 18'.). Jiinnis 
salsiu/iiwsus Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1164; Ledeb. Fl. lioss. IV, p. 2;5(): Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 304, no. 1194; Kpw.i. 'l>.i. .\.ii. VI (1912) p. 1 lO'.t. 

This subspecies has rather dense flowers, partly congested in a head, whereby this 
form, in point of external habitus, is apt to be confounded with .liincas (il[>irnis. Occurs 
in moist grass-field in depressions on the Abakan Steppe, here and there together with 
the preceding one. 

Distribution: The steppe area of central .\sia. 

.luncus filil'orniis L. Spec. PL ed. II (17(^)2) p. 465; Buchenau, J uncaccae m Engl. 
Pflanzcnr. M. 25 (IV, 36, 190G) p. 127; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IT, p. 46; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1162; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 223; Turzan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (18.o5, II) p. 302, no. 
1190; Kpi.i.i. 3>.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1410. 

Not unfrequcntly to be found at Kushabar, near Ust .\lgiac. on the Sisti-kem, and 
at Ust Tara-kem, in moist, grassy places. With young flowers in the middle of July. 

Ihe specimens collected arc large and vigorous, to 0,5 m. high, few-flowered, to 
7-flowere(l (f. Iijpiciis Khvi.ow. <1>.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1111). 

Distribution: Europe, except tiie more southern jiortions, south-western .\sia, Sibe- 
ria, northern Mongolia. Sakhalin, North and South .'America, (ireenland. 



Jiinrus Iriglumis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17G2) p. 467; Buchenau, Jiincaceae in Engl. 
Pllanzenr, H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. 224; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 50; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
1169; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 233; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Daliur. (1855, II) j). 306, no. 1197; 
iMii.i... «I«,i, A.rr. VI (1912) p. 141,5. 

In the Altaian, above the tree limil, in moist, gras.sy places. In full flower at the 
end of .luly. 

20 177 



The Ijiat-llcls arc ovale, subohlusc a( Llie top. of a dark l)io\vn. 'A to % as long as 
the I'lowcrs. The leaves are comparatively broad. 1 to 15 mm. The stems arc solilary. 
generally not tufted. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine tracts of Europe, south-western and central Asia, 
Siberia, northern Mongolia, North America, Greenland. 

Luzula pilosa (L.) Willd. Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. (1809) p. 393; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV, p. 214; Kpi.i.1. $.1. A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1397. Buchenau, Juncaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. 
H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. 48. Lnziila iwrnalis DC. Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 44: Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 1171. 

Scattered in the subalpine taiga territory about the Upper Amyl. 

Distribution: Nocthern and middle Europa, Trans Caucasia, Siberia, in the Yenisei 
valley to 68^ north latitude, and eastwards to Lake Baikal. 

Luzula multiflora (Ehrh.) Lejeune, Fl. Envir. Spa I (1811) p. 169. Luzula campe- 
slris DC. var. mullipora Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohmen (1869) p. 85; Buchenau, Juncaceae in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. 94; KpLi.!. <P.t. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1400. Luzula 
campestris /J eircta Ledeb. Fl. Alt. H, p. 45; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1173. Luzula 
campesliis /i in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 219; lurczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 300, 
no. 1187. 

The specimens collected are characteristic in having the stems vigorous, to '- m. 
high, glabrous, moreover in ha\ing the leaves rather broad. 4 — 6 mm., completely 
glabrous, even the orifices of the sheats being destitute of tufts of hairs. The flower 
cluster is made up of numerous, small, globular, and few-flowered spikes, 10 to 15 in 
number, on stiff, erect peduncles, to 5 cm. long. The lowest iiract foliose, equalling or 
even exceeding the inflorescence. The capsule is of the same length as the perianth. 

Occurring in the Altaian, near the tree limit, with ripe capsules at the end of Jul v. 
I have also observed the species near Ust Sisli-kem and at Ust Kamsara. 

Distribution: Temperate portions of Europe and Asia, North America, Australia. 

Luzula coufusa Lindeberg in Nya Botaniska Notiser (1855) p. 9; Buchenau. 
Juncaceae in Engl. Pflanzeni-. H. 25 (IV, 36, 1906) p. 70. Luzula arcuala var. ;- in 
Buchenau, Monogr. Juncac. (1890) p. 125. Luzula arcuala Wahlenb. in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV. p. 218 ex parte. 

Rather common in the Altaian, above the tree limit, in moist, mossv and grass- 
grown places. 

Taken with nearly ripe fruits at the end of .July. The material collected agrees 
perfectly with Scandinavian specimens. 

Distribution: Arctic regions of the old and new world, in more southerly tracts 
only on lofty mountains. 

178 



Lii/.ula l'ri,ni«l;i ( Hiiclicnau ) Saiiuiclsson in l.iiiiliiiau. SvciisU l-'aiicro^amllui a (I'.US) 
p. Uil. Liiziilii (■(iiiipcslris I., vai. fiitjidd liiu liciiau. Oeslerr. Hoi. Zeilsclir. (18'J8) 
p. 281. 

'I'liis one. wliicli is scl up firsl as a dislincl species by Gunnah Sami;ki,sson in 1!»18, 
1 lia\i' 1(11111(1 lo !)(• raliuT coinmoii in (lie Allainii. wiiorc coiioclcd l)v nic in grass- 
i;i()\\ii places, al)()vc llii- Ireo liniil. al an allilmlc oi' about 2000 in. ai)ovc sca-lcvol, 
wilii lipr capsuh's al tbc ciul of .luly. Tiu' aiillior. wbo bas revised inv malerial, in- 
loinis me liial my spccinicns laiicii liere agree ])ei-reelly willi llic Ivpieal I'orni. 

Dislni)ulii)ii: Europe (Si-andiiKi\ia and llic Alps), SavansI; iiiounlains. ('.iiiiia. 

Lu/.iila s|)ee. {nn iiotxi'.') 

L. mullij]ornc ixildc (ifjiiiis. scd (lijjcii Irpulis Juioniijiis. ca/wi/Z/.s iicuniiiiiili.s, 
slijlis hrci'ioiihiis. 

hi alpine Iraels of llie .\llaian I iiaxe found some speeiniens most JikeK belong- 
ini> lo a new species alUcd to L. miillijlorct, but differing from the lypiral luiroiiean one 
])\ its darlcer perianth leaves, pointed capsule, and shorter style. 

I'aken together with the two preceding ones in grass-grown places, willi ripe fruits 
al the end of July. 

In exotic tracts are no doubt lo be f(nin(l a whole succession of obscure forms 
belonging lo Ihc Luzulu (■(iinpcslris group. Several of these may be new species, but 
Ihe malerial is to insignifieanl to allow a relialile decision. 



Liliaceae IK'. 

Vcratnim albmn L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(i:i) jk 1 17i): Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. (ii; 
Turczan. Cat. Baieal. nt). 1160: Karel. el Kiril. Knum. I'l. V\. \\[. 871: Ledeb. Fl. Pvoss. 
IV, p. 208: Turczan. Fl. Haical.-Dahur. (1855, II) p. 2'Jl, no. 1181: I,>i,i.,. <I>.i. A.n. Vi 
(1912) p. 139,5. 

Dispersed in Ihe .\niyl vallew bul iiukIi rarer Ihan the following subspecies. 

siibsprc. Lobeliaiium (Bernh.) I>eichenb. V\. German. Excurs. I (18a0) \). 97; 
Ledeb. 1. c. 

Occurring in moist, grass-grown places in the taiga, about the Upper Amyl. the 
Algiac and Si.sti-kem rivers, where, in places, being one of the most characteristic 
plants. The species begins flowering aboul the middle of July. 

Distribution: Europe, north-western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia. 

Zygadeniis sihiricus (Kunlh) Asa Gray, Melanth. in Ann. Lye. Hist. Nat. New-York 
IV (1837) p. 112: Kpi,i.i. <l>.i. A.n. VI (1912) p. 1392. AnticU-a sibirint Kunlh. Enumerat. 
IV, p. 121: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 207: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (185.5, II) p. 292, 
no. 1179. Leimanlhium sibiricmn Schull. Syst. Veget. VIII, p. 1551; Turczan. Cat. 
Baieal. no. 1158. 

179 



In woods of Larix sihiricd ;iiul Piiiiis sihn'slris, near the month of the Sisti-keni. 
Nearly past flowering at the beginning of August. 

Distribution: Southern portion of the government of Perm in European Russia. 
Siberia, northern Mongolia, Manchooria. 

Hemerocallis flava L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 462: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 39: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1140: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 194; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854, II) p. 128. no. 1176; Kpw.i. <Iu. A.n. YI (191-) P- 1-^91. 

Very common about the river Abakan, on the banks as well as the islets, wiiei-e 
occurring in open brush-wood, natural meadows, and the like places. Begins flowering 
about the middle of June. I have also observed it in tlie Urjankai country, here and 
there on the Sisti-kem and the Bei-kem. 

Distribution: Southern Europe from south-eastern France, the Caucasus, northern 
Mongolia, China, Japan. 

Lloydia serotiiia (L.) Reichenb. Fl. German. Excurs. I (1830) p. 102: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 144: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 114. no. 1156: Kin.i.i. fl).i. A.ix. 
VI (1912) p. 1357. Xectarobolhrinm striatum Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 36. Anthericiim sero- 
tinuin L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 444: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1141. 

Scattered in sandy and gravelly places, among grass and mosses in the Altaian, at 
altitudes of about 2000 m. above sea-level. In full flower at the end of July. The speci- 
mens gathered are uniflorous, from 20 — 25 cm. high, with three to four cauline leaves. 
I'he basal leaves overtopping the stem, to 30 cm. long, and 1.5 mm. broad. The stamens 
are comparatively short, scarcely reaching the middle of the perianth. On Reichenbach's 
figure in Icones Fl. German. X. fig. 972, they are considerably longer, only H to K 
shorter than the perianth. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, southwards to northern Italy, the Caucasus, central 
Asia, northern Mongolia, south-eastern Siberia. Novaya Zendya. northern Siberia. Ne\\' 
Siberian islands. North America. 

Erythronium dens canis L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 437 ex parte: Ledeb. Fl. .Vll. 11. 
p. 37; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 133; Kpbi.i. $.i. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1345. 

In thickets, near Ust Sisti-kem: past flowering about the middle of .\ugusl. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, 
Japan, North America. 

Allium odoriim L. Mant. I (1767) p. 62: Regel, .4//. Adh. Cogn. Monogr. ji. 175; 
Kegel, All. Turkest. p. 86; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 15; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1153; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 858; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, ]). 185; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (18.54. II) p. 127. no. 1175: Kpu.T. i>.i. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1387. 

Dispersed on the steppes about Ust Kamuishto, where especially occurring in 
very dry places, and in saliferous soil. The stems are rather stout and vigorous. 3 to 4 

180 



mm. ill (limiuU'r. I Ik- Ic;i\cs Irom '.'> lo (> mm. Iinmil. ;m(l ii.su;ill\ not i|iii|{' so \o\\^ 
as llii' sU'ius. I.ciiLilli 1)1 llic pniaiilli L;t'iicially (i mm., rarely up Id (S mm. Cialluai'd willi 
\()uni< llowi'i's. some of tlicm nol tiill-lilow ii. in llic sccoiid hall ol .lime. 

Dislrihulioii: Ivislern I'lirkeslaii. and ceiilral .\sia, Silieiia. iiorllieiii .Moiii^olia, 
(astern .\sia. Saldialin. .lapaii. 

Alliuiu Viclorialis L. Spec. I'l. ed. II (1702) p. 124; Regcl, All. Adli. Cot<n. Monogr. 
p. 170: Ledel). Fl. Alt. II, ]). 8: Turezaii. Cat. Baieai. no. 1152: l.edeh. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
181: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1854, II) p. 127, no. 1171: l,|.i,i.i. 'Im. A.n. VI (1012; 
p. 138G. 

Seatlered in the Mil>;dpiiu' woods, rimonj^ coiiilers, ;m(l in Ihiekels of foliferous 
trees, about the I'pper Amyl and in llic .Altaian, where i have collected it wp to alli- 
ludes ot about 2000 m. above sea-le\i'l. 1 lie leaves ol the specimens gathered are rather 
narrow, from 2 — 3 cm. broad, and the length ;5 — 7 times the breadth. The sunnnils of 
the perianth-segments are rather acute, length 11 mm., breadth about ':, of length. In 
full flower in July. 

Distribution: .Southern antl middle Eiuope, the Caucasus, Siberia, central Asia, 
northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Japan, north-western .America. 

Allium clathratum Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 18: Ledeb. Fl. Hoss. IV. p. 178: Hegel, All. 
Adh. Cogn. Monogr. p. 173: Regcl. All. Asiac Central, p. 313: K|.i.i.i. «l'.i. .V.n. VI (1912) 
p. 1384. 

A few specimens of a verv young Allium, gathered on the grassy sle])pcs near 
.\skys, probably belong to this species. The specimens being very young, with flower 
clusters not exceeding a few mm. in length, a reliable decision is difficult, it being just 
possible that they may have to be referred to a narrow-leaved form of the nearly allied 
.4. lineare L. The narrow, fine leaves in the specimens, however, are characteristic of 
A. clathratum. though both the species in the breadth of the leaves are connected with 
intermediate forms. 

Distribution: Southern portions of central Siberia, and adjoining ])ortions of 
Mongolia. 

Allium lineare L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 423: Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. G; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1150; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 882: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 
178: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 122, no. 1166: Regel, All. Adh. Cogn. 
Monogr. p. 166; Regel, All. Asiae Centr. p. 344; Kpi.i.i. <l).i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1383. 
Allium striclum Schrad. Hort. Goetting. (1809) Tab. 1; Ledeb. 1. c; Regel, Monogr. p. 
164. Allium splemlens Willd. Herb. no. 6477; Ledeb. 1. c; Regel, Monogr. p. 168; 
Turczan. 1. c. (1854, II) p. 123, no. 1168. 

Of this species I have only one specimen in my collections, taken in dry meadows, 
between Karatus and Kushabar. In full flower about the middle of July. 

Distrilnition: Middle Europe, southern Russia, south-western and central Asia, 
Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin. 

181 



Alliiiin tenuissinium L. Spec. I'l. 11 ( I7(VJ) p. 433; Ledeb. 1-1. Alt. II. p. 23; Tuiczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1146; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 183; Kegel. .4//. Adh. Cogn. Monogr. p. 
157; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 12C) no. 1173: Kpi.i.i. 'Im A.m. VI (1912) 
p. 1380. (Non Allium teniiissimiim Habl.). 

Common on the Abakan Steppe, near Askvs, especially on dry. hot, stony slopes, 
where gathered by me in full flower in the middle of June. 

siibspec. anisopodium (Ledeb.) Regel, 1. c. Allium (inisopodium Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
IV. p. 183; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 126, no. 1172; Kiw.i.i. 1. c. p. 1380. 
Allium lenuissimum var. Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1146. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe, between Askys and Ust Abakansk, where it 
begins flowering at the end of June. 

Distribution; Southern Siberia, Mongolia, southwards to Tibet, northern China, 
and Manchooria. 

Allium albidum Fish. Cat. Hort. Gorenk. (1812) p. 10; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 181; 
Regel, All. Adh. Cogn. Monogr. p. 151; Regel. All. Turkest. p. 77; Regel, All. Asiae Centr. 
p. 337; Kpti.T. <I>.r. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1379. 

On dry, stony slopes, between Minusinsk and I'sl Abakansk. With young flowers 
in June. 

Distribution: Ea.stern Austria, middle and southern Russia, Trans Caucasia, eastern 
Turkestan, Siberia, north-western Mongolia. 

Allium Stellcriauum Willd. Spec. PI. II, p. 82: Ledeb. V). All. 11. p. 24; Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 869; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 181; Regel. All. Adh. Cogn. 
Monogr. p. 149; Regel, .1//. Turkest. p. 76; Regel, ,4//. Asiae Centr. p. 337; Kpi.i.i. <l).i. A.rr. 
VI (1912) p. 1378. 

In gravelly and grass-grown ])laces. belweeu I'st Abakansk and Minusinsk. With 
young flowers at the end of June. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia. Turkestan, Siberia, except the extreme eastern por- 
tions, northern Mongolia. 

Allium seue-sceiis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 430: Ledeb. Fl. All. 11. p. 12: Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. IV. p. 180: Regel, .4//. Adh. Cogn. Monogr. p. 137; Regel, yl//. Asiae Centr. p. 
336; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 124. no. 1169: IVpM.i. <1m. A.rr. VI (1912) 
p. 1376. Allium glaucum Tmczan. Cat. Baicak no. 1148. 

On dry. waste steppe on the Ulu-kem, near Bjelosarsk. Past flowering at the end 
of August. As the flowers are wanting, it is difficult to decide to which variety of this 
polymorphous species the specimens should be refeiTed. 

Distribution: Middle Europe up to southern Scandinavia (Sleswick), south-western 
and central Asia, Sil)eria, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan. 

182 



Alliimi Scli()('no|)i:isiim L. Spec. 1*1. rd. II (17(12) \). V.VI: l.cdcl). 11. All. 11, |.. 17; 
Tuirzan. ('.;il. \',:\\v;\\. no. 1 1 I'J: Kaicl. tl Kiiil. luiiiin. I'l. I'l. .Ml. no. 8()1; Lodcl). 1-"1. 
Ho.ss. \\. p. l(l(i: l!r,i;(l. .1//. .Villi. Co^n. Mono^r. p. 77: lU'^ol. All. I'lirkcsl. p. -lii; 
Hegel, .1//. .\si:ic Ccnlr. p. ;5()t): Tun/an. l"l. Haical.-Daliur. (1<S.")I. II) p. 11'.). no. 1102; 
K|.i,i.i. 'IM. .V.ii. VI (1912) p. i;Ui7. 

subspiT. lypicimi Hef^el. .1//. .Vdli. t'.oi;n. Monoyr. p. 77. 

Very common in llic .\llaian. in inoisl, grass-grown, and pailly irrigated haijilals, 
w luMc. in places, nearly exclnsivcly covering (lie ground ovi-r large tracts. The stem.s 
generally 20 to 30 cm. Ingli. with one very short leal, al a height from the ground of 
ahout one third of the stem. Gathered in full fiowei- at the end of .July. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, south-western and central Asia, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia. Japan, North .\nierica. 

Liliiini MarJagon L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 435: Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 38: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 113(1: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. IV, p. 149; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851, II) 
p. 11(1. no. 11.58. 

siibspec. pilosiusculiini Freyn. Planlae Karoanae (Oeslerr. Bot. Zeilsciuifl XL (1890) 
p. 224: K]>i.i.i. «1M. A.Ti. VI (1912) p. 1361. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys. in not too dry, gras.s-grown places, 
accompanying Adenophora lilii/olia. Alraplmxis /riilcscens, and others, where gathered 
flowering in the second half of June. Rather common in woods and thickets of foliferous 
trees in the Urjankai country, ascending in alpine situations to above the limit of tree 
vegetation. Ust Sisti-kem. the Kamsara, on the Tara-kcm, and near the Dora Steppe. 

The bulb, being about 5 cm. long, is used for food by the natives of the I'rjankai 
country. It is drawn up by means of an instrument especially made for the purpose, 
and after being dried bv the sun, is mixed up with reindeer's or cow's milk. Such 
dried roots are called «Kandick». The bulb of Evijlhionium dens ranis L. is employed 
in the same way. 

The specimens gathered are distinguished by tlieir comparatively narrow leaves, 
from 7 — 9 cm. long, and on an average from 12 — 18 mm. broad. The Siberian specimens 
of this species which I had occasion to see in the herbarium of the Imperial Botanical 
Gardens in Petrograd, have also mostly the leaves narrower than the Norwegian mate- 
rial 1 have had for comparison. The upper parts of the plants and the outside of the 
pcriantii leaves are more or less densely covered with long, tattered hairs. The leaf- 
like bracts are more or less densely hairy, in particular underneath and at the margin. 
The leaves usually hairy only at the margin. These marginal hairs are gradually reduced 
downwards, appearing only as small papillae at the margin of the lower leaves. 

Dislriluition: Europe, Trans Caucasia. Turkestan, Siberia, northwards towards 69 " 
in laliUide. norlhern Mongolia, Japan (an culta?). 

A.sparagus Pallasii nov. nom. Asp(ir(i(/iis innriliiniis Pall. Reise II (1773) p. 329; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. II: Ledeb. Fl. P>os.s. IV. p. 198: i;,,,.,.!. .Lt. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1312. 

183 



The name oi Asparagus mnriliiuiis wni^ already applied by Min.Eiun 17G8 in The 
Gardener's Dictionary ed. VIII, no. 2. to another species, which, therefore, according to 
the principle of priority, is entitled to this name. I therefore enter Pallas's species 
of 1773 as Asparagus Pallasii. 

Scattered on the steppes in the vicinity of Minusinsk, as well as on the steppes on 
the Ulu-kem, near Chakul. With flowers, and in part past flowering, at the beginning 
of July. 

Distribution: South-western Asia, south-western Siberia, northern Mongolia. 



's'- 



Majantheiiuim bifolium (L.) F. AY. Schmidt, Fl. Boem. Cent. IV (1794) p. 55; Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. IV, p. 333; Kpu.T. a'.i. A.aT. VI (1912) p. 1338. Smilacina bifolia Desf., Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1130: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 127; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, 
II) p. 109, no. 1150. 

Scattered in the subalpine woods about the Upper Amyl. especially in somewhat 
moist places, in thickets, etc., near Ust Algiac, on the Upper Sisti-kem. on the Tara- 
keni. Flowerless specimens occur here and there, with only one long-petioled leaf. The 
flower-bearing stem, therefore, is not always developed every year. With flowers in .July, 
and fruits in August. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme southern portions. Siberia, northwards 
to about the arctic circle, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia. 

Polygonatum officinale Allioni, Fl. Pedemontana I (1785) p. 131; Ledeb. FL Ross. 
IV, p. 123. Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 107, no. 1147; Kpbi.a. Q>j. A.it. VI 
(1912) p. 1335. Convallaria Polygonatum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 451; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. II, p. 41. Pohjgonatum vulgare Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1126; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. 
PI. Fl. Alt. no. 841. 

Rather common in meadows, and thickets of foliferous trees on the islets in the 
Yenisei, near Minusinsk, where it begins flowering in the early days of June. Besides 
the typical form, with stems from 30 — 40 cm. high, and with half enclosing leaves, I have, 
near Kushabar, collected a rather rich material of a much more vigorous form. Stems 
to 75 cm. high, quite glabrous, from 5 to 8 mm. in diameter lielow, where distinct 
marks of lower scales fallen off early. Leaves large, elliptic, to 16 cm. long, and 6 cm. 
broad, mostly tapering below towards a short, but rather distinct, channelled petiole, up 
to 0,5 cm. long. Peduncles drooping, rather thick, completely glabrous, angular, to 3 
cm. long, one-flowered, rarely branching and two-flowered. Peduncles occasionally 
bearing a single scale, very small, and linear, only 1 — 2 mm. long. Perianth tube 18 
mm. long, 5 — 7 mm. in diameter. In point of external habitus, this form resembles 
rather much Polgqonalum multi/lorum, but is markedly distinguished from the latter 
by the stem, scaly below, one- (rarely two-) flowered peduncle, and quite glabrous fila- 
ments. I have also observed the species in thickets near Ust Kamsara. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north and south, Siberia, noithern Mon- 
goHa, eastern Asia, Japan. Sakhalin. 

184 



Paris qiiadril'oliiis I>. Spcr. IM. id. II ( 17()li) |). ."i^d; Lidcli. M. All. 11. p. .S8; l.cdelj. 
Fl. Ros.s. IV, p. 120; l,-|,„i,i. <l'.:. ,\.ii. VI (1912) p. VXVA. 

Scallcii'd ill sIkkIv jilaccs in llic sulialpiiic woods alioiil llic Ippci- .\in\l. Willi 
youiii^ fruit.s in llu> firsl half of .Iiilv. 

Di.slrihulion: Imiiojx', cxci'i)! [lie cxln iiic soiilli. Asia Minor. Silicria. ca.slward.s to 
about the Yeni.sci. 

Iris flavissima Pall. Rcisc III (1770) p. 71.-): Li-di-h. Fl. Alt. TV. p. 332; Tuiczan. 
Cat. Haioal. no. 1122; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV. p. 102; Maxim. Diai^n. IM. Nov. Asiat. III. p. 
725; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daluir. (1851, 11) p. 101, no. 1110; Ki.i.i.i. 'l-.i. .\.ii. VI (l'.)12) 
p. i;i2'). 

RaliuT ronniion in Iho regions about Ihc livcr .Kbakan, rieipiently on sandy banks 
of rivers, and the like. Speeimens gathered on the i.slets in the lower parts of tliat river, 
at the end of .June, are nearly past flowering, a few with almost ripe fruits. 

Dislribulion; South-eastern Europe, south-western and central Asia, southern 
Siberia, northern, Mongolia, eastern Asia. 

Iris ruthenica .\iton, llort. Kewensis ed. I (1810) p. 117; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 55; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1117; Bongard et Meyer, Suppl. Fl. Alt. no. 294; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 94; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 97, no. 1134; h'pi.i.T. «l).i. A.it. 
VI (1912) p. 1324. 

Rather common on the steppes between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, on grass- 
grown hill-slopes, in thickets of Cnragana arborescens, here and there associated with 
Solidago Virgaiirca, Asler nlpiniis, SlcUaria graininea. and others. In full bloom at the 
beginning of June. 

Distribution: South-western Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, northern China. 

Iris ensata Ihunb. in Act. Soc. Linn. II, p. 328; Maxim. Diagn. PI. Nov. Asiat. 111. 
p. 699; KpLi.T. *.!. A.iT. VI (1912) p. 1323. Iris bigliimis Wahl, Enumer. Plant. II, p. 
149; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1120; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 95; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1854, II) p. 98, no. 113G. Iris haemaiophglla Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. \\[. I. j). 58. 
Iris Pallasii Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 4. 

Very common in the district about Minusinsk, where occurring in rather varied 
soil. Here and there, among sand, in the streets of the villages, and on the hills out- 
side. On the Abakan Steppe covering in places nearly exclusively the ground, over 
tracts of land several square km. wide. Flowering in ,Iune and the first half of July. 

Distribution: South-western and central Asia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern 
Asia, Japan. 

r (• h i <I a e a e J USS. 

Cypripedilum guttatum Swartz in Acl. Acad. Holm. (1800) p. 251; Ledeb. Fl. All. 
IV. p. 174; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1115; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 88; Turczan. Fl. 



'21 



1S.5 



Baical.-Dahur. (1S:>1. II) p. 95. no. 1132; Pmzei: Orchid.-Pleon. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 
12 (IV, 50, 1903) p. 32: Kpw.i. «I>.i. A.ir. VI (1912) p. 1319. 

Dispersed on the islets in the lower part of the river Abakan, especially in thickets, 
among grass, etc., and in thickets of I'oliferous trees near the Dora Steppe as well. 
Taken in full flower in June. 

Distribution: Central and southern Russia, Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern 
Asia, Sakhalin, North America. 

Cypripedihim niacranthum Swartz in Act. Acad. Holm. (1800) p. 250: Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. IV, p. 174: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1114: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 87; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 94, no. 1131; Pfitzer, Orchid.-Pleon. in Engl. Pflanzenr. 
H. 12 (IV, 50, 1903) p. 32: Kpw.T. >l\i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1318. 

Rather common in the regions about the river Abakan, on the islets in the river, 
in thickets, among grass, and the like, in moist, grass-grown fields in depressions on the 
Abakan Steppe, near Askys, accompanying various sedges, Orchis etc., and near Ust 
Sisti-kem. Collected with flowers in the middle and at the end of Jvdy. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Russia. Siberia, Sakhalin. Japan, eastern Asia, 
northern ^Mongolia, central Asia. 

snbspec. ventricosum (Swartz) Reichenb. Fl. German. Excurs. I (1830) p. 120: 
Pfitzer, 1. c. p. 34; Kjim.t. 1. c. p. 1319. Cijpripedilum venlricosiim Swartz, 1. c. ]). 251: 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 87. 

Only a few specimens observed on an islet in the river Abakan, near Askys. In 
full flower about the middle of June. 

Distribution: Middle Russia, Siberia. 

Piantanthera bifolia (L.) Reichenb. Fl. German. Excurs. I (1830) p. 120; Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. IV, p. 171; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1102; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 69; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854. II) p. 85; KpM.r. <I).t. A.it. VI (1912) p. 1315. 

In somewhat dry, grass-grown Ihickets. near Kalna. Nearly past flowering about 
the middle of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Asia Minor, Trans Baikal, Siberia, North Africa. 

Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm. Handb. Skand. Fl. (1820) p. 329: K|ii,u. $.i. A.ix. 
VI (1912) p. 1314. Peiistiilis uiiidis Lindl. Synops. Brit. Fl. (1829) p. 261: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. IV, p. 72. Gijmnadenia viridis Rich., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 169: Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 1100. Platanthem viridis Lindl., Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 86. no. 1122. 

In moist, grass- and moss-grown places on the river Algiac. Flowering in July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, Asia Minor and south-western Asia, 
Siberia, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin (var.). North America. 

Gymnadcnia conopea (L.) R. Br. in Aiton, Hort. Kewensis ed. II, V (1813) p. 191; 
Ledeb. FL Alt. IV, p. 169; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1099: Ledeb. Fl. Ross, IV, p. 64: 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 83, no. 1117: Kjim.!, <I>.i. A.n. VI (1912) p. 1311. 

186 



Disporscd in inoi.sl meadows, in ilcjiicssions on llu- Aiiakaii Slcj)j)c. iicai' Askys. 
as well as near I'sl Sisli-i<cm. Willi y(niiiy [lowers in llic niiddlc ol .June. 

Dislrihnlion: lun()|i('. soulli-weslern .\.sia. Siht-ria. norllicin Mongolia, caslcrn .\sia. 
Sakhalin. 

Hcrniiiiium nionurc-his K. Br. in AiLon, liorl. Kiwensis ed. 11, \ (181ii) p. HJl; 
Ledeb. Fl. All. IV, p. 171: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1103: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 73; 
Turivan. Kl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851, 11) p. 87. no. 1123: l,-pi,i.i. -i-.i. A.m. VI (11)12) p. I:il0. 

(".onimon on llie islets in tlu' ri\i'r Abakan, wlierc most Irccpienl in somewhat moisi 
meadows, here and there associated wilii Hcincrocallis fhiixi, I'oliif/oinim dlpiniim. 
C.ijpripedilnm ludcranllniin. and others. The species varies somewhat in the height of 
Ihe stem, the length and bieadth of the leaves, the richness in flowers, etc. In full flower 
in June. 

Di.stribution: Europe, except the extreme northern and .southern jiortion, south- 
western and central Asia. Siberia, northern Mongolia, nortiiern China. 

Orchis simia Lam. Fl. Francaise III (1778) p. 507. Oicliis Icpbrosdiithos Viilar.s, 
Hist. PI. Dauph. II (1787) p. 32; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 62. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, in grass-grown, frequently somewhat 
moist places, in thickets, and the like. In full liloom in the middle of .lune. 

Distribution: Middle and soulhern luuope, soutli-weslern Asia. Siberia, Xorlh 
Africa. 

Orchis militaris L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1333: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I\'. p. 1G8; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1094; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 61: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854. II) p. 80. no. 1112: Kpi.i.T. <l).i. A.n. VI (1912) p. 1306. 

In somewhat moist, grass-grown fields near Ust Kamuishlo. Flowering in June. 

Di.stribulion: Europe, except the extreme north. Caucasia. Siberia, eastwards to 
Trans Baikal. 

Orchis simia Lam. X militaris L., Grenier et Godron, Fl. France III (1856) p. 291; 
Timbal-Lagrave, Mem. Hybr. (1854) p. 18. 

On the Abakan Steppe, in a moist, grass-grown depression on the river, near Askys, 
where rather common. The lower flowers of the spike open first. Ihe upper ones, by 
degrees, later on (f. simio-mililaris Timb.\l-L.\ghave, 1. c.) 

In full flower in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, southern Siberia. (Tlie Abakan Steppe). 

Orchis maculalus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1335; Ledeb. Fl. All. IV, p. 168; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1096; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 58; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daiiur. 
(1854, II) p. 82, no. 1116: Kpi,i.i. *.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1307. 

1S7 



siibspec. gemiiiius Reichenb. Icon. Fl. Ciornian. XIII (1851) t. 51. 
In moist, moss- and grass-grown ground, near Kushabar, and in several places in 
the Amyl valley. In full flower in the first half of July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme southern portions, Siberia. 

Orchis latifolius L. Spec. PL ed. II (1763) p. 1334; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1095; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 834; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 54; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 82, no, 1115; Kptu. $,1. A.ir. VI (1912) p. 1308. 

In moist, grass-grown fields, and in thickets on the river Abakan, near Askys. 
In full flower in the middle of June. 

Disti'ibution: Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia. 

Orchis incarnatus L. Fl. Suecica ed. II (1755) p. 312; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 56. 

The specimens gathered are characterized by comparatively short, vigorous 
stems, from 20 to 25 cm. long. The number of the leaves is 4 — 5, large and vigorous, to 
15 cm. long, and 2,5 cm. broad, erect, generally reaching nearly to the summit of the 
spike. The spike is about 7 cm. long, narrowly ovoid. The lower bracts exceed the 
flowers in length, the upper ones being of about the same length as the flowers. 

In swampy, grass-grown meadows on the river Abakan, near Askys, as well as on 
the islets in the river, near Ust Kamuishto. In full flower at the end of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, temperate Asia. 

Orchis Traunsteineri Sauter in Reichenb. Fl. German. Excurs. I (1830) p. 140, 
Orchis latifolia L. f. angnslifolia Lindl, Gen, et S])ec. Orchidac. PI, (1830-40) p. 260; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 54. 

subspec. Friesii Aschers. et Graebn, Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. Ill (1907) p. 726. 

In moist, grass- and moss-grown places, near the river Abakan, between Askys and 
Ust Kamuishto and in moist, not unfrequently moss-grown meadows on the islets in 
the lower part of the river Abakan. In full flower at the end of June. 

Distribution: The species occurs in northern and middle Europe, Siberia. 

Goodyera rcpens (L.) R. Bi', in Alton, Mort, Ivewensis ed. II, V (1813) p. 198; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 171; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1105; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 86; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 92, no, 1129; Kpw,i. ^.t. A,it. VI (1912) p. 1302. 

In woods of conifers and foliferous trees, in shady, moss-clad places here and 
there between Ust Sisti-kem, the Kamsara, and the Dora Steppe, Nearly past flowering 
at the beginning of August, 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme southern portions, south-western and 
central Asia, southern Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North 
America, 

Epipactis latifolia (Swartz) All, Fl, Pedemont, II (1785) p, 151; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, 
p, 172; Turczan, Cat. Baical. no. 1106; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 83; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1854, 11) p. 90, no. 1127; h-|,i.i.i. (D.i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1303. 

18S 



Ill Ihickils ol lulilcious Uri's, iicai' Kii.sliiil);ir. Willi vomit,' riowcis ;il)()iil llic 
luiililk' of .liilw 

Distiibiilioii: luiropc, cvcepl llu- I'xlri'iiu' iioilli, soulli-wi-steni and cciilral Asia, 
Si!)cria. casU'rii Asia, Sakhalin Japan, Xorlli .Miica. 

Spiraiillu's aii.strali.s Liniil, ('ni\. el S])ec-. Oniiidac. I'l. ( 1«;>() 10) j). KilJ: Lcdcb. 
I'i. Ho.ss, IV, p. 81: Tniizan. !•"!. Haical.-Daluir. (18.")1. II) ]). 92, no. 112X: i;|,i,i.i. <Im. 
A. II. VI (1<.)12) p. t:)(ll. Spininlhrs (uiionui Sprcnt!. Sy.stcMn. Vcgclahil. HI- p. 708: Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. IV. p. it:;: Turczan. C.al. Haical. no. llO'.l. 

In my coilcc'tion (hero occms only one sj)ecini('n of tliis species, gathered near 
Kiisiiabar. on swampy ground, in brush-\vood. The specimens, taken abont the middle 
of .Tilly, bear younij flower-buds. Spike hairy (u spica pithcsrcnli metlioni Lkdkij., I. e/. 

Disliibutioii: Sil)riia. et'iiOal Asia, eastern Asia. Sakhalin, .lapan, the East Indies, 
Australia, New Zealand. 

Listera cordata (L.) H. V,\: in Ailon. lloiL Kewen.sis ed. II, V (1813) p, 201: 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 80: i;|,i,i.i. <]).i. .\.ii. VI (1912) p. 1300. 

Scattered in the I'rjankai country, in suljalpiiic j)ine-\\ oods. in moist, shadv habi- 
tats, among mosses (Polijtiichiim. Hijpninn. etc.). Specimens flowering at the end of 
•luly, found by me in the Altaian, at an altitude of 1000 m. above sea-level. Also obser- 
ved in the taiga near Tshernoretska, Tshebertash, and at I'tinski porog. In flower, and 
■ in part done flowering at the beginning of August, 

Distribution: Euro])e, except the southern portions, Caucasia, Asia Minor, Siberia, 
northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

Coralliorrhiza innata (L.) U. Br. in Ailon, Ilort. Kewensis ed. II, V (1813) p. 208, 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1111; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, p. 49; Turczan. FL Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854, II) p. 77, no. 1108; Kpu.i. *.i. A.n. VI (1912) p. 1297. 

On moist, mossy ground, in thickets at Askys, near the river Abakan. Flowering 
in the middle of June. The .species is also collected by me at I'st I'lgiac, in humid 
places in the taiga. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, south-western ami central .Vsia, North America, 
western Greenland, 

Achroanthus monophyllos (L.) Greene, Pittonia II (1891) p. 183. Microslijlis inono- 
plujllos (L.) Lindl. Geiier. et Spec. Orchidac. PI. (1830—10) ]). 19; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IV, 
p. 50: Kphi.i. <I).i. A.rr. VI (1912) p. 1295. Malaxis monoplujllos Sw.xrtz in Act. Acad. 
Holm. (1800) p. 231; Ledeb. Fl. .Vlt. l\. p. 173: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1112. 

In swampy, moss-grown meadows, on the banks of the river Abakan, between 
Askys and Ust Kamuishto. With voung flowers in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Europe, southern Siberia, eastern Asia, North 
America. 

189 



Salicaceae KK'H. 

Populus lauiifolia Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 297; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 629: Kptu. <D.i. 
A.iT. V (1909) p. 1238. Populus balsamifera L. var. laurifolia Wesmael, Monogr. Gen. 
Populus p. 65, no. 16; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 464, no. 189. 

Yerv common on the banks and on the islets in the Yenisei and the river Abakan. 
Equally frequent in the Urjankai couniry. along the Bei-kem and liie Ulu-kem. where, 
in the steppe regions, accompanying the following, constituting the bulk of the scarce 
tree vegetation along the banks. Found Avith nearly ripe fruits at the end of June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, northwards to about 64^" north latitude, where 
appearing as a shrub, only a few feet high, and eastwards to the government of Yeni- 
seisk, northern Mongolia, Turkestan, Dzungaria. 

Populus tremula L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1464: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 296; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1056: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 627; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854, I) p. 398, no. 1054; Wesmael. Monogr. Gen. Populus p. 49, no. 4; Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1892) p. 460, no. 188; K].i,i.i. «I).i. .V.rr. V (1909) p. 1236. 

Common in the regions a])out the Yenisei and the river Abakan, scattered between 
Minusinsk and Kushabar, in subalpine wood regions about the Amyl. Also vei-y com- 
mon in the Urjankai country, for instance at I'st Algiac. the Kamsara, and on the banks 
of the rivers Bei-kem and Ulu-kem. In the Amyl taiga, south of Kushabar, forming 
groves of mighty, straight, branchless trunks, from 25 to 30 m. high, the summit only 
being furni.shed with a crown. In the Altaian, on the mountains, it does not seem to 
ascend so high as the conifers. Past flowering already in tlie middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the south-western portion of the Pyrenean Peninsula, 
Caucasia, Asia Minor, Russian Turkestan, Siberia, northwards to about 66° north lati- 
tude, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, North Africa. 

Populus nigra L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1464; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 296; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. 111. p. 628; Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 466, no. 190: h'l.r.T.i. <I'.t. A.it. V (1909) 
p. 1237. 

Common on the banks of the Yenisei and Abakan rivers, and in moist meadows 
on the islets in the said rivers. Taken with partly ripe fruits in the second half of June. 
Scattered along the Bei-kem and the Ulu-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, except the northern portions, (Scotland, Ireland, Scandina- 
via, northern Russia), south-western Asia to the Himalayas and Russian Turkestan, 
Siberia, northwards to 63° 15' north latitude, and eastwards to the government of 
Yeniseisk. 

Salix pentandra L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1442; Anderss., Monogr. Salic. I (Kgl. 
Svenska Ventenskaps. Acad. Handl. VI (1867) p. 35; Wimmer, Salic. Europ. (1866) p. 22; 
15o.Ti,(|)'i, JMaTep. n.m iiayiieniii iib'b jjacTviu.irx'L aiikouT) Eispon. Pocciii I-b-b IIsb. IIjiiiepaT. C. IleTepG. 
•Ijjcu. IIhctiit. IV (1900) ii. 17; BoJib4)'i>, Maxep. 3,.ifi iiay^i. hb-b Aaiax. Pocciii I-b'l TpyA. C. nexepo. 

190 



r.uT.Ciu. \XI ii. IT'.t. Lidi-I). Fl. All. IV, p. 2:')!: TuiTzai). Cal. Biiical. no. l()i:5: Lcdcl). 
Fl. Ross. Ill, J). .')',(7; I'mrzaii. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (l.S.")l, 1) p. :}71. no. 1017; llonlci', PI. 
Radd. (1892) p. :«I7, no. liil: i;|„.i.i. <I'.i. .\.ii. V (1(K)<)) j). 120:i. 

In nioisl meadows, on liic islils in liic lowii- ])ail dI llic lixcr Abakan, as well as 
on llic l)anl;s of [lie Hci-ki'ni. near I'sl Sisli-keni. F'lowtMinq al llic l)i'f<iniung ol .Innc. 

Dislrihulion: IV'nipi'rati' parts of llic old world, from Fntjland caslwards lo 
Kamtcliall;a, in Sihciia norlhwaids to (11 north lalitiuk'. 

Salix alba F. SpiT. I'l. vd. II (1763) p. MI!): WimnuT. Siilic. lun'op. (18(1C)) j). l(i: 
Anders-s. Monogr. S<ilir I (l.SCw) j). 17; l!(.,ii,(})j,, Hum Kifjnm. I'dcciii 1 IIHOO) n. I'C,; liiMi.i])!,, 
lliihi Aiiiar. I'occiM I, II. KS,"); Lcdch. Fl. All. IV, p. 'i.^);"); Fedeb. Fl, Ros.s. HI. p. .■')!>8; i;|,i,i.i. 
<I),i. A.iT. V (19(H)) p. 1201. 

On IJR' l)ani<s of liic "^'ciiisci. near Fsl .\bal<aiisl<. I'asI flowcrint; al tlie end of 
June, 

Distribution: Europe, .south-western Asia, eastwards to Turke.stan, Dy.ungaria, Tibet 
and the Himalayas, Siberia, eastwards to about Fake Baikal. North .\friea. North .\me- 
rica (introduced), 

Salix amygdaliiia F. Spec, PI. ed, II (1763) p. 1443: Fedcb. I-^l. Ross. TIF p. (iOO: 
Turczan, Fl, BaicaF-Uahur, (1854, I) p. 372, no. lOlU. Salix Iruuulm F. Spec. PI. cd. II 
(17(J3) p, 1442: Anderss. Monogr. Snlic. I (1867) ]>. 23; Wimnier, Salic. Europ, (1866) 
|i. 12; Hd.ihtfj'h, lliii.i Ki!]iuii. I'licciii I. 11. 7; lin.ii.cj)!., Hbi.i Aiiiar. Pdcciii 1, ii. 182: Fedeb. Fl, 
All. IV. p, 257: Turczan, Cal, Baical. no. 1014; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 395, no, 133; 
l>>i,i.i. <1M. A.iT. V (1909) p. 1206. 

Very common on the banks of the Yenisei and Abakan rivers, as well as on the 
low and humid islets there, where gathered by me flowering in the first half of June, 
and with ripe capsules in the second half of June, Shape of leaves somewhat varying, 
colour more or less light grey to whitish on the under side (f, qlancophi/lla Seiungk, 
Essai Monogr, Saul, Suisse (1815) p, 78; Salix triaiulm /i discolor Kock, Kisvi.. 1. c). 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, soulh-westein Asia to Turkestan, 
Siberia, northwards lo 66' 20' north latitude, eastern Asia, Ja])an, 

Salix daphnoides Vill. Hist. P\. Dauph, HI (1789) p. 765; Wimmer. Salic. F2urop. 

(1866) p. 4; l!ii,ii,(t)i,, IIin.i Ki!] I'niTiii 1. ii. 29; i!(i.ii,(J)i,, Hum Aiiiar. I'licciii 1, ii. 194: 

Ledeb, Fl. Ross. HI, p. (i02 (misprint 502): Herder, PI, Radd, (1892) p, 423, no. 1.58; 
Kpi.i.i. <I).i. A.M. V (1909) p. 1207. Salix piaecox Hoppe, Fedeb, Fl, Alt. IV, p, 2.59, 
.SVi/(.r aciili folia Willd., Turczan, Fl, BaicaF-Dahur. (1854, I) p, 374, no, 1021: Herder, 
1, c, p, 424. 

The specimens collected generally distinguished by their narrowly lanceolate 
leaves, commonly 5—8 cm, long, and 11—13 mm, broad when full-grown, Feaves very 
.short-petioled, tapering towards the summit into a long and sharp point. Stipules small, 
ovate. However, according to 0. von Skemen (in Aschers. et Gr.^ehn. Synops, Mit- 

191 



teleur. Fl. IV (1900) p. 167) tlie main form may also have naiTowly lanceolate leaves. 
Very common on the banks of the Yenisei and Abakan rivers, and on the low, moist 
islets in those rivers. Gathered with nearly ripe capsules in the middle of June. 

var. rorida Lackschewitz f. 

The specimens collected are characterized by their stalky catkins, to 1 cm. long, 
Ihicklv hairy stalks, in so far distinguished fromtheordinaryvar.ro/7drtasthedensely 
long-haired catkin-scales arc entire, and not dentate at the base, a\ hich is a chief charac- 
ter in vai-. rorida. My specimens, therefore, possibly ought to be referred to a var. 
subpediinculata. As my material is rather scarce, comprising in all but 4 sheets, probab- 
ly taken from the same tree, and, besides, 1 have had no opportunity of comparing 
with the specimens reported by Lackschewitz, I dare not settle this question definitely. 
The leaves of these specimens are also somewhat broader than those of the material 
collected, belonging to the typical iovm. in other respects agreeing well with each other. 

On an islet in the river Abakan, near Askys, on moist banks of rivers. Collected 
with nearly ripe capsules in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north and south, Turkestan, Afghanistan, 
western Tibet, the Himalayas, Siberia, except the extreme western portions, eastern 
Asia, Sakhalin, Japan. 

Salix viniinalis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1448: Wimmer, Salic. Europ. (1866) p. 
36; Bo.Tb(I)-i>, lliJbi Enpori. Pocciii I, ii. 70; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 265; Tuixzan. Cat. 
Baical .no. 1028; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 819?; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IH, p. 
605; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854. I) p. 378, no. 1027; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 
425, no. 160; K),i,u. <l).i. A.n. V (1909) p. 1211. .S'(//(.r slipiilaris Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, 
p. 605. 

Specimens appearing to be very near the typical Salix viminalis, collected by me 
on the banks of the Amyl, near Kushabar, and on the Bei-kem, near Tapsa. 

subspec. splendens (Turczan.) Anderss. in DC. Prodrom. XVI, 2 (1868) p. 265. 
Sali.v splendens Turczan. PI. Exsicc. no. 1829. Sali.v viminalis c Turczan. FL Baical.- 
Dahur. (1854, I) p. 380. no. 1027. 

My specimens belonging to this subspecies, gathered in several places on islets in 
the river Abakan, as well as on the banks of that river, agree perfectly with the speci- 
mens from the Altai in Andersson's herbarium, in the botanical collections of the 
„Riksmuseum" at Stockholm. 

subspec. Gmelini (Pallas) Anderss. 1. c. (1868) p. 266. Salix (imelini Pallas, Fl. 
Ross. II, p. 153; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 606; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, I) p. 381, 
no. 1029. 

/. nifescens (Turczan.) Anderss. 1. c. 

Occurring together with the preceding one, and seemed to be rather frequent in 
the regions about the lower parts of tlie river Abakan. The two said forms • of Salix 
viminalis constitute, for a great part, the brush-wood vegetation on the banks of the 

192 



livi'is Yenisei aiul Aljakmi; alllimi^h luiiiuiinis inU'riiu'dialL' loi nis an' lo he loiiiul 
liiere as well. The species inoslly ])asl flowciinfj in the second half of June. 

Distiihulioii: Sdli.v iiimiiKilis is spri'ad ovei luiiope, norlhwards (in Norway) lo 
64° 12' north laliluilc (planlcd), Asia Minor, Irans C.aneasia. Tuikeslan. Aiinenia, Dznn- 
garia, Punjai). the lliniaiaya.s, Siheria. in liu- Yenisei \alley northwards lo 72 ]')' north 
latilnde. norlliern Mongolia, eastern Asia. Sakhalin. .lapan. North and South America 
(planted). Tiie two suhspecies mentioned, are eastern, mostly .\siatic forms. 

Salix Iriaiidra L. X viininalis L. Inlander in litl. f. (ilitinrnlis Ixisi /lilnsis 

On the margins of an islet in the river Abakan, near Askys. In full flower in the 

middle of .June. 

According to I^xander (in litt.) at least some of the specimens described as S. 

viniinalis sui)si)ec. (linrlini may really be considered as hybrids between S. Iridiuhd 

and S". luntinalis. The forms in question have light, yellowish-brown calkin-scales, 

and the ripe capsules oidy slightly shorter than the catkin-scale. 

Salix ciiierea L. X viminalis subspec. Gmelini f. suhi'iniindlis luiander. 

In my collections I have 2 sheets of this form, taken on an islet in the Y'enisei, 
near the banks of the river, abont half-way between Minusinsk and I'st .\bakansk. With 
half ripe capsules at the beginning of June. 

Salix caprea L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1763) p. 1148; Wimmer. Snlic. Enrop. (1866) p. 
55; Anderss. Monogr. .S'a/;V. 1 (1867) p. 75, no. 45; liu.ii.ij)!,, llnw Kii]ioii. Pdceiii II, ii. 
66; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 268 (excl. syn. Sctli.r phlonwides Marsch.-Biel).) Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1031; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 609; Turcan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18;3l, I) p. 
383, no. 1032; Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 402, no. 138: K|,i.i.i. <l'.i. A.n. V (1909) p. 1215. 

Scattered in thickets, and the like, along brooks in several places between Kusha- 
bar and Minusinsk, near Ust Algiac, on the Dora Steppe, on the Upper Bei-kem. 

Distribntion; Europe, northwards to 69° 40' north latitude, the Caucasus, Asia 
Minor, Persia, Russian Turkestan, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley norlhwards lo 69° 
north latitude, northern Mongolia, eastern .\sia. Sakhalin. .Ia])an. 

Salix arbiiscula L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1445; Winnner. Salic. lunop. (hSbii) p. 
102; Anderss. Monogr. Salic. I (1867) p. 145, no. 80; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 622; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, I) p. 392, no. 1048; Bo.ih(i)'i.. ]li;i,i Khimmi. P,Kriii II. n. 91; 
Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) ]>. 117. no. 150; KpM.T. 'I>.i. A.n-. V (1909) p. 121(;. Sali.r 
pninifolia Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 286; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1048. 

In the Altaian, above the limit of tree vegetation, near a mountain brooklet. With 
ripe, and nearly ripe capsules at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Caucasia, Russian Turkestan, 
the Thian Shan, Siberia, in Uie Y'enisei valley to 72^ north latitude, northern Mongolia 
(Sayansk district), eastern Asia (southwards to the north of China). North .\merica, 
Greenland. 

193 



Salix phyllicifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II {llCio) p. 1442; Audeiss. Monogr. Salic. I 
(1867) p. 131, no. 70: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 611; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 414, no. 
145 b. Salix arbnscnla ji phi]llivifolia ]>(i.ih(j)i>. llni.i Ehikhi. Pucciii II, u. '.'1; Kpi.T.i. 'I>,i. A.ir. 
V (1909) p. 1217. 

Scattered in subalpine wood regions about the Upper Amyl, near Semiretska, and 
here and there in moist places along ri\ers, between the Algiac Pass and Ust Algiac. 
With ripe capsules in the second half of June. The leaves of the specimens gathered, 
are narrow, lanceolate, margin entire or slightly serrulate, light greyish green underneath, 
completely smooth all over. Capsules reddish brown, finely and slightly hairy (var. 
angiistifolia Andehss. Monogr. Salic. I (1867) p. 133 f. liocarpa Aschkhs. et Grakbx. 
Synops. Mlttelcur. Fl. IV (1909) p. 144). 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, norllnvards to 71 north latitude, 
France and the Pyrenees, Siberia, eastern Asia. 

Salix livida Wahlcnb. Fl. Lappon. (1812) p. 273: Wimmer, Salic. Europ. (1866) p. 
108; Biub(|)i,, IIbm E]!|iiiii. Pdcciii II, ii. So. Sali.r uagans 3 livida Andcrss. Monogr. Salic. 
I (1867) p.. 90. Salix deprcssa var. liuida Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 611. Salix Starkearia 
Willd.. Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 274: Turczan. Cat. Raical. no. 1032. Sali.v depressa L., Turczan. 
Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (18.54, I) p. 383, no. 1033: K])w.t. O.t. A.it. V (1909) p. 1217. 

siibspec. cinerasccns Wimmer var. occidcnialis NN'innner, 1. c. S(di.v vagans Anderss., 
Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 404, no. 139. 

Rather common in regions about the river Abakan, between Askys and List 
Kamuishto, where occurring in somewhat moist places, in the islets and on the river- 
banks. Gathered flowering and with young capsules in the middle of June, and with 
quite ripe fruits at the end of June, in the I'rjankai country, near Ust Tara-kem. The 
specimens gathered, from various localities, vary somewhat in the ])readth of the leaves. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over northern and middle Europe, Turke- 
stan, Siberia, northwards to 66° north latitude, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia. Th? 
above subspecies in the more eastern jjorlions of Siberia. 

Salix hastata L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1443; Wimmer, Sahc. Europ. (1866) p. 
83; Anderss. Monogr. Salic. I (1867) p. 170; ]J(ui.(J)r,, lii!i,i Kmihmi. Pdcciii II, p. 102; 
Ledeb. Fl. All. IV, \x 272: Turczan. Cat. Raical. no. 1037; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 612; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.54. I) p. 384. no. 1035; Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 421, 
no. 157: Kptu. <I).t. A.it. V (1909) p. 1220. 

siibspec. siibalpina Anderss. 1. c. p. 172: KpH.i. 1. c. p. 1220. 

In the Altaian, in moist places, up to the perennial snow. With nearly ripe fruits 
at the end of July. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over northern and middle Europe as well 
as the Peninsula, Russian Turkestan, Tibet and the Himalayas, to Sikkiin, Siberia, 
northwards to 70^ 10' nortli latitude, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin. 

194 



Salix ,i<l;uic:i I,. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (ITdli) p. 111(1; Wiinmci-. Sdlir. luiioj). (18()()) p. 
Ul: lA'ikb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 280; Turczan. Cal. Baical. iio. 1011: Lcdi'lj. Fl. Ro.ss. Ill, p. 
1)18; 'Puirzan. Fl. Haical.-Dahur. (1854, I) p. 390. no. 10 11: llcider, I>1. Radd. (1892) p. 
43."), IK). 100: l!,,.ii,,|)i, Ih'.i.i i;i;|,..ii, I'c.cMi 11. p. 21: K|u,i.i. 'I'.i .\.ri. V (1909) p. 1227. 
SiiUa- iiKirrocdrpii Ledeb. in Traiilv. Siilir. l""ng. No. ;3 — Noiiv. .Mimii. Soc. imp. Nal. 
Mosc-ou II (1S:!2) p. 292. 

/'. I'd luoilijlc. foliis vix coitspiciii' rt ixiicissimc scrnihilis. (jiKte <liJliTcnli(i c ron- 
Idjjioiir (Irpcnilciil. 

Especiailv on inoisl and cool mountain .siojx'.s wilii ;i noillicin aspect, above llic 
limit of Ircc vegelalion. at altitudes of about 18 2000 m. aboNc sca-ie\cl. Taken witli 
neai'ly ripe fruits at llie ciul of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine b^urope, soiitliwards on tlie mountain.s to norllion 
Italy. Novaya Zcmlya, arctic Siberia from about (35 nortli latitude to tlie Arctic Ocean, 
ca.stwards to Kamtchatka, and on tlic islands towards Nortb America, tlic Altai, and tlic 
Sayansk district, tbe Yablonoi mountains. Noitli .Vmerica. (irccniand. 

Salix niyrsiniles L. Spec. PI. ed. II (ITtiiijp. 111."): W'imnu'i-. .S'a//c, Furop. (bSdli) 
p. 97; Ledcb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 284; Lcdcb. Fl. Ro.ss. III. p. 020: Turc/an. Fl. Raical.- 
Dahur. (1854, I) p. 390. no. 1045; Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 441, no. 170: l!,..n.c|>i. Ibxi 
KiiiM.ii. I'ueeiu II, p. lOS; Kpi.i.i. <1m. A.ir. V (1909) p. 1230. 

On moist mountain sides, on rocky slopes in tbe .Vltaian, above tbe limit of tree 
vegetation. Witb ball ripe capsules at tbe end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Novaya Zemlya. arctic Siberia 
to Kamtcbalka. tbe Altai, the Sayansk district, liaikal and Trans Haikal. arctic .\merica, 
(Ireenland. 

Salix Tiirczaninowii Lackscbewitz in litl. Salix Iwrbaccd L. in previous autbors 
mentioning tbe Siberian Saliccs. [I'ab. III. Fig. 3, 4]. 

Stigmalibiis l).'i-()..'> ;n/n. longis. sat cnissis. bifidis. plus luiiuis ilivaricatis vcl conlitis. 
submbpnlibiis: sljilis 0.'2-0,3 mm. lorn/is: aipsulis '■^yjl.H mm. vcl )X? '""'■ (maliirix) 
nibidi.s: pediccHis (),H-0,5 longis. glaberrimi.s el riibidis: ncclarii.^ inlcrnis lanliim ra. 
0,H-0,'i mm., inkgris: sqimmis l.'ny^O.H—l.HY.i.l mm., lingulalis - subwiumlalis. rubidis 
(vel inferioribuspallidioribiis) glabeirimis, pilis 0,J-l).S mm. longis cilinlis, iiilrrdum .s(piiimis 
siiperioribns fere amnio glabeirimis: amenlis /.)X'' — -'^X-* '"'' •^^^X6(/) mm., capsuli.s 
ca. 1'i-2'2 instrnclis: pednnculis ca. 10 mm. longis densius pnbescenlibits-subtomentosis, 
basi foliis 1-2, WXl 'i—^SyiU) mm., suboualibus foliis ordinariis celenim similibiis inslriic- 
lis: foliis ordinariis infimis lOy^C) mm. onalibiis. foliis mlermediis 2,)y,W^'2<Sy\V2(IG) mm. 
oindibns nel majoribus plus minus obooatis, fere concoleribus ulrin(ine glnberrinus: supra 
nervis admodum elevalis, serralis. dcnlibus l-.'i mm. inter se remolis: peliolis 2-'i mm. 
longis, globerrimis: slipidis nullis: gemnus el ramulis nonellis gbdwrrinus. 

A Salix herbacea L. di/ferl imprimis amenlis longioribus. anguslioribus: foliis plus 
minus oiudibus (elsi uno allerore folio apice paullulum relu.w). 

19.") 



According to Lackschewuv. (in lilt.), Sali.r herhacea L. does not occnr in Siberia, 
where replaced by Salix Turczaninowii, a species nearly allied lo it. Though very near 
Snlix herbacca L., the former is distinguished by its longer and narrower pistillate catkins, 
15 — 30 mm. long, and 4—7 mm. broad. The catkins bear numerous capsules, from 14 
to 22 in number, more or less approximate, the nethermost, however, during the fruit 
formation, rather far apart. The leaves are ovate, rather stretched in length, the length to 
twice the breadth, broadest about the middle, and tapering both towards the summit and 
the base. The base more or less acute, generally not blunt or cordate, the summit more 
or less subobtuse or slightly acuminate, rarely slightly incised. 

This species gathered by me in open, sunny, not unfrequently somewhat moist 
places, above the limit of tree vegetation, in the Altaian. Past flowering and with 
nearly ripe capsules at the end of Jul}'. 

Distribution: Siberia, northern Mongolia. The range of the species is, for the rest, 
as yet unkno\\n. 

Salix myrsinitcs L. X Turczaninowii Lacksch. f. medians nov. f. s. f. Printzii Enan- 
der s. f. nov. [Tab. VII, Fig. 2J. 

Sliginotibiis O/i-O..') mm. longis. hifidis: slylis 0,6-0,S mm. longis: capsnlis ma- 
tiiris J'-'/X- mm., glaberiimis b(tsi(iue ipsa hirliilct: pcdicellis 0,3 mm. lonqis. breviler 
iomenlosis; nedariis inlernis iantiim 0,"2-0.3 mm. inlcgris. siibnibidi.s ncl nifcsccniibus: 
squomis SX^.J "^1 ^-^X' mm. sublingiilatis - .siibroliindis, alropurpiireis, pdis 1-1,.) 
mm. longi.'i. .mi reclis villosis: amcniis siibdefloralis'28yC1.') mm.; jicdiincnlis JO mm. longis, 
pilosis, folds 'i, lOy^J — I'^YJ mm. gemmiferis e.rstipulalis, ovali-lanceolalis, glaberiimis 
serralis instrudis: folds oidinariis infimis iOYJ) mm , ovalibns. sublus pilosis, folds inlci- 
mediis /7X9 — '2'iy\13 mm. idiis minus obovalis, concoloribiis, glaberiimis, serrads (dend- 
biis circa i mm. inler se remods) apiceque ipso plus minus integro, supra nei vis ndmodum 
tenuibus, sal elevads, vi.v conspicue, ienuiler jjunrlalis, nitidis, sublus item .sed paullidiim 
opacis; peliolis 2-3 mm. longis, glidn-rrimis: slipulis '2X/ mm.. sid)oi>(dis, serralis i>el 
minimis vel nullis: gemmis ad '^'X.2.5 mm. usque, glaherrimis; ranjulis novelUs plus 
minus pillosis: (ramis plus minus flabellalis (idpre.s.sis - adscendenlibus'.'). 

A. S. mgrsinile dijferl capsulis fere omnino glaberrimis: folds supra medium vulgo 
lalissimis, quibus nolis ad S. Turczaninowiam vergil. 

Collected in the Altaian, where dccurring together with the preceding one. With 
ripe capsules at the end of July. 

Distribution: Sayansk district (northern Mongolia). 

Salix reticulata L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1446; Wimmcr. Salic. Euroj). (1866) 
p. 129; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 291; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1052; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, 
p. 623; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, 1) p. 395, no. 1050; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) 
p. 450, no. 180; i](,.ii.(})-i>, JIum Eflpon. Pocciii II, p. 114; Kpi.i.T. (Ju. A.rr. V (1909) p. 1232. 

In moist places, among lichens and mosses, and the like, above the limit of tree 
vegetaUon, in the Altaian. With neariy ripe fruits at the end of July. 

196 



Disliilnilioii: Aiclic and alj)iiie ii'L;ii)n.s ol lunopt'. (soulliw aids lo [\iv I'yi-fiiccs, 
Alps, (",ai palliiaii moiiiilaiiis), Icrland. Spilzljcrf^cn, Novaya Zcmlya, arclic Siberia, 
hi'lwri'ii ahoiil ()7'/'° — 73'A° norlli laliliidc (DicUsoii llail)()ur). and eastwards to Kaint- 
clialka. Ilic Altai. Ilic Saxansk dislrifl. l)ail<al and Tiaiis i.aikal iiioiiiilains. lunliicrn 
Mongolia, arclic America, (irccnland. 

Salix pyrolael'olia I.cdch. I-'l. Alt. IV. p. 270: ■i'lirczaii. Cat. i'.aical. no. UY.Wk Lciicl). 
]*"!. Hos.s. III. p. (ii:!: .\iidcrss. Monogr. .SV//fc. I (l<S(i7) p. Kl'.l. no. lOl: Tinc/aii. V\. IJaical.- 
Dahur. (18M, I) p. .'58.'). no. WM'y. r„Mi.(l)[, lliii.i i;k|,oii. i>,,((ii:II. j). KHi: Kpi.i.i. 'Im. .\.it. 

V (innn) j,. 1221. 

In nioisi meadows, near the banks of tlie I'jjper Sisli-kem. 
Dislribntion: Nortbern Rnssia, Siberia, norlbern Mongolia. 

Salix cinerea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1449; Winnner, 'Salic. Europ. p. 47; 
Anderss. Monogr. .Sa/u-. I (1867) p. 71, no. 44; Ledcb. FI. Ross. Ill, p. 607; Herder, PI. 
Radd. (1892) p. 400, no. 137; I!iui,(I)b, lliii.i Eiipoa. I'dc.in II, p. 72; Kpi>i.i. *.t. A.it. V 
(1909) p. 1213. 

In moisl meadows, on an islel in liie river Abakan, near Ust Kamuishto. Willi 
nearly ripe capsnies in the second half of .kme. 

Dislribntion: Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Persia, Rus.sian Turkestan, 
through Siberia and middle Asia lo Kamlchalka, eastern Asia and northern Corea, 
Sakhalin, North Africa. 

Salix fragilis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1443; Wimmer, Salic. Europ. (1866) p. 
19; Anderss. Monogr. Salic. I (1867) p. 41, no. 28; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 598. 

Some specimens of this one observed by me in the Amyl valle^', near Kushabar. 

Distribution: Europe, south-westei'n Asia, western and middle Siberia, eastwards 
aboul to the Baikal, Ameinca (introduced). 

Betula roliindifolia Spach. Rev. Beliilac. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. II (1841) p. 194: C'yi.a- 
qer.b, h"b C'lK'i. C'uu. bepe:)!.— Bi Tpy^. But. jMj;). Ai;a;i,. llayKi, (1911) p. -Jlf). Betula (flandnhmi 
Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. II (1803) p. 180; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 64; Winkler, Beiii- 
Inc. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 19 (IV, 61. 1904) p. 73. Betula nana in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 246; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1062; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.54, I) p. 403, no. 1061; 
Ki)i.i.T. <lu. A.ri. V (1909) p. 1250. Betula nana /J sibirica Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 654. 
Betula nana /i .sibirica el y intermedia Regel, Monogr. Betulac. (1861) p. 43. 44. 

Common in the Sayansk district, in subalpinc and alpine regions, up to about 
2000 m. above sea-level, in moist as well as in drier situations. It appears from the 
material collected that the .species varies considerably in the form and size of the 
leaves, from 1 to 2 cm. in diameter, as well as in the shape of the teeth. The form of 
pistillate calkins varies between ovoid and subcylindrical. Collected with nearly ripe 
fruits al the end of August. 

197 



Distril)uli()n: From llie Altai eastwards, through Siberia and norllierii Mongoha to 
Kanitchatka and llie Tshuktsher Peninsula, Sakhalhi, North America, Greenland to 63" 
north latitude. 

Bctiila humilis Schrank, Bayersche Fl. (1789) p. 421; Winlder, Betiilac. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 19 (IV, 61, 1904) p. 73; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 653; Kegel, Monogr. Betnlac. 
(1861) p. 104 ex parte; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 65; Ki)bi.T. <I>.i. A.it. Y (1909) p. 
1249; CyKa'icB'L, Kb Ciict. Cu5. BepesT. (1911) p. 208. Betaln fniticosa Pallas, Fl. Ross. I 
(1784) p. 62: Ledeb. Fl. AH. IV, p. 246; Spach, Rev. Betnlac. (1841) p. 193. Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, I) p. 403, no. 1060 ex parte. 

At Uibat, near the river Abakan; rather common in subalpine regions in the Urjan- 
kai country, especially in swampy and peaty situations, and the like; frequent between 
Kalna and Ust Algiac, and in peat-bogs in the Altaian. The pedicels comparatively long, 
up to 12 mm. Taken with nearly ripe fruits in the second half of June. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, Russia, temperate portions of Asia, northwards to 
65° 50' north latitude. 

Betula verrucosa Elirh. Beitr. Naturk. VI (1791) p. 98; Winkler, Betnlac. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 19 (IV, 61, 1904) p. 75. Betnla alba L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1393 ex 
parte; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 244; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 650; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854, I) p. 400, no. 1056. Betnla alba L. « vnlgaris et ;- nerrncosa Regel, Monogr. Betn- 
lac. (1861) p. 17, 19; Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 48, no. 201: Kpw.i. ^Ikj. A.n. V (1909) 
p. 1247. 

Common in the lower regions of southern Siberia and llie I^rjankai country, along 
the Bei-kem. Gathered with fruits in July. 

Distribution: According to Winkler, 1. c, the species is distributed over Europe, 
Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Siberia, and northern Mongolia, northwards to about 50° north 
latitude, eastern Asia, Japan. 

Betula piibescens Ehrh. Beitr. Naturk. VI (1791) p. 98; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 651; 
Winkler, Betnlac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 19 (IV, 61, 1904) p. 81. Betnla alba L. .- pnbescens 
Regel, Monogr. Betnlac. (1861) p. 24; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 52; Kpi.i.i. a>,i. A.ix. 
V (1909) p. 1247. 

subspec. ovalifolia (Schneid.) Sukacz. in herb. (1916). Betnla ovalifulia Rupr. in 
Maak, Erst. Bot. Nachr. Anuni. II (1857) p. 560; CvKaueBb, Ki, Cnc-r. Ciio. Bepesi. (1911) 
p. 210. Betnla fniticosa Pall. /? Unprechtiana Trautv., Winkler 1. c. (1904) p. 87. Betnla 
hnmilis t Rnprechtii. J reticnlata. tj ovalifolia Regel, 1. c. (1861) p. 51—52. 

Common in the Altaian, frequently in somewhat moist places, in subalpine regions, 
to above the limit of conifers, where collected by me with ripe fruits at the end of July. 

Distiibution: Eastern Siberia, northern Mongolia, Manchooria. 

19S 



siihspcf rli()iiil)il'<ili:i (1'ii'l;(I) Su1-:;ic/. in linli. ( I'.lHi). Ilcliiht dllxi subspecies 
liiihcscrns i rlioinhifiilid lU'i^cl in 1)(".. I'kkIioui. W'I. 2 (18G8) p. Ifi?; Meixk-r, PI. 
I'.ndd. (1<S'.t2) p. M. 

SpcoinuMis of lliis one taken l)y mc w illi nearly ripe fiiiils, in llic middle of July, 
ill Ilic sulialpinc wood regions between Kalna and Ust Alf^iac, where, in ])laces, ralhoi- 
fonunon. Ociuning, nioieover. rather frecpienliy in the Hrjankai country. 

Dislriliulion: ]'"aslc'ru luuope, Siberia, norlhciii Mongolia. 

Alniis friilicosa Rupr. Fl. Saniojed. Cisur. (181.5) no. 249; Kpi,i.i. 'Im. A.rr. V (1909) 
p. 1252. Alnasler fiiilicosiis Ledeb. Fl. lloss. ill, p. (1.5,5. Alniis (ilnobcliild (Ehrh.) Ilartig 
var. friilicosa (Uupr.) Winkler, Belulac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. 11. li) (IV, 61, 1901) p. 100. 
Alnasler I'iriilis Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, 11) p. 404, no. 1062. Betuln viridis 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 10,59. Alniis viridis var. sihirica Kegel, Monogr. Belulac. (1861) 
p. 79 Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. ()9. 

Scattered in the Amyl valley and between Kalna and Ust Algiac, cspeciallj' along 
river-banks, where gathered by me in flower about the middle of July. P>ather frequent 
in the Urjankai countiy; on the rivers Sisti-kem, Bei-kem, Kamsara, and Tara-kem. In 
the Altaian, on the mountains, it ascends to 16 — 17(K) m. above sea-level. 

Distribution: North-eastern Russia, Siberia, northwards to about 72'j' north lati- 
tude, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

sabspec. niontana nov. subspec. [Tab. VII, Fig. 1]. 

A forma lijpica hiimililale di/ferens. 1-1, '^ mm. alia, foliis parnnlis, "2-3,.') cm. lonfjis, 
1,3-2 cm. latis. ovalis vel oblonge onalis. aciiminalis. basi roliindalis. vel leviler cordalis, 
dislincle duplicalo-serralis. denlibii-'^ densis, leniiibiis. aculis. Folia glabcrrima. sublus 
diliilc viridia, el nenuis mediiis - .siciil a.villae nernoriim - scmiicr omnino glabrr. niin- 
(liuim barbiilaUis, sed fere plus minus glandulosiis. Petioli O.^ cm. longi. sitblomenlosi 
el glandulosi. Inflorescenlia friicliferae lempore flore.tcendi parvae. ovoideae vel siibglo- 
bosae, 'i-H mm. fere .')-6 mm. longae 3,')-6. fere 'i mm. latae. Peduncnli 0,5-1 cm. longi, 
dense piiberiili el glandulosi. Sipiamae fruclijerae Uo-"} mm. longae, nuculae sligmalibus 
longioribus. circa 2 mm. longis. niiciilas ae(iiiantibus. Nuciila ala membranacea cincla. 

This subspecies, found by me in the Altaian, abt)ut llie limil of tree vegetation, is 
distinguished by being a low shrub, not exceeding a man's height, with much curved 
branches, and short, smooth year's shoots, only a few cm. k)ng. The leaves are small, 
ovate, pointed at the summit, and at the base broadly rounded or slightly cordate, length 
from 2,5 to 3 cm., and breadth towards 2 cm. The leaves are always markedly incised- 
serrulatc, with fine, acute teeth and are. moreover, distinguished by the midril) being 
completely smooth underneath and by the absence of tufts of hairs in the angles be- 
tween the veins on the under sides of the leaves, which are, like the petioles, pedunc- 
les, and the year's shoot on the whole, more or less densely glandular-hairy. The leaves 
are always of a pale green and dull colour underneath, bright and glabrous above. 
Female catkins small, only half the sixe of those of the typical species, generally from 

199 



5— () mm. long, and 1 mm. broad, broadly ovoid Lo nearly globular, and cacb female 
flower correspondingly smaller, stigmas long and projecting, about the same length as 
llic flowers, thus, at any rale to judge from my material, comparatively longer than in 
the typical species. Catkin-scales about 2 mm. long, narrow below, only above the 
middle rather suddenly dilated in a fan-shape. The wing of the nut seems to be compa- 
ratively narrower than in the typical form. 

This form collected by me along mountain brooks, and in moist places in the 
Altaian, accompanying various species of Saliv about the limit of tree vegetation, or even 
somewhat higher than the limit of conifers. When gathered at the end of July, in part 
done flowering, and with young fruits. 



(" a n n a b a c e a e ENfiL. 

Cannabis sativa L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1457; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 294: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1011: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 817: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
634; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 367, no. 1015: Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) 
p. 33, no. 191; Kpw.i. O.i. A.it. V (1909) p. 1240. 

Occurring scattered along borders of corn-fields, l)y road-sides, and near settle- 
ments, here and there as weeds, on the Abakan Steppe, and in several places along the 
road between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, where it begins flowering at the end of June. 

Distribution: A native of middle and south-western Asia and adjoining portions of 
Europe. Now in cultivation, or having established itself as an escape from cultivation 
over the greater part of temperate regions. 

Humulus hipulus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1457; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 294: 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 635; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 35, no. 192: Kpbi.T. •t.-i. A.it. V 
(1909) p. 1241. 

Dispersed in thickets on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, and along 
the river-banks. Specimens gathered in June, about 1 m. long, as yet sterile. In thickets, 
near Kushabar, and scattered in the taiga about the river Amyl. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north, northern and middle Asia, except 
the arctic regions, North America (introduced). 

Urticacoae JUSS. 

UrUca urens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1396; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 241; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 1008; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 636; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854. II) 
p. 364, no. 1012: Herder, PI. Radd. (1S92) p. 37, no. 194; KpLi.i. <I).t. A.it. V (1909) 
p. 1242. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near habitations at Minusinsk, Karatus, Kushabar, and Ust 
Algiac. 

200 



Disli ihiilion; luiiopc. Ilic (',;iiuasus. Asia Miiioi- ami wcslcin Asia, Siberia, luiiili- 
wards (o ai)t)ul (id'.. ikuIIi laliliidc. iioillu'rii C.liina, Xoiiii .MVica, and iiiliddiircd into 
America and .\iislialia. 



I'rlic-a dioica L. .Spec. 1>I. cd. II (17(;;i) p. 1396; Lcdeb. I'l. .Ml. IV. j). 210: Tiirczan. 
Cat. Baicai. no. 10(17: I.cdcl). FI. Ross. Ill, p. 637; Tuirzan. Fl. I'.aifal.-I)aluir. (1854, II) 
p. 3()3, no. 1011: Ilcidci-. I'l. ISadd. (1892) p. 39. no. 1'.)."); K|,i.i.!. <I>.i, A.m. V I'.iODi p. I-J4:}. 

At Minusinsk and Kushabar, in suljalpine wood rc;f<ionK ajjoul Uil- L'j)j)lt Amyl, 
('s|)C(.ially near babilalions (Petropawlowsk, Kalna, and other places), Ust Algiac, Usl 
Sisti-keni, near tlio Doia Steppo. Tapsa, etc. 

Distriinilion: b'uiope, except Ilic arctic rcuions. soulli-wcslcin. ccnlial and noiliu-rn 
Asia (northwards to ai)oiit 68K'" north latitude), eastern Asia. Sakhalin, .la|)an, Norlh 
Africa. North and South .America, Australia (introduced). 

Urtica cannabina L, Ilort. Fpsal. (1748; p. 282 et Spec. PI. ed. II (1703) p. 1396; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt, IV, p, 241; Turczan. Cat, Baicai, no, 1009; Karel. et Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 816; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 638; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854, II) p. 364, 
no. 1013; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 42, no. 196; i;|,m.i. (jm. A.n. V (1909) p. 1244. 

In dry meadows on the Abakan Steppe, and near habitations, such as Askys, Ust 
Kamuishto and Ust Abakansk, and scattered on the sle])pes near the Bci-kem and Ulu- 
kem, from the Tapsa, westwards towards Cha-kul. 

Distribution: From the Ural, through Siberia to Trans Baikal and Kamtchatka, 
northern Persia, Russian Turkestan, northern Mongolia, Manehooria, China. 



S a II t a I a c e a e R. IJR. 

Thesium refractuin C, A, Meyer in Bull. Acad. St. Petersbourg VII, p, 340; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enuni. Pi. Fl. Alt. no. 804; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 539; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) 
p. 342, no. 103. Thesiiini ntino.stim Ledeb. Fl. .Alt. I, p. 275 (excl. synon. praeter Patrin); 
Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 14. Thesium pralense Ehrh.. Turczan, Fl, Baicak-Dahur, (1852, 
IV) p. 470. no. 1002: Kpi.t.i. $.i. A.tt, V (1909) p. 117:'.. Thesium saxatile Turczan. Cat. 
Baicai. no. 1001, 

Rather common in dry, grass-grown places on the Al)akan Steppe, near Askys 
and Est Kamuishto, Collected by me in dry. .sandy places, among loose stones, on sunny 
slopes, and the like, on the islets in the river Abakan. Taken witli flowers and with 
fruits in June. On the Ulu-kem, near Bjelosarsk, past flowering at the end of August. 
The specimens collected are quite glabrous, « iijpica Kinr.ow, 1. c. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, Russian Turkestan, the Thian Shan, Siberia, 
eastwards to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

2-2 * 201 



V 1 y g oji a c e a e Jiss. 

Koenigia islandica L. Mant. I (1767) p. 35; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 124; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 992; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 535; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 
462, no. 993; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 212, no. 69: Kpu.!. $.t. A.it. Y (1909) p. 1171. 

In moist, grass-grown places, near a mountain brooklet in the Altaian, at an alti- 
tude of about 1900 m. above sea-level. Flowering at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic regions of Europe (Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Spitzbergen, Jan 
Mayen, Beeren Eiland, Novaya Zemlya, Norway, northern Sweden, northern Russia), 
northern Siberia (in the Yenisei valley, northwards past 70" north latitude), the Altai, 
the Sayansk district, the Himalayas, North America, Greenland, Tierra del Fuego 
(DiSEX, Skottsberg). 

Polygonum aviculare L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 519; Lindman in Svensk Botan. 
Tidsskrift YI (1912) p. 673: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 85: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 977; Karel. 
.■I Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 790; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 531; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1852. lY) p. 461, no. 992; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 214, no. 72; Meisner, 
Monogr. Gen. Pohjg. p. 87, no. 95: Ki)w.i. «I>.i. A.ix. \ (1909) p. 1169. 

Yery common in the territory explored, along road-sides, near habitations, in court- 
yards, in moist places about the river Abakan. Minusinsk. Karatus, Kushabar, in farm- 
yards, and the like, of settlements in the taiga, at Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem, the Kamsara, 
Tara-kem, Cha-kul and Ust Uss. The species varies considerably. The following forms 
appear to be common from the structure of the vegetative shoots: « prociimbens Hayne, 
Ledeb. 1. c, /J erectiim Ledeb. 1. c, and d vegeluni Ledeb. 1. c. However, as ripe fruits 
are wanting in the specimens collected, an exact determination of this material is at 
present hardly possible. 

Distribution: Nearly all over the globe. 

Polygonum dumetorum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 522; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 82; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 970; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 528; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1852, lY) p. 457, no. 984; Meisner, Monogr. Gen. Polyg. p. 63, no. 32; Herder, PI. Badd. 
(1892) p. 258, no. 92; KpLi.i. $.1. A.it. Y (1909) p. 1169. 

On slopes and in open woods of foliferous trees, near Kushabar. In full flower in 
the middle of July. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia to Turkestan. Afghanistan, the western 
Himalayas, the Ea(st Indies, Siberia, eastern Asia, Sakahalin, North America (intro- 
duced?). 

Polygonum Convolvulus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 522: Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 
81; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 969; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 785; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross, m, p. 528; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, lY) p. 456, no. 983; Meisner, Monogr. 
Gen. Pohjg. p. 63, no. 30; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 255, no. 91; Meisner. Polgg. Haute- 
Asie p. 349 (16); Kpi.i.i. «I).i. A.it. Y (1909) p. 1168. 

202 



Hallu'i coiunu)!! ;is a woccl along roads and on margins of corn-fields, hehveen 
Minusinsk and Kusliahar. a.s well as on Hr' hanks of the Bei-kem, near Sehi. Willi 
flowers in .lulv. 

DislriJiulion: lunope, except the arctic regions, the Caucasus, south-western Asia 
to Turkestan. Afghanistan, llic Himalayas, India. Siheiia (in the Yenisei valley north- 
wards to about (ilk. north latitude), eastwards lo Trans Baikal and the Sea of Okhotsk, 
Sakhalin, .Japan, North Africa, North America (introduced). 

Polygonum uiuiuiatuni Murray, Connncnl. (iorll. \' (1771) |). .'!!. /V^/(/f/o/i///;( (ilpiinmi 
Allioni. I'"l. I'edenionl. 11 (178.')) ]>. 2()(): I,-|,m.i. -Im. A.m. V (1909) p. 11()7. I'ohjcioimm 
poli/iuorpliiiin Ledeh. Fl. Ross. 111. p. 524 ex |)arle: Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 263, 
no. 98; Meisner, Monogr. (ien. Poli/fi- p. iifi. no. 11; Meisner. I'olip/. llaule-.\sie p. 
351 (18). 

sahspec. alpinum (Allioni) Heck in Reichenh. Icon. XXIV (1906) p. 8(j. PoUjqonuin 
alpimuu .\llioni, Ledeb. Fl. .\lt. 11. p. 79 pro parte; Turc/an. Cat. Baical. no. 972. 
PoUigoniiin poUjinorphiuu y alpinum Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. 111. p. .")21. t'oliif/onmn (ilpiiunii 
It milgarc Turczan. Fl. Baical. -Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 452, no. 978. 

Very common in somewhat moist meadows on the islets in the river Ai)akan. 
w here collected by me with young flowers in the second half of June. Also common 
in the Urjankai country, in meadows, and here and there in quite dry places, in open 
woods of conifers or foliferous trees, ^\llcre. in places, occurring abundantly, Usl Algiac, 
Ust Sisli-kem: very common between the Kamsara and the Tara-kem, in woods of 
spruce, larch and birch intermingled, where found by me. past flowering and nearly 
withered, in the second half of August. 

snhspec. ciliatum (Willd.) Aschers. el Graebn. Synops. Mitteleur. Fl. IV (1913) p. 
842. Poltifjoniiin pohimorphum d iindulnliim Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 525; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 4.53. no. 978. Poliigoiutm alpinum Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 79 
pro parte. 

Apparently occurring much more rarely than the preceding one. In my collection 
is one specimen of it, taken near Ust Abakansk, towards the end of June. 

Distribution: Southern Europe, from the Alps .southwards, the Caucasus, Asia 
Minor, Trans Caucasia. Turkestan, Afghanistan, the Himalayas, Siberia, northwards to 
about 71" north latitude, and eastwards to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia, North 
America. 

Polygonum minus Huds. Fl. Angl. I (1762) p. 118; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 83; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 788; Ledeh. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. .523; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 459, no. 988; Meisner, Polfig. Haute-Asie p. 344 (11); Herder. PI. 
Radd. (1892) p. 226, no. 79; Kpti.i. tl).i. A.n. V (1909) p. 1166. 

On islets in the Yenisei, in moist, sandy and muddy places, near the banks of the 
river. With young flower-huds at the end of June. 

20:5 



Dislribulion: Euroiio. Cauoasia, Trans Caucasia, Ihe Himalayas, India, Ceylon, 
Siberia, eastern Asia, South America, Australia. 

Polygonum hydropiper L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 517; Ledeh. Fl. Alt. 11, p. 84; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 981: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 523; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daluir. 
(1852, IV) p. 460, no. 990; Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 224, no. 78: Meisncr, Monogr. Gen. 
Polfig. p. 76: Ki,i,i.i. <I>.i. A.ix. V (1909) p. 1165. 

On moist banks on the river Abakan, near Ust Abakansk. With young flower- 
bud.s in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the arctic regions, [he Caucasus, south-western Asia 
to Turkestan and the Himalayas, Siberia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, India, Java, 
North Africa. North America, Australia. 

Polygonum lomentosum Schrank, Baier. Fl. I (1789) p. 669. Poli]goniun lapatbifo- 
liiiin L., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 83; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 980: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. 
PI. Fl. Alt. no. 787; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 321; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) 
p. 458, no. 987; Meisner, Monogr. Gen. Polyg. p. 69, no. 41; Meisner, Polijg. Haute-.\sie 
p. 345 (12); Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 236, no. 83; Kpti.T. <I>.t. A.n. V (1909) p. 11G3. 

As weeds in fields and moist meadows, here and there between Minusinsk and 
Kushabar, as well as on sandy river-banks on the river Abakan, near Ust Abakansk. 
With young flowei's at the end of June. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, and south-western Asia to Turkestan and the 
Himalayas, Siberia (in the Yenisei valley, northwards to 70° 20' north latitude), northern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakahalin, Japan, India, North Africa, North and South America 
(introduced), Australia (introduced). 

Polygonum amphibium L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 517; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 82; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 982; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 786; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. Ill, p. 520; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.52. IV) p. 458, no. 986; Meisner, Monogr. 
Gen. Polgg. p. 67, no. 39; Meisner, Polgg. Haute-Asie p. 344 (11): Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1892). p. 228, no. 80; KptM. (I>ji. Ajit. V (1909) p. 1162. 

Rather common in the territory explored, where — in point of habitats — noted 
as f. aqiiaticiim Leys.s. (Fl. Hal. (1761) p. 391) and 1'. terestre Leyss. (1. c. p. 391). 
44ie leaves of the latter form bear rather stiff, straight hairs, never glandular in the 
specimens gathered. The former of the two occurs in still creeks, and the like, along 
the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, at Askys, Ust Kamuishto, Uibat, and Ust Abakansk, on 
the Amyl. near Kushabar, at Ust Sisti-kem, as well as in creeks and branches of the 
Bei-kem, in swamps on the Dora Steppe. 

The latter f. lerrestre Leyss. collected by me near Ust Kamuishto and Uibat, on 
moist banks, bearing leaves only at the end of June. 

Distribution: Eui-ope, Caucasia, south-western Asia to Turkestan and the Hima- 
layas, Siberia, northwards to about the arctic circle, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, 
Sakhalin, the East Indies, North and South .Xfrica. North America. 

204 



l'oly}<()iuiin vivipiiiuiii 1,. S\k\\ 1*1. eel. II (17(12) |). '}U\: Ledcb. Fl. All. 11, p. 78: 
'rurc/aii. Cat. Haical. no. <JG6; Lcdcl). IL Ho.s.s. Ill, p. .")1',); Turczan. 1"1. Baical.-Daluir. 
(1852, IV) p. 1,')1, no. 1)77: Mfi.siu'r, Moiio^r. (icn. I'nliif/. (182(j) p. 52, no. 5; Meisner, 
Poli/g. Ilaule-Asie, p. 3-17, no. l!!; Ih-idrr, 1*1. Kadd. (18112) p. 210. no. 8."): i.'in.i.i. <l«.i. 
A.iT. V (1909) p. 1161. 

Ihi.s species, beinn \i'iv conunon in nioisl meadows on die islets in llie river.s 
Yenisei iwid .Miakan. in die .\niyl lai^a, and the I'ljankai eounli v. varies considerably 
in size and liaiiilus. iii-eadlli of leaves, etc. Tlicic aic lo be I'oiiiid forms in wliich the 
leaves are cpiite smootii nndeinealb. and others willi the under side of the leaves rather 
densely pubescent. There arc, however, between the various forms, marked intermediates. 

On islets in the river Abakan, near Askys, I have collected a vigorous form, from 
40 to 45 cm. higli. with narrow, lanceolate, long-petioled radical leaves, to 12 cm. long, 
and 25 cm. broad. I'lolialily belonging to f. i-loiuitihnn I'.ick in l>i:ic.nKNii. Icon. XXIV 
(190()) p. 81. Similar vigorous forms, with broader radical leaves, are common in the 
Urjankai country, and abundant, for instance, between the Algiac Pass and L'sl Algiac, 
as well as on the Kanisaia. 

In the Altaian, at an allilude of about 2(X)0 m. above sea-level, I have collected a 
slender form, with (juite smooth and very narrow leaves, onlv 0,;5 — 0,5 cm. broad. 

Distribution: Europe, and arctic islands, Caucasia, south-western and central 
Asia. Siberia, northwards to Taimyr (75° north latitude), northern Mongolia, eastern 
Asia, Sakhalin. North America. Greenland. 

Polygonum Bistorta L. Spec. Pi. ed. II (1762) p. 516; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 77; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 965; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 783; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. Ill, p. 518: Turczan. Fl. Baical. -Daiiur. (18.52, IV) p. 150. no. 976: Meisner, Monogr. 
Gen. Poh]g. p. 51; Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 215. no. 86: h>i,i.i. <l>.i. A.n. V (1909) 
p. 1160. 

Common in moist meadows, and on river-banks in the lower parts of the river 
Abakan, as well as near Kushabar, Ust Algiac and I'st Sisti-kem. Collected with flowers 
at Ust Abakan at the end of June, and with ripe fruits at Kushabar, about the middle of 
July. The specimens belong to f. lalifolium H.\v.\i;, Arzney-Gew. V (1817) p. 19. 
Poli]gonum bislorla a vulgaris Meisner, 1. c. 

Besides, I have collected, near Kushabar, some specimens of a vigorous form, 
especially characteristic in having the under side of the leaves of a rusty brown colour. 
These specimens, therefore, are probably identical with specimens reported by I.KnEHorK 
in Fl. Boss. III. ji. 519 ufoliis laliorihiis. siiblus parciiis pilosis siibfernigineis: pills stib- 
nifis. — In proi'iiiciis Caucasicis et Iciris boreali-orienlalibiis.» The form in cpieslion 
has the leaves underneath wholly and densely pubescent, of a rusty lirown colour, giving 
the under side of the leaves a dark brown, frequently nearly felted or velvet-like appea- 
rance. I separate this characteristic form, the distribution of which seemed to be confined 
to easterly regions, as 

205 



/. Ledeboiiriana nor. f. 

Folia subliis pilis densis, brevissimis, siihrufis oinnino lecta. 

Distribution: The species occurs in Europe, except tlie extreme south, Novaya 
Zemlya, south-western Asia to Turkestan, Pamir, the Himalayas, the Thian-Shan, Sibe- 
ria, nortlnvards to Taimyr (74° 15' north latitude), northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, 
Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

Fagopynini tataricuni (L.) Gaertn. De Fruct. et Sem. 11 (1791) p. 182; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. III. p. 517: Tiuczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852. IV) p. 449, no. 975; Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1892) p. 211. no. 68. Pohjgomim tatancum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 521: Meisner, 
Monogr. Gen. Polyg. p. 62, no. 28; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 968; K])w.i, iw. A.ir. V 
(1909) p. 1159. 

Common as weeds along road-sides, and the like, in the fanning district between 
Minusinsk and Kushabar. Flowering in June. 

Distribution: As weeds in Europe, Turkestan, central Asia, Siberia, eastern Asia, 
North America (introduced). 

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Method. PI. (1794) p. 290; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, 
p. 517; Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 210, no. 67. Poliigonum Fngopijriun L. Spec. PI. 
ed. II (1762) p. 522; Meisner, Monogr. Gen. Polijg. p. 61: Meisner, Pulyg. Haute-Asie p. 
353 (20); KpLu. a>.T. A.tt. V (1909) p. 1159. 

Very commonly cultivated in the farming district between Minusinsk and Kusha- 
bar. and dispersed as weeds into the fields, along road-sides, and the like. Flowering 
in July. 

Distribution: This species, probably a native of Mongolia, has been introduced 
into the temperate regions of the old and the new ^\orld, where cultivated, but occur- 
ring as weeds as well. 

Atraphaxis frutescens (L.) Koch, Dendrol. II (1872) p. 360. Polggoniun fnUescens 
L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 516. Alraphaxis lanceolala Meisner in DC. Prodrom. XIV 
(1856). p. 78; Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 208, no. 65: Ki-w-i. <D.i. A.it. V (1909) p. 1156. 
Tragopijiiun lanceolaium Marsch.-Bieb., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 73; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. 
PI. Fl. Alt. no. 793; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 515; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) 
p. 448, no. 974. 

Rather common on the dry Devonian slopes of sandstone on the Abakan Steppe, 
near Askys, near Usl Sisti-kem, Ust Kamsara, Ust Tara-kem, and on the dry steppes 
about the Ulu-kem, between Bjelosarsk and Cha-kul. The species flowers on the Abakan 
Steppe in June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia and adjoining portions of Asia to Turkestan, 
Siberia, eastwards to Trans Baikal and northern Mongolia. 

Runiex Acetosella L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 481; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p.. 61: Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 989; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 511; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 

206 



(1852. IV) p. IK), no. [)7o: lln.lfr, IM. Radd. (WJ2) p. 201, no. ().'>; Caiiipdcra, .Moiiof^r. 
Huiucx (181!)) p. 120; Meisiior, I'oli/g. Haute-Asie p. Ml (8); Kpi.i.i. »I>.i. A.n. V (liJOO) 
p. 1155. 

Hallior cominon on dry sloping mountain-sides, and tlic like, near Kuslial)ar and 
L s( Alijiar. 'I'akcn wilii flowers and a few rijje fiiiils in Hie first half of .Iiilv. 

rile speeinu'iis collected all belong to 1'. uiilf/diis Koc.ii, Synops. ed. 1 (liSiili) p. 
(iUi, lull aie ratliei' varying. 

Dislrihulion: iMiro|ic. Caucasia. Sil)cria(in Ihc i;o\ci luucnl of Toijolsk. noilliw ar(l.> 
to (jl north ialilu(lc), caslcin .\sia. Sakhalin. .Japan, the Himalayas, North and Soulh 
.\frica. North Anu'rica, (irct'iiland. .Australia (introduced). 

Riimex Acelosa L. Spec. I'i. ed. II (17()2) p. 181: Ledeh. Fl. .Ml. II. p. (10: Turc/.an. 
Cat. Baical. no. <)88: Karel. ct Kiril. Euum. PI. l-l. All. no. 7U(i: Ledeh. i-"l. Hoss. Ill, 
p. 510: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.52. IV) p. 145. no. <I71 ex parte: Herder, PI. 
Radd. (1892) p. 205, no. 61; Canipdera, Monogr. Ruinc.v p. 117; Meisner, fo/;/^. Ilante- 
Asie p. 341 (8); Kpbi.i. <I'.i. A.rr. V (1909) p. 11.54. 

Rather frequent in nalural meadows, and the like, on the islets in the rivers Abakan 
and Yenisei, near Karatus. Kushabar, Ust Sisti-kem, and Tara-kem. 

f. hiiiulns Freyn, Abb. Z. B. G. Wien XXVII (1877) p. 415. 

Some specimens of this one I have gathered on islets in the river Abakan, near 
Ust Abakansk. 

Distribution: The .species is distributed over Europe, temperate parts of Asia, south- 
wards to the Himalayas, South Africa, North and South .\merica, Greenland, Australia. 

Rumex arifolius .Mlioni, Fl. Pedemont. II (1785) p. 201. Riimex monlaniis Desf., 
Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. Ill, p. 510. 

In meadows and grass-grown places, near Karatas and Kushabar, and in the Urjan- 
kai country, near list Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem, and on flood-plains, near Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

I^iiniex thyrsiflorus Fingcrh. Linnaea IV (1829) p. .'380. Rumex dcelosa /i aiiiirn- 
Iciliis Koch, Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 511. Rumex luiplorrhiziis Czern., Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 445, no. 972. Rumex acetosa in Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. 
no. 796: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 988 ex parte. 

On islets in the river .\bakan, scattered in nalural meadows. 

Distribution: Northern, middle, and eastern Europe, Siberia. 

Rumex aquaticus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 479: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 60: Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. III. p. 508: Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 189, no. 51: Campdera. Monogr. Rumex 
p. 100—102; KpLi.i. '1>.T. A.iT. V (1909) p. 11.52. 

Scattered along the borders of brooks, and the like, between Minusinsk and Kusha- 
bar, on the banks of the L'pper Sisti-kem as well as of the Taia-kem. near the Bei-keni. 
Taken with flowers in July and at the beginning of August. 

207 



Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, Siberia (northwards to 68 north kitilude in the 
Yenisei valley), northern Mongolia, the Thian-Shan, eastern Asia, Japan, Nortli America. 

Runiex crispus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 476; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 57; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. Ill, p. .">05; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1852. IV) p. 413, no. 967; Campdera, 
Monogr. Riimex p. 95—97; Meisner, Polijc]. Haute-Asie p. 338 (5); Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1892) p. 193, no. 55; Kpbi.i. $.t. A.it. V (1909) p. 1150. 

In moist places, on the banks of a brook, near Karatus, Kalna, Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti- 
kem, Ust Kamsara, Ust Tara-kem, the Sebi, and the Tapsa. Collected with flowers at 
the beginning of July, and with fruits in August. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasus, Siberia (in the Yenisei valley northwards to 66° 
north latitude, not occurring in the regions from Trans Baikal to the Sea of Okhotsk.), 
northern Mongolia, China, Sakhalin, Japan, south-western Asia to Turkestan, North 
Africa, North and South America (introduced), Australia (introduced). 

Rumex domesticiis Hartm. Scand. Fl. ed. I (1820) p. 148; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 60: 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 506; Turczan, Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 443, no. 968; 
Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 191, no. 54; Meisner, Polyg. Haute-Asia p. 388 (5). Rumex 
aqiiaticiis in Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 987. 

Taken at Kushabar and Kalna, near the river .\myl. \\ith flowers and young fruits 
in the middle of July, and, besides, at Ust Algiac and Ust Sisti-kcm. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, Novaya Zemlya, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, North America, Greenland. 

Rumex marilinuis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 478; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 500; 
Campdera, Monogr. Rumex p. 76 — 78; Nilsson, Ofversigt af SI. Rumex (Rot. Not. 1887) 
p. 224; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 188, no. 60; Kpu.T. $.1. A.it. V (1909) p. 1149. 

Occurring on the river Abakan, near Askys, on sandy banks, and at Kalna, near 
habitations, in thickets of birch and spruce, in swampy, moss- and grass-grown places, 
accompanying Rubus arciicus and Vaccinium uliqiiiosum. Taken with young flo\\ers in 
Ihe middle of July. The characteristic oblong grains on the backs of the inner sepals are 
not so distinctly developed in the specimens collected as is commonly the case in the 
Norwegian specimens I have had for comparison. The grains are, besides, rather 
frequently of a darker brown. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, south-western Asia to Turkestan, 
Siberia (northwards to 66^" 40' in the government of Tobolsk), eastern .\sia, Sakhalin, 
the East Indies, North Africa. 

Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill, Hort. Kew. (1769) p. 1.58. Oxijiia reniformis Hook. Fl. Scot. 
(1821) p. Ill; Ledeb. FL Alt. IL p. 56; Turczan. CaU Raical. no. 984; Karel. et Kiril. 
Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 797; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 498; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1852. IV) p. 441. no. 965; Herder. PL Radd. (1892) p. 186, no. 50; Kpw.i. <I>j. A.rr. V 
(1909) p. 1146; Campdera, Monogr. Pohjg. p. 153—156. 

208 



I'lallui- couinioii in llic Allaiiui. al an allilihlc ol ]8()()— 20(MI in. al)i)ve sca-levcl, 
on iiioisi, cool slopes with a iioiihciii asixTl. anioii.tj licliciis anil mosses, accompanying 
Carddiiiinc bellidifolia, I'aintvcr luidifdiilc. Vali'iidiKi capilaUi, liannntiiliis frif/uliis, 
and ollicrs. 'I'lic spct'inu'ns a.qici- |)cilVilly willi Xorw t'j^ian oni-s. Collcclcd in lull flo- 
wer al llie end ul July. 

Disti-jhulion: Aiclie islands, arcli'' and alpine ii'^ions ol luirojjc, Siberia, the Cau- 
casus, Asia Minor, norlliein Persia, Tiliel, Hie Himalayas, I'aniir. Hie Tliian Shan, the 
.Mtai. llie Sayansk dislricl. Norlli .\ineiica, (ireenland. 

(" h II o p (» (1 i a c a c A'knt. 

Chenopodiiim aristatiim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17G2) j). 321: Ledeb. Fl. All. I. p. 410; 
Turczan. C.al. Haieal. no. 'J.")0; Hungc, Enuni. Salsol. Cenlrasialic. p. 405 et 454; K[)i,i.r. 
<I>.i. .\.ii V (I'JO!)) p. 1101. Teloxi/s aiislala Moqu.-4'and. in Annal. Sc. Nat. 2, Ser. I, 
p. 289; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 693; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahui'. (1852, IV) p. 107, no. 930; 
Herder, PI. Hadd. (1889) p. 583, no. 1. 

Scattered on the steppes about Minusinsk, near liiiisliaja, and near Tagarski 
osero. With young flowers at the beginning of July. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, Russian Turkestan, northern and eastern Mon- 
golia, eastern Asia, North America. Observed, besides, as weeds near Berlin, Buda-Pest, 
and Venice. 

Chenopodium vulvaria L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1702) p. 321; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
095; Ki>M.T. 3>.r. A.ir. V (1909) p. 1097. 

Dispersed about Minusinsk. Flowering at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, and .south-westei'n Asia to Turkestan and Pamir, 
southern Siberia, eastwards to the government of Yeniseisk, North Africa. 

Chenopodium glaiicum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1702) p. 320: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 407; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 947; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 751; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. Ill, p. 700; Bunge, Enuni. Salsol. Centrasiatic. no. 6: Herder, PL Radd. (1889) p. 
589, no. 6; Kpw.i. <l).i. A.it. V (1909) p. 1099. Blilum glaucnm Koch, Turczan. Fl. BaicaL- 
Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 413, no. 943. 

At Tagarski osero, near habitations. With young flowers at the beginning of July. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Europe and temperate .\sia. Sakhalin, moreover, 
in North and South America, Greenland, North and South Africa, Australia, partly 
in .slightly differing forms, and at any rale partly introduced. 

Chenopodium album L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 319; Ledeb. FL Alt. I, p. 404; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 944; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 697; Turczan. Fl. BaicaL- 
Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 410, no. 940; Bunge, Enum. Salsol. Centrasiatic. no. 5; Herder, PL 
Radd. (1889) p. 586, no. 5; KpH.T. <I>.t. A.it. V (1909) p. 1098. Chenopodium serotiniim 
in Ledeb. Fl. All. I, p. 405, non L. 

209 



The species was rallier frequently met willi by me in the regions of soutliern 
Siberia and the Urjankai country, where especially occurring about habitations, by 
road-sides, on the borders of fields, etc., such as about Minusinsk, and in several 
places between Minusinsk and Kushabar. The species appears to be rather varying 
here as well as in Europe. By the investigations of Murr and Ludwig, some forms 
have proved to l)e constant A\hen pi-oduced from seed, and others Jiave not. The mate- 
rial collected by me early in summer, in June and at the Jjeginning of July, is too 
young to make possible an absolutely certain determination, the more so as the species 
here in Asia, no doubt in part at least, occurs under other forms than in Europe. 

Distribution: Occurring in all parts of the world, except the arctic regions. In 
Europe northwards to Iceland and the Earoe Island, in Siberia — in the Yenisei valley — 
to 69 45' north latitude. 

Chenopodium riihrum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 318. Hlitum pohjinorplium C. 
A. Meyer in Ledeb. El. Alt. I, p. 13; Ledeb. El. Ross. Ill, p. 770; Turczan. El. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 412, no. 942; Bunge, Enuni. Salsol. Centrasiatic. p. 406 et 954; 
Kpw.i. <b^. A.iT. V (1909) p. 1103. Blitum nihriim C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. El. Alt. I. p. 
11; Herder, PI. Radd. (1889) p. 596, no. 13. 

Near the habitations of the Abakan Tatars at Ust Kamuishto, and near Est Aba- 
kansk. Young flowers at the end of June. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to southern Scandinavia, south-western Asia to 
Turkestan and Pamir, Mongolia, Siberia (in the Yenisei valley northwards to 68" 10' 
north latitude), Manchooria (Mukden), the Azores, North America. 

Atriplex litorale L. Spec. PL ed. II (1763) p. 1494; Ledeb. El. Alt. IV, p. 311; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 956; Eenzl in Ledeb. El. Ross. Ill, p. 729; Turczan. El. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1852. IV). p. 415, no. 944; Bunge. Enum. Salsol. Centrasiatic. no. 24; Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1889) p. 604, no. 21; Kpbu. *.i. A-rr. V (1909) p. 1113. 

Near salt swamps and in saline soil on the Abakan Sle])pe. near Est Kamuishto. 

Distribution: On the coasts of Europe, more rarely inland, south-western and cen- 
tral Asia, southern Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, Manchooria, northern China, Japan, 
Sakhalin (van), north-western America. 

Atriplex patulum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1494; Ledeb. El. Alt. IV, p. 310; 
Eenzl in Ledeb. El. Ross. Ill, p. 725; Bunge, Enum. Salsol. Centrasiatic. no. 24; Herder, 
PI. Radd. (1889) p. 602, no. 20; Kpu.!. <t).i. A.rr. V (1909) p. 1112. 

As weeds by road-sides, etc., on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Abakansk. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most northern regions, south-western Asia to 
Turkestan, Siberia, Manchooria, Sakhalin. North Africa. North America. 

Atriplex sibiriciim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1493; Ledeb. El. Alt. IV, p. 315; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 957; Kptu. a>.i. A.tt. V (1909) p. 1114. Obione muricala Giirtn., 

210 



Ledcl). I'M. Hoss. 111. p. 7:11: llndii. I'l. Undd. ( 1S.S'.)) p. (KHi. no. 21. Ohionc siliiiini 
FiscluT. Cat. Uoil. (iorciik. (1808) p. 2."); Turczaii. I'l. I5ai(al.-I);diur. ( IS.'j^. IV) p. 117, 
no. •) l«). 

On llic Al)akan Sloppc, near Askys, as weeds, and in saline soil. Voimi; flower- 
l)iids in the .second half of .Inne. 

l)islril)ulion: Soutli-eastein Hnssia and soulli-w eslern .Vsia lo 1 u^i^eslan, .soulhein 
Siberia, norlii-easlein .Moni^olia. ^hnu•lu)o^ia. Clhina. 

Eurolia ccraloidcs ('.. .\. Meyer in Ledel). V\. .Ml. I\'. p. 'IM: Tuie/an. Cal. Haical. 
no. 959: Karel. el Kiril. luuim. PI. V\. All. no. 779: I'"cn/1 in Ledch. I'l. I'.oss. 111. p. 
738: Turczan. l-'l. r.aieal.-Daliur. (1852, IV) p. 421, no. 9.50: llcidci. I'l. liadd. (1889) p. 
007, no. 25; Kpi,i.i. «l'.i. A.n. V (1909) p. lllC. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Abakansk. and in die I'rjankai counlry. on the 
steppes on the I'lu-keni. 

Distribution: Spain. Hungary, south-eastern Russia and adjacent parts of south- 
western and central .\sia to Pamir, tlie Himalayas, Tibet and Beloochistan, .southern 
Siberia, rouuhly to Lake Baikal, northern Mongolia, northern China, North Africa. 

Kochia prostrata Schrad. Neues Journ. HI (1809) p. 85: Ledeb. I'"l. Alt. I, p. 112: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 951; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 717: Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1852. IV) p. 425. no. 952; Herder, PI. Badd. (1889) p. CIO. no. 28; l,>i,i.i. 
(IM. A.rr. V (1909) p. 1120. 

f. fJavescens Lagaska, Mem. PI. Barill. (1817) p. 37. Kochia proshula <( virescens 
Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 748: h-pi,i.i. 1. c. p. 1120. 

Near Ust Uss, on dry declivities, partly done flowering at llie beginning of Sep- 
tember. 

Distribution: Southern and south-eastern Europe, Caucasia, south-western and 
central Asia to Pamir, Tibet and the Himalayas, southern Siberia lo the government of 
Irkutsk, northern Mongolia, north-western Manchooria, North Africa. 

Salicornia herbacca L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 5: Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. 1. p. 2: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 955; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Boss. Ill, p. 767: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1852, IV) p. 430. no. 957; Bunge, Enum. Salsol. Centrasiatic. no. 57; Herder, PI. Badd. 
(1889) p. 617, no. 38: Kpi.i.i. a>.i. A.rr. V (1909) p. 1127. 

f. stricta (Willd.) G. F. W. Meyer in Hannov. Magaz. (1824) j). 178. Snlicornid 
herbacca « leptostachya Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Boss. Ill, p. 767 ex parte: Kpi.i.i. 1. c. 

Rather common on the Abakan Steppe, in salt swamps etc., at Ust Kamuishlo, 
where occurring in abundance. Specimens collected here in Ihe second half of June, 
are voung, without fully developed flowers. The specimens are about 15 cm. high, with 
thick, coarse, and long branches, which are ascendent, nearly parallel to the main axis. 

Distribution: On the coasts of Europe, and inland in saline soil, south-western 
Asia to Turkestan. Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, the East Indies, 
North and South .\frica. North America. 

•Jll 



Siiaeda maritlma (L.) Dumoil. Fl. Belg. (1827) p. 22; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 786; 
Kpi.i.i. 'I>.i. A.TT. V (1909) p. 1131. Chenopodina maritima Moquin in DC. Prodrom. XIII, 
2, p. 161; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) ]i. 433, no. 959. Schoberia maritima C 
A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 400. 

Rather common in salt swamps on the Abakan Steppe, accompanying the prece- 
ding one. Specimens taken here in the second half ol June, are sterile. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia to Pamir, southern Siberia, eastern Asia, 
Japan, the East Indies, Ceylon, North and South Africa, North and South America, 
Australia. 

Suaeda corniculata (C. A. Meyer) Bunge in Act. Hort. Petropol. VI, p. 429; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 942; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 751; IIImu.im-. '1>a. C'|ieiii. ii 
K)/KH. Pocc. II, n, 379; Kpbi.i. <l>.i. A.n. V (1909) p. 1131. Schoberia corniculata C. A. 
Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 399; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 791; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1852, IV) p. 434, no. 960; Herder, PI. Radd. ( 1889) p. 620, no. 40. 

In saline soil, near Togarski osero. Flowering specimens have been taken at the 
beginning of July. The specimens have the stems ascending and branched from the 
base, with long branches of the same length as the stems themselves, f. adscemiens 
Khvl.1. c. 

Distribution: Southern and eastern Russia, south-western Asia, Turkestan, western 
Tibet, southern Siberia to the governments of Yakutsk and Trans Baikal, north-eastern 
Mongolia. 

Salsola collina Pallas, lUustrat. PI. Imperf. Cognit. (1803) pi. 34, t. 26; C. A. Meyer 
in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 393; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 745; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
Ill, p. 800; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852, IV) p. 437, no. 962; Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1889) p. 623, no. 42; Kpi.i.i. <I>.i. A.ii, V (1909) p. 1134. 

1'. siibhirta C. A. Meyer, 1. c; Kpi.i.i. 1. c. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto, on saliferous soil, and near Togarski 
osero, at Minusinsk, on sandy ground. Only young specimens with young flowers at 
the beginning of July. 

Distribution: Southern Russia, south-western Asia, Turkestan. Tibet, southern 
Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, the East Indies. (In Europe, for the rest, at 
Mannheim in Baden as an accidental weed). 



P r t u 1 a c a c e a c J uss. 

? MonUa fontana L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 129; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 152. 

This plant has been noted down by me from the Urjankai country, near the 
Dora Steppe, by a fountain in brush-Avood of Belula humilis and other foliferous trees. 
But as it is not to be found in my collections arrived, and has not previously been 

212 



icpoi led lioiu llic Alhii rcs^ioii cillu'i-, l)eiii,t^ s;ii(l. on llic contraiy, to l)e waiiliiig in 
ii'iilral Asia. Ilicrt' imnaiiis a possihilily of a mislaUc of ideiitily. and I therefore dare 
only enl(M- it willi a sign of interrogation. 

Disliihiilion: Knropc, soutii-we.stern Asia, eastern Siberia, North Africa, North and 

Soulli America, Auslialia. 

(' a r y « p li y 1 1 a o e a e ToKU. Kr Gray. 

(".erasliuni pilosnni Ledeb. in Mem. Acad. Si. liters!). V (181.')) p. 514 ct .539; 
Ledel). Fl. Alt. 11. p. 178: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 203; Ledei). Fl. Ros.s. I, p. .398; 
Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 611, no. 252; Grenier, Monogr. Cciasl. (1811) p. 
18; Regel. PI. Uadd. (1862) p. 308, no. 347; Kpu.:. $.1. A.it. I (1901) p. 173. 

Scattered in thickets between Karatus and Kushabar, and in the subalpine wood 
regions between the Algiac Pa.s.s and Ust Algiac, where I have taken it flowering and 
in part done flowering about the middle of July. 

Distribution; Southern Siberia from the Ural to Manchooria and northern Corea, 
northern Mongolia. 

Cerastiuni vulgatuni L. Fl. Suec. ed. II (1755) p. 158; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 408 ex 
parte; Herder, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 313, no. 353; Kpbi.i. $.1. A.rr. I (1901) p. 175. Cerasliiim 
triviale Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. I (1821) p. 433; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 181. Cerasliuin 
viscosiim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 627; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 613, 
no. 255; Grenier, Monogr. Cerasl. (1841) p. 38. 

In thickets between Karatus and Kushabar, and of rather common occurrence in 
the subalpine wooded tracts about the Upper Amyl and about the river Sisti-kem. and 
at Ust Tara-kem. in grassy and moss-grown places. Nearly past flowering, and with 
ripe capsules in the second half of July. The lower part of the stem is, in the specimens 
collected, furnished with dense, spreading hairs, and the upper part with dense, glan- 
dular hairs. The leaves are pubescent, without glandular Imirs. The petals are of 
the same length as the sepals, or shorter, from 5 to 7 mm. long, acute at the sum- 
mit, and scarions-margined, viscid-pubescent. The ripe capsules are slightly curved, of 
about twice the length of the sepals. The peduncles, which are beset with dense, glan- 
dular hairs, are generally somewhat longer than the calyx. It seemed to agree perfectly 
w ith (( bntchiipeldlum 1'. glandiilosiim Fenzl. 

Distribution; Europe, Caucasia, Siberia from the Ural to Kamtchatka, Sakhalin, 
Japan, Russian Turkestan, the Thian Shan, Tibet, India, Ceylon, North America, Green- 
land. 

Cerastiuni arvense L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 628; Kpbi.T. <I).i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 
176. Cerastiuni aroense L. f. (ingiisli folium Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 412; Herder, 
PI. Radd. (1862) p. 325, no. 355. Cerastium incamim Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 180; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 266; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 177: Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 614, no. 2,56. 

213 



I'lie planls are lallicr densely be-scl with piollv long, while liairs, pointing down- 
wards, llieir upper halt, like the sepals, rather viscid-pubescent. The sepals are scarious- 
margined, partly of a pretty, wine-red colour. The leaves are rather densely pubescent, 
to 4 mm. broad, generally, however, only 2 mm. broad, and to 20 mm. long. The petals 
are 11 to 13 mm. long, the biacts scarious-margined at the summit. Very common in 
the steppe region about the lower Abakan, especially in grass-grown, not too dry places, 
where I have taken it in flower and partly done flowering in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to middle Scandinavia, Caucasia, Turkestan, 
Siberia, Mongolia, eastern Asia to the north of China, North Africa, northern and middle 
America, Greenland. 

Stcllaria Bungeana Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 376; Turczan. Addenda ad Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1857) p. XIII; Kpuji. O-i. Ajt. (1901) p. 165. Stellaria nemorum L. apud 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 152; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 235; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 599. no. 236. Stellaria nemorum fi Bungeana Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 269, no. 319. 

In grass-grown thickets, chiefly consisting of Caragana arborescens, between 
Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, where it occurs flowering at the beginning of June. All 
of the specimens collected belong to f. lalifolia Regel, 1. c. The same form is also 
frequent near Kushabar. in the Amyl taiga, and in the Urjankai country, near Ust Algiac. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, southern Siberia, eastwards to the Sea of Okhotsk, 
Manchooria, China, Corea. 

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Hist. PI. Dauph. Ill (1789) p. 615; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 
153; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 236; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 377; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 599, no. 237; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 270, no. 320; Kpi,i.T. *.i. 
A.Tr. I (1901) p. 165. 

This species did not seem to be of very frequent occurrence in the territory 
explored. In my collections I have, by the way, only some specimens, taken in the 
village of Kushabar, near a farm-yard, in the middle of July. The stems are unilaterally 
hairy; the shape and size of the leaves much varying, commonly medium-sized, from nar- 
rowly ovate to broadly cordiform, the breadth equalling or even exceeding the length. 
The sepals, which are beset with scattered glandular hairs, are broadly lanceolate to 
ovate, rounded at the summit. The petals are about "A as long as the sepals. The seeds, 
about 1 mm. in diameter, are orbicular-reniform, of a chestnut colour, slightly warty, 
and beset with very fine, long, scattered hairs. The pedicels are commonly from 2 
to 4, rarely to 10 times as long as the sepals. The specimens seemed to belong to the 
iorm oligandra pEtiZL in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 377. 

Distribution: The species occurs nearly all over the globe. 

Stellaria dichotonia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 603; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
247; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 378; Turczan. Fl. Bacial.-Dahur. (1842) p. 600, no. 
238; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 271, no. 321. 

214 



stihsixT. cordifolia lUiiiLji' Imuiiii. All. |). :14; K|ii,i.i. Mm. A.m. I (I'JOl) |). KUi. 

On stony (lcrli\ ilics and drv nic;itit)\\.s on llic .Miakan SUppc, near Usl Kaniui.sliLo, 
wlicre occui rinj4 in full llowc r in llic second hall of .Inne. The specimens coUecled 
hclonn lo f. (ihindiilusd Hi:c.i:r,, 1. c. (Slcllarid SclilcclilciKldliliiiiKi l-[ PdUnsiaiid Skk. in 
DC. Prodioin. I, p. 397). This species is, at any rale lo jndt;e I'loni my material, very 
ciiaracleristic in having liio somewhat swollen nodes ratlier fragile, so that Ihev arc 
easily broken when dry. 

DistriI)ution: Scattered in southern Siberia from the eastern Altai lo Trans Baikal, 
besides, near Omsk, and in the I'ral ([.ecssinc). northern Mongolia. 

Slellaria erassifolia Ehrh. Hann. Magaz. VIII (1784) p. IIB: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. JI, p. 
156 (Lns. 1): Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 244; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 383; Turczan. 
FI. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. GUG, no. 24G; Kegel, PI. Radd. (18G2) p. 275, no. 323: Kpi.u. 
*.i. A.aT. I (1901) p. 167. 

subspec. paliulosa Fries, Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. Ill (1842) p. 192. 

In moist, shady thickets, and in moss-grown meadows, on an islel in the river 
Abakan, near Askys. In full flower in the middle of Jime. The leaves in the speci- 
mens collected are narrowly ovate, up to 1.5 cm. long, and 0,7 cm. broad, gradually 
and slightly acuminate towards the summit, 1'. ohlonffifolid, Fenzl, 1. c; Regel, 1. c. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, Iceland, Novaya Zemlya, Siberia to 
Kamlchatka. North America. 

Slellaria longipes Goldic in Edinb. Phil. Journ. VI (1822) p. 183; Fenzl in Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. I. p. 38(5; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 295, no. :535: Kpi.i.i. <I).i. A.it. I (1901) p. 168. 

subspec. stricta (Rich.) Fenzl, 1. c. Stelldrin slrictd Rich., Turczan. FI. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 604, no. 243. 

In the Altaian, on the sources of the Upper Sisti-kem, near the limit of tree vege- 
tation. In full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic Europe, arctic Siberia, in the Altai and Sayansk mountains, 
eastwards to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

Stcllaria discolor Turczan. Cat. BaicaL no. 241: Fenzl in Ledeb. FL Ro.ss. I, p. 389; 
Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 601, no. 239; Maxim. Mel. Biol. IX, p. 47; Regel. 
PI. Radd. (1862) p. 284, no. 330. 

This species is especially characteristic in having the stems rigid, erect and distinctly 
quadrangular; the leaves are sessile, rather broad and lanceolate, frequently of a paler 
greyish colour on the under side, and with a strongly marked midrib and recurved 
margin. Not unfrequenl in meadows on the islets in the lower part of the river Abakan, and 
in the Yenisei, where I have collected it with flowers at the end of June. The speci- 
mens agree perfectly with sj)ccimens I have seen in K.\no, Plantae Amuricae el Zeaense, 
no. 143. 

215 



I)islril)uliou: The sijccies has previously hccn recorded from the Ainoor Province, 
Manchooria. Dahurica, and eastern Mongoha. 

Stellaria palustris Ehrh. Beitr. Naturk. V (1789) p. 176: Retz. FL Scand. Prodr. 
cd. II (1795) p. lOG. Stellaria glaiica Wither. Bot. Arrang. Brit. PI. ed. III. 3 (1796) p. 420; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 242: Fenzl in Ledeh. Fl. Ross. I, p. 389; Regel, PI. Radd. 
(1862) p. 289, no. 334. Stellaria glauca, Laxmanni. dahurica. falcala et velulina DC. Pro- 
drom. I. p. 397, 398. 399. Stellaria glauca et falcala in Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 602. no. 240 et p. 603, no. 242. Stellaria qlauca With., Kpw.!. *ji. Ajit. I (1901) p. 169. 
Stellaria davurica Willd., Ledeh. Fl. Ross. I, p. 388. 

Pretty common in the tracts about the rivers Abakan and Yenisei, where I have 
taken it flowering and with flower-buds in June. The length of the petals is 7 to 8 mm. 
Most of the specimens collected belong to f. comnninis Fenzl, 1. c. 

Near Ust Kamuishto I have collected specimens of a larger, more vigorous form, 
of a more markedly green colour, with rather large flowers, f. Laxmanni (Fisch.) 
SiMONKAi, Enum. Fl. Transs. (1886) p. 137. Stellaria Laxmanni Fisch. in DC. Prodrom. 
I. p. 397; Leoeb. FL Alt. II, p. 158. Stellaria glauca Wither, var. virens Fenzl, 1. c. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, southwards to northern Italy, Corsica, 
Bulgaria, Caucasia, south-western Asia to Tibet, the Himalayas and India, Siberia, Mon- 
golia, northern China, Greenland (?), Australia (?). 

Stellaria graminea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 604: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 159; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 239; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 166; Fenzl in 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 391; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 603, no. 241; Regel, PI. 
Radd. (1862) p. 284, no. 331; Kpbi.T. dM. A.n. I (1901) p. 169. Stellaria brachypetala Bunge 
in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 161; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 390. 

Of rather frequent occurrence in the tracts about the Lower Abakan, and in the 
subalpine meadows in woods between Kushal)ar and Ust Algiac. In full flower in June 
and July. I have collected a rather rich material of this species, which appears not to be 
distinctly separated from the preceding one. Besides more typical specimens there also 
occur here transition forms to Slellaria palustris and forms combining characters from 
both of these species. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate Asia. 

Stellaria longifolia Miihlenb. in Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. (1809) p. 479; Fenzl in 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 392 ex parte; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 287, no. 332; KpLu. iKz. 
Ajt. I (1901) p. 170. 

Common in thickets on the islets in the river Abakan. In full flower in June. 
Besides the typical species there also frequently occur here specimens appearing to be 
intermediate between this one and Slellaria graminea and forms with foliaceous, green 
bracts, thus, by this character recalling Stellaria alpestris. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, Siberia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, 
North America. 

216 



Stellaria iilij-iiiosii Miiii'. I'lodiom. (KiclliiiL;. ( 1770) p. .')."): Lcdch. Fl. l\oss. I, p. iMCJ; 
'ruic/.;ui. II. l!:.u;il.-Daliiii. (1X12) p. (iOCi. no. 2 15; Regcl. I'l. Hnfld. ( 1862) p. 281, no. 
;V28: i>-|, 1,1,1. 'iM .\.ii. I (imil) ]). 171. Slrllctrid miiutlicit i'oll. llisi. I'l. l>;,l;il. 1 (177«)) no. 
122: luiczan. (lal. Haical. no. 21(1. Slflliiria Msinr Ueichard. i"l. .Mocno-Francofurt. 
(1772) no. 28B: Lodch. I'l. .Ml. II, p. 1.')!,. 

In grass-grown plarcs, near Kushabar, nowering in .July. 

Distribntion: Knroi)e. ("ancasia, sonthern Siberia, middle and eastern .\sia. the 
East Indies, Noilli .\nu'iica. (licTnland. 

Stellaria pelraea Rnnge in T.edeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. KlO: Fenzl in Ledeb. FI. Ros.s. I, p. 
394: Tnrczan. Fl. Haical.-Dahnr. (1.SI2) |). (i()8. no. 21',); Regei, PI. Hadd. (1862) p. P.Oil 
no. 340; Kin.i.i. 'Im. .\.it. I {VMl) p. 171. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, on dry, rocky slopes, in chinks of rocks, among 
stones and gravel, near the hill-lops, in lull flower in the middle of .June. 

Distribution: The .\ltai region, and further eastwards to the .^moor Province, 
Mongolia. 

Mochringia lateriflora (L.) F^cnzl, Verbreit..l/.s7n. in Tab. Synopt. (1833) p. 18 el 38; 
Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 371; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 596. no. 234; 
Regel. PL Radd. (1862) p. 257, no. 316; Kptu. <^.i. A.ix. I (1901) p. I(i2. Arenariii lulcri- 
flora L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 605; Ledeb. FI. Alt. II, p. 173: Turczan. Cat Raical. 
no. 261. 

I'his species I have found to be rather common in moist, shady thicket oiCaraqana 
arborescens and Cotoneaster nielanocarpa. on the steppes about the Yenisei, near Ust 
Abakansk. It is. moreover, of common occurrence in the subalpine wooded tracts 
between Kushabar and Ust Algiac, and also in alpine regions in the Altaian. Specimens 
from the different localities prove to be considerably varying. However, all of lliem 
belong to the form series of Mochrinf/ia laierillora, with obtuse sepals. Forms \vilh 
acute sepals, distinguished as Mochringia iiinbrosa (BrNCE) Fenzl, do not occur in my 
material. The specimens vary considerably in the size of the flowers, the shape and 
size of the leaves, the height and vigorousness of the .stem, and also in the hairiness. 
Specimens taken by me in the lowland at Minusinsk, are distinguished by glabrous 
stems and leaves, or nearly so, only the peduncles, immediatly below the flower, being 
scattered pubescent. These specimens are also characteristic in having the flowers 
comparatively large, the diameter of which may reach up to 13 mm., i. e. 4 times as 
long as the obtuse, ovate, glabrous, and slightly scarious-margined sepals, completely 
nerveless. There occurs for the rest, every transition between this form, which most 
properly has to be referred to Lglobrescens Regel, 1. c., and the forms iijpica and inter- 
media. Regei.'s limitation and grouping of the numerous varieties and forms of Moch- 
ringia lalcriflora seemed, for the rest, not to be maintainable. The descriptions are also 
so incomplete that most fretjuently it is impossible to unravel them, even if his authentic 

23 217 



material is at hand. Near Ust Algiac I have collected specimens of a form with narro\\, 
equally l)road leaves, to 25 mm. long, and t) mm. broad. 

Specimens from alpine tracts in the Altaian have the stems densely pubescent, 
and the petals considerably shorter, only about 3 mm. long, i. e. one and a half to twice 
the length of the calyx. The species has been collected flowering by me from the begin- 
ning of June to the end of July. 

Distribution: Northern Scandinavia, northern and north-eastern Russia, almost 
throughout Sil^eria, northern Mongolia, Manchooria, China. Corea, Sakhalin. Japan, 
North America. 

Arcnaria serpyllifolia L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 605: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 175; 
Karel. et Klril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 170; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 368; Williams, 
Revis. Gen. Arenaria in Journ. Lin. Soc. vol. 33 (1897—98) p. 365; Kpm.i. $.t. Ajit. I 
(1901) p. 161. 

Of this rather polymorphous species I have collected only some few specimens on dry 
hills, near Kushabar. These specimens are distinguished by their much branched stems, 
from 10 to 15 cm. high, ascending and geniculate at the base, especially in their upper 
parts densely glandular hairy. The leaves are 3 — 4 mm. long, 2 — 2,5 mm. broad, tapering 
upwards, and acuminate, with 1 or 3 nerves. The sepals are lanceolate, tapering upwards, 
mucronate at the sunnnit, generally 3-nerved, glandular hairy along the nerves, broadly 
scarious-margined. The scarious-margin is about as broad as the green part of the 
sepals. The petals are about % shorter than the calyx. The ripe capsules are yellow, 
glabrous, and glassy, of about the same length as the sepals, or somewhat longer, urceo- 
late, Iheir lower jjart globularly inflated. The pedicels are straight, capillaceous, 2 — 3 
times as long as the calyx. Rather flowery. Taken with ripe fruits, and some in flower, 
in the middle of July. The seeds are small, about 0.6 mm. in diameter, globular-reni- 
form, of a nearly black colour, slightly shining, densely rugose in regular rows. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to about 69° north latitude, the Caucasus and 
south-western Asia to Tibet, the Himalayas, India, Siberia, Corea, Japan, north and tro- 
pical Africa, North America. 

Alsine verna (L.) Rartl. Reitr. II (1824—25) p. 63; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 
347; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1842> p. 591, no. 228; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 218, 
no. 302; KpLi.T. il).i. Ajit. I (1901) p. 157. Arenaria costata et paniciilata Runge apud 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 168-171. Arenaria verna Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 172. 

In the material collected of this very polymorphous species, all the specimens 
have the stems 1 to 2-flowered, short, 3—5 cm. high, fine, densely tufted, frequently of 
a darkish colour, ascending, or geniculate below, surrounded at the base by withering 
leaves. The leaves are 3-nerved, stiff, nearly glabrous, very narrow, 5 — 7 mm. long, 
acuminate at the summit, more or less densely appressed to the stem. The upper leaves 
are slightly shorter and broader; the bracts are navicular and slightly scarious-margi- 
ned. The stem, especially its u])per parts, and the sepals are beset with scattered, short, 

218 



slniif^lit. ;uul .sliiiiiiif^ ^huuliihu liairs. I'lHlcr llic minoscopc llicsc f<l;m(lular hairs prove 
lo foiisi.sl of 2 — 1, f^eiu'ially '.i c-yliiuliical cells, willi an upper one round and scconuMil. 
I'he leaves are generally f^lahrous. or llie up|)er ones scattered glandulai-hairy. I lie 
|)elals are oiiovale. L;enerally somewhat longer llinn the dark, distinctly ^-nerved, hioad- 
ly lanceolate, nearly glahrous or slightly glandnlar-haiiy sepals. The flower is ahoul X 
mm. in diameter. The length of the pedicels is 2 to 4 times the length of the calyx. 

This form 1 leler to subspecies (icnirdi Ww.i.u. L liipicd Wii.i.d. Spec. PI. p. 2729; 
Regel, 1. c. p. 224. Alsinc vcinn et nivalis Fkn/.i, in Ledeh. 1-4. Uoss. I, p. 34K Atsine 
Gerardi Hkk.iiknh. le. 1*4 (lerm. V, tab, 208. Alsine co.slttht y pidcliellu \ivsv,\: in l,i;i)i;ii. 
1'4. .\lt. II. ]). 171. 

In the .\ltaian, above the tree limit, in gravelly and stony ])laces, willi floweis at 
the end of July. 

Distribution: Alpine tracts of Europe, Novaya Zemlya, arctic Siberia, the Altai, 
the Sayansk dislriet, Baikal, Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia, the Caucasus, Russian 
Turkestan, the Ihian Shan, North Africa, North America. 

Alsine arclica (Stev.) Fcnzl, Verbreit. Alsin. in Tab. Synopt. (18!5:?) p. 18; Veiv/A in 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 355; Turczan. Fl. Haical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 58i). no. 226; Regel, PI. 
Radd. (1862) p. 227, no. 303; Kj.bu. <I>.i. A.it. I (1901) p. 158. Arcnaria arclica Stev. in 
DC. Prodrom. I. p. 404; Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 24: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 255. 















fa 




3 


y 


/ 




"« 


m 


IHt^^J^ 


^ 











Fig. 85. Alsinc arclica Stkv. sulispec. scapigcra Regel ('/i). 



219 



siibspcc. scapigcra Regel, 1. c. 

All of the specimens colleclecl. llic stems of whicli vary from 3 to (1 cm. in length, 
belong lo liic large-flowered form, entered hy Hooker, F1. Bor. Am. I, as var. (/raiuli- 
flora. The length of the petals varies from 10 to 12 mm., being thus one and a half to 
twice as long as the calyx. Of rather connnon occurrence in the Altaian, at an altitude 
of about 1900 m. above sea-level, in somewhat moist places, among moss and the like. In 
full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Novaya Zemlya. arctic Sil)eria, the eastern Altai, the Sayansk district, 
Baikal, Trans Baikal, arctic America. 

Alsine biflora (L.) Wahlenb. Fl. Lappon. (1812) p. 128; Fenzl in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
I, p. 355; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 229, no. 304. Alsine occulta Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 590, no. 227; KptM. ^.t. A.it. 1 (1901) p. 158. Arenaria arclica Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. II, p. 172. Arenaria sienopetala et occulta Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 256 et-257. 

The specimens belonging to this species, collected by me in the Altaian, are distin- 
guished by having the stems rather coarse, rigid and erect, frequently slightly yellowish 
and ligneous below. The petals are to 1 'A times as long as the calyx. Generally 2 — 3, 
rarely to 5-flowered. Partly done flowering and with ripe capsules at the end of .July. 
The specimens seemed to agree perfectly with a ligidula Fenzi,, 1. c. 

Distribution: Arctic islands, arctic and alpine tracts of Europe, arctic Siberia from 
the Ural to Kamtchatka, the Altai- and Sayansk mountains, Baikal, North America. 

Sagiiia procumbens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 185; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 155; Fenzl 
in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 338; Regel, PI. Radd. (1862) p. 305, no. 343; Kptu. Ojj. A.rr. I 
(1901) p. 15,5. 

On dry hills at Kushabar. where, besides the typical form with 4 sepals and 4 
petals, there also occur specimens with 5 sepals and petals, var. pcntamera Giirke (in 
RiCHTER-GiJRKE, PI. Eur. II, p. 246). whereas forms are to be found containing or wanting 
distinct petals, u corollina et /? apelala (in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1. c). 

Flowering and with ripe fruits in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Tibet, temperate Asia to about Lake Baikal, 
North Africa, America. Greenland, Australia. 

Agrostenima Githago L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 024; Kpu.!. (ki. A.n\ I (1901) p. 
153. Gitliago segelum Desk, Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 332. Lijchnis Agrostemma DC, Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. II, p. 184; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 563. Lychnis Githago Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 
II (1772) p. 310; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 232; Karek et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 
162; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 581, no. 215. 

Scattered in the tracts between Minusinsk and Kushabar as weeds in corn-fields, 
along road-sides, etc. Specimens taken in the fist half of July are in full flower. 

Disti-ibution: Europe, Caucasia, western Siberia, more rarely to be foimd in the 
ea.stern tracts. North Afiica. Introduced into South Africa and North America. 

220 



Lychnis clinlci'doiiica L. Spec. IM. ed. II (17(12) p. (i^f): Lfdch. I'l. Al(. il. ji. 188; 
Kar.l. c'l Kiril. Kiuim. I'l. Fl. All. no. 1G3; Lcdcb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 330; K|.i.i.i. '1m. A.it. 
1 (lUOl) p. 1.^)2. 

In soiui'wliai nioisl thicket ol Salix, along llu' road, near Kushai)ar. In lull 
flower in llic middle of .luly. 

Disti'ihntion: Sonlli-eastern Rnssia, and adjacenl parts of .\sia, soulliern Silieiia, 
ca.slwards to the •'overnnienl of Yeniseisk. 



t-.^ 



Lychnis flos cnculi L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (17(12) p. (125; Ledeh. Fl. Alt. 11, p. 187; 
Tuiezan. Cat. Baical. no. 231: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1, p. 330: Tuiczan. Fl. liaieal.-Daluu. 
(1812) p. 582, no. 21(1: i;in.i.i. 'l>.i. A.it. I (1901) p. 152. 

This .species 1 have found scattered in moist gras.s-field and in moi.sl. open liiickel 
of foliferous trees, near llic load between Karatns and Kushabar. With flowers in ,Iuly. 

Distribntion: Europe, the Caucasus, southern SdjiMia to towards Lake Baikal. In 
the most eastern area the species seemed to be very rare. 

Lychnis sibirica L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. (J2iJ: Tnrczan. Cat. BaicaL no. 230; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 331; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 583, no. 219: Rcgel. 
PI. Radd. (1861) p. 577; Kpw.i. iF.t. A.it. I (1901) p. 153. 

On sandy and stony declivities, near Ust Abakansk, on the right side ol the river, 
growing together with Polcniilla siih<icaiilis_ and on tleclivilics. near tlie Dora Steppt . In 
full flower at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: Dis]K'rscd through Siberia from the Ural to the Amoor Province, 
northern Mongolia. 

Melandryum album (Mill.) Rupr. Fl. Ingr. (1860) j). 162. Mel(imln]um pralense 
Roehl. Deutschl. Fl. ed. I (179(1) p. 254: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1, p. 327. Lijchnis (irnensis 
Schkuhr. Botan. Handb. 1 (1808) p. 403; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 187. Lydwis allm Mill.. 
Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. ;574. Lijchnis vcsprrlina Siblh. Fl. Oxon. (1794) p. 146; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 586, no. 223. Lfichnis dioica L., Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 229. Liichnis pratcnsis Sprcng., Kpw.T. 'ki. A.ir. I (1901) p. 151. 

Scattered in meadows and in thickets on the isk-ls in the lower part of the river 
Abakan, near Ust Abakansk. and also in thicket, near Kushabar. Young flowers at the 
end of June. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Turkestan, through Siberia from the I'ral 
to about Lake Baikal, Greenland, and North America (introduced). 

Silene venosa (Gilib.) Aschcrs. Fl. Brand. Abl. II. Fl. Bcrol. (18.59) p. 23. Silene 
inflnla Smith, Fl. Brit. II (1800) p. 292; Ledeb. Fl. All. I, p. 138; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
217; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 149; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I p. 304; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 573, no. 206; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 542; Rohrbach, 

221 



Monogr. Gal. Silene (1868) p. 85; Williams, Rev. Gen. Silene (189G) p. 47; Kpbi.i. <l).i. 
A.IT. I (1901) p. 142. 

Near Karatus, along the road, in dry, open foliferous copse wood. Flowering in 
the first half of July. The specimens are completely glabrous, the leaves narrow, lanceo- 
late, the length 5—7 times the breadth, distinctly tapering towards the base, never cordate 
or rounded, glabrous, or nearly imperceptibly scabrous at the margin. The flowers are 
shorl-pedicelled and rather densely congested. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia and south-western Asia to the Himalayas, the 
whole of Siberia from the Ural to the Amoor Province, Mongolia (till now not observed 
in China), Japan, North Africa, North America (introduced). 

Silene repens Patrin. in Pers. Syn. PI. I (1805) p. 500; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 150; 
Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 23; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 223; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 159; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 308; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 579, no. 
212; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 560; Rohrbach, Monogr. Gat. Silene (1868) p. 206; Wil- 
liams, Rev. Gen. Silene (1896) p. 161; Kptiji. <D.i. Ajt. I (1901) p. 144. 

In dry meadows and on rocky declivities between Karatus and Kushabar. In full 
flower in the first half of June. Near Ust Tara-kem, on rocky slopes, past flowering 
in the middle of August. The leaves in the specimens collected are on an average 3 
mm. bi'oad, and 35 — 40 mm. long; the calyx is tubular-campanulale or clavate, pink, 
densely villous, its teeth short. It is, therefore, probably identical with j- angiistifolia 

llRCZAN. 1. c. 

Distribution: Central and eastern Russia, and adjoining portions of Asia thi-ough 
Trans Caspia and Turkestan, Siberia to Kamtchatka, northern Mongolia. China, Man- 
chooria, Corea, Sakhalin, Japan. 

Silene chlorantha Ehrh. Beitr. Naturk. VII (1792) p. 146; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 145; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 319 et 778; Rohrbach, Monogr. Gat. Silene (1868) p. 184; Williams, 
Rev. Gen. Silene (1896) p. 141; Kptiji. $ji. A.it. I (1901) p. 148. 

var. glutinosa nov. var. 

Differt a specie lypica inlernodiis superioribus zonis viscosis, fnconigris. V2 — 15 mm. 
lalis instructis. 

The specimens collected agree perfectly in their external habitus ^\■itll the typical 
species, but differ by the 3 or 4 uppermost inlernodes under the flower cluster being 
furnished with a dark, brownish black, and glutinous zone, from 12 to 15 nun. broad. 
The calyx is of a characteristically pale, greyish green colour, completely glabrous, only 
the teeth being densely and finely ciliate. Collected in full flower in the first half of July, 
in grass-grown, dry thickets of fir, between Minusinsk and Kushabar. 

Distribution: Middle, southern and eastern Europe, Caucasia and south-western 
Asia, southern Siberia, eastwards to about the Yenisei. 

Silene Otites (L.) Smith, Fl. Brit. II (1800) p. 469; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 140; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 151; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 309; Kpbi.i. <Ij.i. A.it. I (1901) 



p. 144; Rolirhatli. Monogr. Cat Silcne (1868) p. 200; Williams, Rev. Gen. Silene (1896) 
1). ir)r>. Ciiculxiliis Olilrs L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. Cm. 

subspir. parviflora (Eluii.) Pers. Synop.s. PI. I (1805) p. 497 (spec.) Silene tenuis 
in Bunge, Enuni. .Ml. p. 22. 

This subspecies diffeis irom llie typical species, especially in ils more vigorous 
grow 111. llic sU'in. liic |)edicels and the calyces being densely villou.s. The petals at the 
base scattered puberulenl. The specimens collected agree perfectly with material of 
comparison from middle Europe. On the Abakan Ste])pe, near Ust Kanuiishto; col- 
lected in full flo%Yer in the middle of July, in dry, grass-grown places between Minusinsk 
and Kushabar. 

Dislril)ulion: Middle and south-ea.stern Europe, Caucasia south-western Asia, Siiie- 
ria, eastwards to about Yalvutsk. 

Silene tenuis Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. (1810) p. 474: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
218 ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 577, no. 209; Rohrb. Monogr. Gat. 
.S(7('iie (1868) p. 186exparte; Williams, Rev. Gen. Silene (1896) p. 143 ex parte. Silene 
stylosa fi alpicoln Ledeb. Fl. .\lt. II, p. 144. Silene (jramini folia Otth., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
I, p. 307 ex parterre g r an di flora); Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 22: Karcl. et Kiril. Enum. PI. 
Fl. Alt. no. 154; Ki.w.i. *.!. A.rr. I (1901) p. 143 ex parte. 

The species is much varying. The specimens collected have the stems 15—20 cm. 
long, generally tufted, of a yellowish green or ])rownish red colour, glabrous or slightly 
glutinous, with one or 2 pairs of leaves. The radical leaves a»e lanceolate to linear, glab- 
rous, slightly scalwous at the margin. The flowers comparatively few, but rather densely 
congested, large, erect, spreading, or drooping. The calyx about 15 mm. long, much 
inflated, its teeth more or less obtuse or rounded at the apex, finely and slightly ciliate. 
The petals large, much protruding, deeply 2-cleft, the claws very slightly ciliate. 

Of rather common occurrence in the Altaian, above the tree limit, at an altitude 
of about 2000 m. above sea-level in grass-grown, frequently stony places, ])artly 
together with Moehringia lateriflora. In full flower in the second half of July. 

Distribution: Arctic portions of Siberia, eastwards as far as Behring's Ocean, the 
Altai- and Sayansk regions, and eastwards through Trans Baikal to the Amoor Pro- 
vince, Mongolia, Tibet, the north-western Himalayas. 

Silene Jenisea Steph. in Herb, ex Bunge, Suppl. Fl. Alt. p. 554; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 574, no. 207. Silene tenuis Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 218 ex parte; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 155. Silene chamarensis Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 222; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahui-. (1842) p. 578, no. 211. Silene amhiqua Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 576, no. 208. Silene tenuis Willd. b Jenisea Rohrb. Monogr. Gat. Silene 
(1868) p. 187 ex parte: Williams. Rev. Gen. Silene (1896) p. 143 ex parte. Silene (jrami- 
nifolia Otth., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 307 pro parte. Silene stylosa a rupicola Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. II. p. 144. 

223 




Fig. 86. Silcne lenuis Willd. ('/i). 



224 



This species is. iilse llie |)i ceedinL; one. lallior varying, approaching il syslcmali- 
cally ralhor closely, and is by some authors, I.KDiciiorii, Hi;(ii;i. and oliiers, considered as 
a variety, oi- even confounded with it. In 
my opinion, however, these two species are 
so different, not onh- in exlerna! iiabilus and 
several other less conspicuous characters, a.« 
il will appear from the descriptions, but they 
are also distinct in point of geographical 
range. The former is chiefly confined to arc- 
tic and alpine tracts, and the latter — at 
any rale lo judge from my own experience 
— rather a plant of the lowlands and the 
steppes. I have therefore found it right to 
enter tiiem as two different species, applying 
to the latter of these Stki'h.\n's name, in 
spite of his having given no description of il 
himself. 

The specimens collected are 15—40 
cm. high, glabrous. The leaves are very 
narrow, linear or nearly filiform, glabrous, 
distinctly pointed at the sunnnit. The flowers 
are smaller, frequently rather numerous, 
erect. The calyx 10 — 12 mm. long, narrower, 
less inflated, with prominent nerves, and 
longer and more acute teeth, which are 
distinctly ciliate. The petals rather short, 
only sligthly longer than the calyx; the claws 
are glabrous. 

Collected in gravelly, dry places in the 
lowland on the river Abakan, near list 
Kamuishto. In full flower in the second half 
of June. 

Distribution: The .\ltai- and Sayansk 
region, eastwards through Trans Baikal to 
the Amoor Province and Manchooria, Mon- 
golia. 

Cypsophila Gmelini Bunge in Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. II. p. 128: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
214; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 

139 («); Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 570. no. 205: Kpi.i... <I>.i. A.n. I (1901) p. 
138. Gypsophila (imelini « angiislifolia et Gifpsophila ddiuiricd fi (lugiistifolia Fenzl in 




225 



Ledcb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 294. Gijpsophila aciitifolia Fisch. li limelini (Bunge) Kegel PI. 
Radd. (1861) p. 536, no. 279. 

The specimens collected of this vtrv polymorphous species, are distinguished by 
having the stems about 20 cm. iiigh, and, as tlic whole plant lor the rest, completely 
glabrous. The lower leaves are about 3 cm. long, and 1 mm. broad, i. e. of the same 
breadth as the stem, linear, more or less recurved, equally broad throughout their length, 
tapering and subobtuse at the summit, never mucronate. The lower leaves are of the 
same length as the internodes, the upper ones gradually shorter, subulate, K- — Vs of 
the length of the internodes. The flower cluster rather few-flowered, the bracts and 
bractlets minute, only few mm. long, membranous, with a more or less distinct midrib 
projected into a greenish or brownish point. The calyx is about 3 mm. long, campanu- 
late, with 5 distinct nerves, of a brownish green colour, its teeth triangular, acute, finely 
and shortly ciliate. The petals are slightly lilac, 6 mm. long. The specimens are, more- 
over, characteristic in having the stems, especially in their lower parts, slightly genicu- 
late in the nodes, and are here, at any rate when dried, very fragile, and easily broken. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe about the Lower Abakan, esjiecially on the dry, 
hot Devonian sandstone declivities, where I have collected them with flower-buds and 
young flowers at the end of June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia (the government of Orenburg), southern Siberia, 
eastwards to about the government of Yakutsk, northern Mongolia. 

Dianlhus chinensis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 588; Rohrb. in «Linnaea» vol. 36, 
p. 670 (as Dianlhus sinensis). Dianilms Seguieri Chaix in Villars, Hist. PI. Dauph. I 
(1786) p. 333 et III (1789) p. 594; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 277; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 
523; Kpbi.i. «IXi. A.iT. I (1901) p. 133. Dianlhus de.nlosus Fisch., Ledeb. FL Alt. II, p. 134; 
Karcl. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 144. Dianlhus versicolor Fisch., Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 215; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 567, no. 202; Williams, Monogr. 
Gen. Dianlhus in Linn. Soc. Journ. Rot. vol. XXIX, p. 429 (as Dianlhus sinensis). 

The specimens collected of this widely distributed and polymorphous species, are 
distinguished by having the stems 20 — 30 cm. high, erect, or sometimes slightly 
curved and ascending at the base, densely hirsute. The leaves are linear, 2 — 4 cm. long, 
the broadest towards 3 mm. broad, 1-nerved. or rarely with 2 faint lateral neives, 
gradually acuminate towards the apex, horizontally spreading, or more or less 
disUnclly bent upwards, rough, especially underneath and along the margin 1- to few- 
flowered; the calyx-scales are bent upwards, the outer ones about % shorter than the 
calyx itself, consisting in the lowest part of a short, broad lamina, while their upper 
two thirds are very narrow and subulate, the inner scales are comparatively broader, 
and with shorter points, which are only about half the total length of the scale itself; 
the inner scales are also shorter than the outer ones, Vs to ¥> of the length of the calyx 
itself. The scales are glabrous, or only very slightly scabrous. The calyx is 15—17 mm. 
long, nearly glabrous, or only slightly scabrous, very distinctly striped, its upper 3^ — K 

"226 



divided iiilo Irianj^ular Icrlh. tlic inai-^iii of wliicli is liiicly, hiil dislinclly cilialc. The 
petals are red, llieir Iota! lengtii about 27) nun., I lie Icuglli ol the lilade inounling lo 1 
cm., sharply and dislinclly cTcnalc al llie maii^in. Dry meadows on the steppes on the 
river Abakan, near I'sl Kanuiisblo. wlu-rc- i)oyiiming lo flower in the second half of 
June; ni'arly jiasl llowcring at [\\c l)cginning of August, in open, dry, sandy woods 
of larch and ])inc. near Ust Sisli-kcm. and al Ust Kamsara. 

DistriJjution: Middle and south-western Europe, Caucasia, Turkestan lo western 
Tibet, lluoughoiil Siberia, excepting the most norliiern portions, northern Mongolia, 
Manchooria, northern China, Corea. 

Dianthus supcrbus L. Anioen. Acad. IV (1759) p. 272: Ledel). Fl. Alt. II. p. 137; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 216: Karcl. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 148; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 285; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 568, no. 20:5: Regel, PI. Hadd. 
(1861) p. 533, no. 227; Rohrb. in «Linnaea», vol. 36, p. 636; Williams, Monogr. Gen. 
Dianthus p. 411; K|n,i.i. <1m. A.it. I (1901) p. 134. 

Conmion on the sandy banks of rivers along the Upper Amyl. in subal])ine wooded 
tracts, from Petropawlowsk to Kalna, and along the banks of the river Sisli-kcm. Col- 
lected in full flower in the middle of July. The specimens are rather vigorous and 
well-grown, with stems to 70 cm. high, rather flowery, from 2 — 7 flowers. The calyx is 
comparatively long, to 32 mm., and about 5 nnn. broad, frequently of a reddish or bluish 
colour, glabrous, and finely striped. The calyx-scales rather short, the inner ones 
about 1 cm. long, broadest near the apex, where suddenly contracted into a shoil sling, 
to about 1 mm. long, the outer ones only about 6 mm. long, of about the same shape 
as the inner ones. The calyx-scales are glabrous, only the teeth being sometimes slightly 
ciliate. The petals are of a bluish red colour, about 4 mm. in diameter. The leaves are 
to 7 cm. long and 6 mm. broad, generally about 4 — 5 cm. long, and 3—4 mm. broad, 
flat, glabrous, slightly scabrous only along the margin, gradually acuminate towards 
the summit. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, Caucasia, Turkestan, (the Thian Shan), 
southern Siberia, from the Altai eastwards to Trans Baikal, Mongolia, Manchooria, north- 
ern China, northern Corea, Sakhalin, Japan. 

N J- ni p h a e a c e a e DC. 

Nyniphaea Candida Presl in Rosllinar (1821) p. 10; Caspary, Nymph. Skand. in 
Bot. Not. (1879) p. 71: Ki.bo. $.1. Ajit. I (1901) p. 49. Xiimphaea alba L., Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 87 (excl. syn.); Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 49; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, 
p. 83. Niimphaea alba L. subspec. Candida (Presl) Korshinsky, (I>.i. RncTOKa Eiipon. 
Pocciji I, p. 130. Niimphaea pauciradiata Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 272; LedeJj. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 84. Nijmphaea Basniniana Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 93, no. 84. 

In a pond by the road between Karatus and Kushabar, flowering about the middle 
of July. The typical Niimphaea alba has not as yet been met with in Siberia. 

227 



Dislribuliun: Noilheni and middle Europe, Tuikeslaii, soulhem Siberia, east- 
wards to Lake Baikal. 

Nymphaca pygmaea Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. II, vol. Ill (ISll) p. 293; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 88; Ledelj. Fl. Ross. I, p. 84; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 93, no. 
85; Kpbi.T. (I>.T. A.iT.I (1901) p. 49. Nijiuphacd klmqona Georgi, Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich. 
1 (1775) p. 220. Xiimphaea alba subspec. tetragona (Georgi) Korshinsky. <I>.i. lidcroua 
EBpori. P(H'ciii I, p. 133. 

In swamps near Usl Tara-kem, on the Upper Bei-kem. Done flowering in the 
second half of August. 

Distribution: From eastern Russia (the government of Perm) through southern 
Siberia, eastwards to Manchooria and the Amoor Province, China, Sakhahn, and the 
Himalayas. 

R a II II 11 (• II 1 a (• (' a e J ISS. 

Atiageiie sihirica L. Spec. PI. ed. I (1753) p. 343. Atragene alpina /i in Lcdcb. Fl. Alt. 
II, p. 377; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 2; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 4; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 25, no. 2. Alragene alpina var. sihirica (L.) Regel et Til. Fl. Ajan. p. 
23, no. 2; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 9; K],i.i.i. $.1. A.m. I (1901) p. 5. 

In thickets on the river Abakan, and on the Amyl. near Petropawlowsk, very 
connnon in thickets on the banks of the Lower Sisti-kem and on the Bei-kem, where 
frequently associated with Ribes piibescens. Specimens taken in the first half of August, 
are nearly past flowering, and with ripe fruits. 

Distribution: Norway (Wim.e 1917), eastern Finland, northern and middle Rus- 
sia, the Ural, Sibeiia, eastwards to the Khingan Mountains, and in the Yenisei valley, 
northwards up to 70" north latitude, northern Mongolia, Turkestan. 

Thaliclrum petaloideum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(32) p. 771; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 345; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 6; Lcdeh. Fl. Ross. I, p. 6; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 29, no. 7; Regel, Uebers. Gatt. Thaliclnim in Bull. See. Nat. Moscou (1861, I) p. 28; 
Lecoyer, Monogr. Gen. Tbalictniin in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique (1885) p. 165; Begel, 
PI. Radd. (1861) p. 12; Kptu. $.1. A.it. I (1901) p. 7. 

On diy, hot Devonian slopes of sandstone, with a southern aspect, on the Abakan 
Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto, where collected by me with flowers and ripe fruits in the 
middle of June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, from the Altai eastwards to Trans Baikal, northern 
Mongolia, northern China, Corea. 

Thalictrum foetidum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 768; Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. 349: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 8; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 7; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahui-. (1842) 
p. 30, no. 8; Regel, Uebers. Gatt. Thalictrum (1861) p. 44; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 13; 

228 



l.ccoyiT. Monof^r. (ii'ii. Tlutliclnint ( 1<S,S.-)) p. IISI; |,-|,i.i.i. <|..i. A. it. I (UK)!) p. 8. rhiiUr- 
Iniin sihiiiciim Ptilhis, i{cisr I{iiss. Hciclu,. 1 (1771) p. 'il'.i. TlKilicliiiin ariililohtun 
DC, Ledel). !•!. All. 11, p. HI'.); runzaii. Cal. I'.aicai. no. i). 

snbspec. geiuiimim lU'^i'l (1<S()1) 1. f. var. « in Lcdcl). I"l. Ho.ss. I, |). 7. 

In (lie spcriiiu'iis coIIocIihI llic whole ])laiil i.s (Iciisciv puixTiilcnl. liic upper as 
well a.s the under .side of Ihe leaves, the stem, pedieel.s and liuits a.s well. The 
leaves are deeply indented, with acute l()he.s. On the AhaUan Sleppe, at U.st Kamuishlo, 
on div. slopiui^ elifl's. and in dry, sandy place.s, nearly past lloweiing and with ripe 
fruits in the second half of ,Iune. 

l)istri!)ulion: Mountain regions of niidcUe lun-ope, from the Pyicnees through the 
.\ll)s, llie Apennines to the Caucasus, Asia Minor, south-westein Asia to liic Himalayas, 
Siberia (except the Anioor Province), northern Mongolia. 

Tlialiclnim niiiuis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(1:;) p. 769; Ledeh. Fl. Ross. I, ]). 8; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 'M. no. 9; Kegel, Uebers. Gatt. Thaliclnim (1861) 
p. 31: Lecoyer, Monogr. Gen. Thaliclnim (IS85) p. 199; KpM.a. 'iM. A.n. I (1901) p. 8. 
Thaliclnim elalum Ledeb. Fl. .All. II, p. 350; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) ]). 32, 
no. 10; Kegel, PI. Kadd. (1861) p. 13, no. 14 at 15. Thaliclnim miicroiialiim Ledeh. Fl. 
Koss. I, p. 8. Thaliclnim ma/us Jacq., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 351; Ledeb. Fl. Koss. 1. p. 8; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 32, no. 11. Thaliclnim /lavo-virens Ledeh. Fl. 
Koss. I, p. 9. Thaliclnim appemliciilaliim (",. A. Meyer, Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. .356. Thalic- 
lnim c()llinum\Ni\\\v.. Ledel). Fl. Koss. I, p. 11. 

An exceedingly variable species — entered by Lkcoyer, 1. c. (1885) p. 293 with no 
less than 210 svnonyms — of very common occurrence on the islets in the river Abakan, 
especially in the luxuriant natural meadows, where constituting one of the most charac- 
teristic plants. A very luxuriant Unm. of a deep green colour, is to be found in the said 
localities, with stems considerably exceeding 1 m. in height, attaining from 6 to 7 mm. 
in diameter at the root. The stems are of a green or yellowish colour, round, hollow, 
mostly deeply striate, more or less geniculate at the nodes, generally with leafless .sheaths 
at the base, in the upper part, from about the middle, rather much branched, with 
spreading branches. The stem, like the whole plant as well, is completely glabrou.s. The 
leaves are triternate, the lower ones long-petioled, the upper ones sessile, all of them 
generally with brownish, membranous stipule like appendages at the base. The lower 
leaves are to 25 cm. long, and 18 cm. broad, the outline being triangular, or ovate. The 
shape and incision of the leaflets are very variable, their length up to towards 2 cm., of 
a rather light colour on the under side, with prominent nerves, Ihe margin involute, 
and the summit 3 or 5-lobed, sometimes doubly lobed. The leaflets have generally 
short petioles, or are sometimes sessile as well. The panicle is rather large, with spread- 
ing branches, and rather few flowers, but the floweriness is, on the whole, somewhat 
varying. During the flowering the flowers are more or less drooping, on pedicels 
from 0.5 cm. to 1.5 cm. long. The sepals are narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 3 or .5- 

229 



nerved, of a pallid reddish violet colour, deciduous early in season. The anthers are 
yellow, over 2 mm. lonj^, with a jjointed summit, pendent, on capillaceous filaments, 
to 5 mm. long. The lower hracts are foliaceous, gradually decreasing in size upwards. 
The upper ones are linear, nearly membranous, entire, or sometimes slightly toothed at 
the base. The species begins flowering at the end of .Tune; none of the plants in my 
collections taken at the end of June, bearing ripe fruits. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Europe, in Asia from the Ural to Japan, northwards 
to about the limit of conifers, southwards through Mongolia, northern China, northern 
Corea, Africa, North America (Unalashka). 

Thalictrum simplex L. Mantissa p. 78; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 353; Turczan. Cat. Bai- 
cal. no. 15; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 10; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 33, no. 13; 
Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 14; Regel, Uebers. Gatt. Thalictrum (1861) p. 51; Lecoyer, 
Monogr. Gen. Thalictrum (1885) p. 204; Kpbiji. <l).i. A.it. I (1901) p. 9. Thalictrum stric- 
ium, galioides et afjine Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 10. Thalictrum exaltatum C. A. Meyer in 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 3.52. 

Very common in open grass-fields on the islets in the river Abakan, accompany- 
ing the preceding one. Specimens belonging to this species found by me, with stems 
attaining the height of a man, and markedly striate. The leaflets are very large, to 3,5 
cm. long, and the breadth from >; to K the length, generally cuneately tapering to\\ards 
the base, where they are rounded. The summit of the leaflets have acute, entire 
lobes. The upper leaves are always narrower than the lower ones. The leaves are of 
a dead green underneath, and the margin is sligthly recurved. The rootstock is fibrate, 
not markedly creeping. The leaf-sheaths are distinct stipulate at the base. The panicle 
is foliate, narrow, with few flowers. The specimens seemed to agree perfectly with 
Regel's diagnosis of subspecies slrictum 1. c. p. 53. (Thalictrum striclum L., Leoeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 10; Thalictrum exaltum C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IL p. 352). In my col- 
lections there are only specimens with young flower-buds belonging to this species, taken 
towards the end of June in several places on islets in the river Abakan. Its flowering 
season thus seemed to occur later than that of the preceding species. 

A great manj' specimens belonging to indermediate forms, probably obtained by 
hybridization, accompanying the two last-mentioned, have been collected by me on 
the islets in the river Abakan. The leaves are bi-or tri-ternate. In the size and shape 
of the leaflets these specimens generally agree best with Thalictrum simplex, while, on 
the other hand, in the spreading and much branched panicle, they resemble more par- 
ticularly the first-mentioned species. The floweriness varies rather considerably, and 
so does the vegetative shoot, sometimes approaching one, sometimes the other of these 
specimens. During the flowering the flowers are erect or drooping, and in the structure 
of each flower these specimens agree rather perfectly with Thalictrum minus, with 
which it also agrees as to the flowering season. The panicle is more or less foliate, 
which is a markedly intermediate character. 

230 



DisliihulioM: riuiliclriini siiii/ihw is (lisliilmtcd oNcr llic {^rcjilci |);iil of iMirono, 
wcslw ard.s lo alioul llic liliinc and llic I'dioiu'. soiMli-w cslciii Asia, SiJjeria. Mancliooria. 
HDrlliciii and ccnlial C.liina, .Japan. 

Anemone rellexa Slcpliaii in Willd. Sjx'c. I'i. II, p. 1282: Tiirczaii. (",al. liaiiai. no. 
21: Lcdeb. Fl. Ros.s. I. p. I I d 728: Turczaii. I'd. Haical.-Daliui-. (1842) p. 41, no. 22; Regel. 
Pi. Hadd. (1861) p. l.^i: Kpi.i.i. <l>.i. A,it. I (1901) p. 12. 

In shady and rather moist woods on the Upper Amyl, l)etween Kushabar and 
Kalna, where I have found .specimens past flowerinj.; in tiie middle of .lulv. 

Distribution: Through eastern Sii)eria from about the Yenisei lo RamlchalUa, 
northern Mongoha, Manchooria, northern Corea. 

Anemone altaiea Fisch. in Herb.; Ledeb. FI. All. II, p. 3f)2: T.edeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. lf>: 
Kpi.i.i. *.i. A.rr. I (lUUl) p. 12. 

Scattered in the taiga on the Upper Amyl, where collected with fruils about the 
middle of July. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, western Siberia, eastwards to about the Yenisei. 

Anemone coerulea DC. Syst. Nat. I, p, 203; Ledeb, Fl, All. II, p. :'>.')'.»; Ledei). Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 14: Kpbi.T. <I)j. Ajit, I (1901) p. 11, Anemone coerulea DC. /J gracilis l^egel, IM, 
i^add. (1861) p, 15. 

In the subalpine taiga territory about the Upper Amyl, where past flowering in the 
middle of July, 

Distribution: Siberia. 

Anemone silvestris L. Spec. PI, ed. II (1762) p, 761: Tmczan, Cat, Baical. no. 25; 
Ledeb, Fl, Ross, I, p. 16 et 728: Turczan, Fl. Baical.-Dahur, (1812) p, 41, no, 23; Regel, 
PI, Radd, (1861) p, 17; Kpi.i.i. <I>.i. A.tt, I (1901) p. 13, 

Very common in meadows and in thickets on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and 
Abakan as well as on banks of rivers, where, in the flowering season, in the second half 
of May and the first half of June, being one of the very prettiest and most characteristic 
plants. Frequently occurring here, associated with plants such as Taraxacum. Anciro- 
saces septenlrionale, etc, here and there so abundantly as lo give the whole meadow a 
white appearance. In the Urjankai country collected by me, on the Sisti-kem as well, 
in meadows in woods, with ripe fruits about the middle of August, 

The Siberian specimens collected, are distinguished bv their vigorous growth, 
with stems to 40 cm. high, with large flowers, to 7 cm. in diameter. The shape of the 
sepals nearly obovate, the margin even, or finely crenate. The shining white flowers 
very conspicuously turn to the sun, and turn in projjortion as the day advances. The 
involucral leaves are long-petioled, 3-parted, each of the lateral segments generally deeply 
cleft into 2 narrow, lanceolate, nearly entire, or slightly toothed divisions. The middle 
one is generally .3-lobed, into one larger middle lobe and 2 shorter side-lobes, or i! may 

231 



l)e entire as well, to 5 cm. long, and ironi O.fi to 1 cm. broad. The lobes of the invo- 
liicral leaves may also be simple, fiom linear to lanceolate, with the margin sligthly 
crenate. The basal leaves are long-peliolcd: the petioles to 20 cm. long. The lamina is 
3-parted. and each of the side lobes deeply 2-cleft, of which the outer division is always 
somewhat smaller than the inner one. When superficially viewed, the leaf may thus 
appear lo be 5-parted. The lobes of the leaf may again be more or less distinctly lobed, 
or deeply crenate, the middle lobe generally 3-or 5-lobed. 

Here and there, over smaller stretches of about 1 m.-, 1 have observed this species 
occui-ring with a deviating appearance, which may properly have to be regarded as abnor- 
mal individuals. Within such a small area all the specimens generally have the sepals 
reduced, only about 1 cm. long, herbaceously green, frequently with a reddish tar- 
nish. The stamens and achenes in these individuals frequently seemed to be more or 
less reduced in growth too. The stems are also considerably shorter, generally from 10 to 
15 cm. long. This abnormal form has been described by M.xrtjanow as 1'. iniidiflurii. 
Similar abnormities, probably caused by attacks of micro-organisms, not unfrequently 
occm- in Anemone nemorusa and other species belonging to this genus. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe, Caucasia, south-western Asia, Siberia 
from the Ural to Kamtchatka and the Amoor Province, Mongolia, the Thian-Shan. 

Anemone dichotoma L. Amoen. Acad. I (1749) p. 155; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 365: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 26: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 42, no. 24; Regel, 
PI. Radd. (1861) p. 17; K|ii,i.i. <[>.i. A.tt. I (19U1) p. 13. Anemone pensilvanica Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. 1. p. 17. 

Only one specimen belonging to this species occurs in my collection, taken in a 
swampy thicket, near Ku^habar. Nearly past flowering about the middle of July. 

Distribution: Throughout Siberia, from the Ural to the Amoor Province, northwards 
lo 61" north latitude, Manchooria, northern Corea. 

Anemone narcissiflora T.. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 763; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 366: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 27; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 18; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 43, no. 25; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 17: K].hi.i. <I).i. A-rx. I (1901) p. 13. 

This species is rather varying in Asia. The specimens gathered, have stems gene- 
rally from 22 to 25 cm. high, furrowed, and like the leaves and the petioles, rather dense- 
ly villous. The flowers are but I'arely solitary, generally 4 in an umbel. The pedicels are 
comparatively long, to 5 cm. long, accordingly from 4 to 5 times the length of the sepals, 
being 1 to 1.5 cm. long {y monanlha DC. Prodrom. I, p. 22; ^ in Ledeb Fl. Ross. 1. c; 
Regel, 1. c). The achenes are glabrous, of a faint, shining black. This species has been 
collected by me in the Altaian, about the limit of tree vegetation, at altitudes of about 
1800 m. above sea-level, in grass-grown places, in flower and partly past flowering at 
the end of July. 

Distribution: Southern and middle Europe. Caucasia, Turkestan, tlie Himalayas, 

232 



Sil)CMi;i. fiom llic ri;il through llie Allai. Ilio Sayansk and Trans Baikal dislricts, iiorlli- 
I'ln and ra.slci n Mongolia, noillicrn C.liina. North Aniriica. 

I'lilsatilhi patiMis MiUn. Dirt. no. 1; Lt'dc-I). Fl. AH. II, p. :i()8: Tmczan. Cal. Baical. 
no. 17: lA-dfh. V\. I'.oss. I. p. V.): Tniczan. Fl. Haical.-Dahin. (KSI2) p. II"). no. in; I^egel, 
PI. Hadd. (KS(ll) p. 20; I,>m.i. <^.l. .\.ii. 1 (liK)l) p. 11. 

Scaticrcd on d('cii\ ilics. near IJu' .\niyl. Past llowcring in liu- middle of .!nl\. 

Disliiiintion: .Middle lunope, Siheria. noiiliern Mongolia, North .\nienca. 

Pul.satilhi vulgariis Miller, Diet. no. 1; Ledeh. Fl. All. 11, p. iUiU; Turczan. Cal. 
Baical. no. 18; Ledeh. Fl. Ro.ss. I. p. 21; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 37, no. 18; 
Regel. PI. Badd. (18G1) p. 2-1; K|ii,i.,. (|..i. A.n. I (1901) p. 1,1. PulsaliUa BiiiifieanaTurczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 21. 

Only some specimens of this one found hy me on the sandy banks of the river 
Ahakan, near Ust Kamuishto. With ripe fruits at the end of June. The segments of 
the leaves are linear, from 1—2 mm. broad, acute at the summit. The outline of the 
leaves triangular to ovate. 

Distribution: Europe, except middle and eastern Bussia. Siheria, Mongolia, north- 
ern Tibet. 

Calliaiilheinum rulaefolium (L.) C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. All. II, j). 336: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 50; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 48: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 45, 
no. 28: Begel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 51; Kpi.u. 'ki. A.w. I (1901) p. 32. Cullianthcmum 
coriundri/oliiim Beichenb. Fl. German. Excurs. (1832) p. 727; Witasek, Art. Gall. Cdl- 
lianthemiim in \'crh. d. K. K. Zool.-Botan. Ges. Wien XLIX (1899) p. 331. 

The rather numerous specimens collected by me, have always unbranched, one- 
flowered stems, from 12 to 20 cm. high. The pinnae of the leaves are always markedly 
petioled, the length of the petioles in the lower pinnae generally 5 mm., in the upper 
ones generally somewhat shorter. The outline of the pinnae is roundly ovate, and rather 
deeply incised into nearly linear lobes, from 1 to 2 mm. broad, subohtuse or slightly 
subacute at the top. The lower pinnae generally tripartite. The stem bears a sessile, 
triparted leaf above the middle, more rarely 2-leaved, of which the lower leaf is always 
petioled. The sepals are nearly ovate, 7 to 8 mm. long, the petals narrowly obovate, 12 
to 14 mm. long, broadly rounded at the top, tapering towards the base, where furnished 
with an orange-coloured spot. The whole plant is of a dull, yellowish colour. 

Rather common in the Altaian, in moist, gravelly places, at altitudes of about 2109 
m. above sea-level, in full flower at the end of .Inly. 

Distribution: Southern and middle Europe (the Alps), Russian Turkestan, the 
Thian-Shan. the .\llai. the Sayansk dislrict, the Yablonoi. 

Ranunculus sceleratus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 776; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 327; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 43; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 45: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 56. no. 41: Begel, PI. Badd. (1861) p. .50: K|,i.,.i. .lu. A.ir. I (1901) p. 31. 

24 233 



On llic hanlis oi llie rivci' Kanuiishlo, abouL 1 wersl above its mouth, near a Tala- 
riaii burial ground, on swampy borders of lakes, near Uzuik, aliout Kushal)ar. ami in 
swamps at Ust Tara-kem. Taken with flowers and ripe fruits in the second half of 
June and in July. All of the specimens collected are distinguished by having the 
receptacle beset with rather long, scattered, spreading, rather stiff hairs. In Norwegian 
specimens as well, I have found the receptacle to be furnished with a few scattered 
hairs, whereas a completely glabrous receptacle seemed to be most frequent here. In 
American specimens I have also observed hairy receptacles. 

Distribution: Europe, except Portugal and the Balkan Peninsula, temperate and 
subtropical regions of Asia, North Africa, North America. 

Ranunculus repens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 779: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 329: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 49; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 43; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 58, no. 45; Kegel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 50; Kptu. Oj. A.it. I (1901) p. 30. 

Very common in the regions about the river Abakan, at Minusinsk, Kushabar, 
Kalna. Ust Algiac, and Ust Sisti-kem, where to be found flowering all the summer. Occur- 
ring especially in moist grass-fields, and is very common along banks of rivers, etc. 
It appears from the specimens collected that the species is much varying as to 
luxuriance, density of the hairiness, breadth of the sections of the leaves, etc. In humid 
habitats the species is mostly glabrous, in drier situations more densely pubescent. 
Both the forms described by Recel, 1. c. f. ienuisecta and f. piisilla occur, with a great 
variety of intermediate forms. Near Askys I have found a form, nearly completely 
glabrous, and with remarkably narrow sections of leaves, decidedly pointing upwards 
(f. gracilis Norm.). 

Distribution: All over Europe, south-western Asia, northern Persia, wooded regions 
of Siberia to the Sea of Okhotsk, northern Mongolia, China, Japan, Sakhalin, North 
America (introduced?). 

Ranunculus reptans L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 773: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 310; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 32: Kpu.i. <I>.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 23. Ranunculus Flammula L. ;- 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 32. Ranunculus Flammula /i replans Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 50, no. 32. Ranunculus Flammula var. filiformis Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 41. 

On moist river-banks on islets in the rivers Yenisei and .\l)akan. where collected 
flowering in June, and at Ust Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, Siberia, Manchooria, North .\merica. 
Greenland. 

Ranunculus polyanthemos L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 779: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IL p. 
328; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 48; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 41; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 58, no. 44; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 49; Kpbu. 'ki. A.rr. I (1901) p. 30. 

In meadows on islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, in grass-grown places 
at Ust Kamuishto and about Kushabar. In full flower in the second half of June. 

234 



Disli il)iili()ii: iMiiopc. r.;nic;isi;i. Iiiissi:in 'luikcstaii, Silx'iia, eastwards lo ;ili()ul 
Lake Ikiikal. 

Haimiiciiliis acris I.. Spec. IM. c.k II (17(i2) p. 77!l; I.cd.'h. ]•']. All. II. ]>. .VM. 
'ruirzan. (".at. Hairal. no. 17; Lcdt'h. Ik lioss. I. |). 10; runzaii. I'l. liaicak-Daliur. (1812) 
p. (■)(). no. 17; Hrn,>l, ]>!. Macld. (18(11) p. 18; j;|,i,i.i. 'l-.i. A.n. I {\'M)]} p. 29. 

Oil liu' islets in tlu- rivers Yenisei and Abakan this species is very connnun, and 
oecuis in diffei'ent forms. Forms are lo be fonnd Iiere recalling much f. Friesii (in. et 
(looi).. 1. I'cliilimis LiNDiii.., i' ciili/oi iiiciis Hi.xin., and intermediates between these. 
WIicIIht llie s|K'einiens be (|uile idenlieal wilii liie said forms. 1 dare not assert willi 
aljsolute certainly, my material being loo scarce. The s|)ecies is also very common in 
the IJrjankai country. On the banks of the Bei-kem. near Utinski porog, in grassy 
places, near the river, I have collected a very low form, with stems, only 5—10 cm. 
high, witii 1 or 2 flowers, and wliieli seemed to ])e identical with L iiiinulti.-< W.\Mi,i;.Nii. 

subspec. Slevenii Andrz. in Besser, Knum. PI. Volh. (1822) j). 22; Ledeb. Ik lloss. 
I, p. 41; KpLi.T. I. c. Hanunciilns propinqiiiis C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. .\ll. II. p. :').">2; 
Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 31; Ledeb. Fl. Ho.s.s. I, p. 40 et 732. 

In diy fields about U.st Abakansk, near the river, and in the taiga about the Upper 
.\myl. In full flower at the end of .lune. 

Distribution: The species is distributed all over Europe, soulli-western Asia, Siberia, 
Mongolia, the Himalayas, China. .Ia])an, Sakhalin, North .\nierica. 

Ranunculus auricomus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(i2) p. 77r>; Ledeb. l-"!. .\ll. II p. 318 
(excl. var. ;^ ); Furczan. Cat. Baical. no. 10; Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 22; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross, l, p. ,38; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1812) p. r^'i. no. 39; Kegel. PI. I'.add. 
(1861) p. 47; KpLi.i. «Im. Ajit. I (1901) p. 28. 

snbspcc. sibiricus Glehn in Act. Hoi-t. Pelropol. IV. p. Ki. 

This one constitutes, in many respects, an intermediate between the typical R. 
aiiriconuis and R. cossiibicns, and is, in preference, distributed in the eastern geogra- 
jihical area of the species. 

In humid, grass-grown places, in thickets on the road between Minusinsk and 
Kushabar, and on the river .\myl. In flower in the middle of July. 

Distribution; The species is distributed over Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, Manehoo- 
ria. the Thian-Shan, and the Himalayas. 

Ranunculus frigidus \Villd. Spec. PI. ed. II. p. 1312; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 44; 
Regel, PI. Badd. (1861) p. 46; KpH.!. Oj.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 27. Rdnimciiliis altaivtis Laxm. 
in Nov. Comm. Acad. Petropol. XVHI. p. ;"i33; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. .32.5; Ledeb. Fl. 
Boss. I, p. 37; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 57. no. 12. Rdiiiinciiliis fralerniis 
Schrenck, Ledeb. Fl. Boss. I. p. 731. 

Frequent in the Altaian, at altitudes of about 2000 m. above sea-level, especially 
on moist and cool declivities, with a northern a.specl. among moss etc., near the melting 

235 



snow. In full flower at the end of July. The specimens collected are large and luxuriant, 
the stems to 18 cm. high, w ith 1 to 3 cauline leaves, the breadth of the basal leaves to 
3,5 cm., the flower from 2 to 2,5 cm. in diameter. 

Distribution: Arctic Europe, arctic and alpine portions of Siberia, northern Mongo- 
lia, the Thian-Shan, North America. 

Ranunculus radicans C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. .\lt. II, p. 316; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 36; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 34; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 52, no. 35; Regel, 
PI. Radd. (1861) p. 44; Kpu.T. i\i. Ajit. I (1901) p. 25. Ranunculus Pnrschii Hooker, Fl. 
Bor. Amer. I, p. 15; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 35; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 54, 
no. 38. 

subspec. niultifidus Pursch. Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 45; KpLo. 1. c. p. 26. Ranun- 
culus Pnrschii a aquatilis a et b, Ledeb.- Fl. Ross. I, p. 35. 

There are only a few, rather defective specimens in my collection, taken in a pool 
in a peat-bog, near Ust Algiac, on the right bank of the river Sisti-kem, where associated 
with various species of Sphagnum, Carex limosa, and Carex magellanica. The leaves in 
the specimens collected are palmately divided into 3—5 segments, and each one general- 
Iv divided into capillary sections. The outline of the leaves is nearly reniform, from 7 
to 9 mm. broad, and the sections 0,5 to 1 mm. broad. The jjetals are, during tlie 
flowering, rather much I'eflexed. narrowly elliptic to broadly lanceolate, from 1,5 to 2 
mm. broad, and from 3,5 to 4 mm. long. Floating leaves are wanting. Taken in full 
flower at the beginning of August. 

Distribution: North-eastern Russia, the Thian-Shan, Siberia, northern Mongolia 
(the Altai and Sayansk mountains). North America. 

Ranunculus subsimilis nov. spec. [Tab. VI, Fig. 1]. 

In Asia, the so-called Ranunculus Ciimbalaria Pursch is recorded to be distri- 
buted from Persia through Turkestan and southern Siberia to Kamtchatka. the Hima- 
layas and India. I have also collected a rather rich material from the Minusinsk district. 
By comparing my material with the drawing of tlie species found in Britton and Brown 
An Illustr. Flora of Northern United States and Canada, Vol. II (1897) p. 86, I disco- 
vered at once a striking difference in the structure of the leaves. Prof. dr. N. Wille 
has most obligingly given me an opportunity of comparing the rather rich material of 
this species from various places in Siberia and America belonging to the Botanical 
Museum of the University at Christiania. In the material thus brought together I have 
been able to point out a marked difference between the Siberian specimens and the 
American ones in the structure of the leaves, which will also appear distinctly from the 
annexed figure 88. In the three upper rows I have grouped and reproduced in natural 
size leaves of the typical Ranunculus Cijmbalaria Pursch, in the three lower ones leaves 
of Siberian specimens. The American specimens will be seen to be distinguished by 
having the leaves cordate-ovate to orbicular-reniform, with a broad, rounded summit, and 
with a distinct, cordiform incision at the base. The indentations of the loaves are 

236 



T r / ' ^ 



1 ^ 



Fig. 88. Tlu' three u|)|)or row.s showing different leaves of Rdiiiinciiliis Cijmbalaria PuKSCn. 

(The two uppermost originating from various .American specimens; in the tliird are seen 

leaves from specimens found in Norway). The three lower rows representing leaves of the 

Asiatic Raniinciiliis stihsimilis nov. spec, ('/i) 



237 



rather small and luunerous, Ihc broadest and largest near the ui)[)er end of the loaf, 
from where gradually decreasing in size downwards along tlie margins. The indenta- 




Fig. 89. a— i show petals of Raniinciiliis Ct/mbalaria Pirsch from 

America, k — m of Norwegian specimens, u— x of specimens from 

India. (An nov, spec.?), n— t are petals of Rdrutiuiilns stibsimilix 

nov. spec, from Asia. (Tlie Minusinsk districtj. C^/i). 

tions are rather small and very narrow, the lobes broad, broadly obtuse or. even flat- 
tened at the top, especially the lower ones. 



238 



'I"lu- Sihcriaii .s|u'ciincii.s liavc, on llic ollici hand, nunc (inadran^ular IcaNCS, willi 
a siiuarc iiil hasc, only lait'ly and ([nilc (•\i(|)lionally somcwiial cordalely incised. 
I'lie indcnialions ol Ilic lca\c.s arc li'wci in nnndx'i-. and I'oaiscr, j^cncrallv !! or 5. witii 
miK'li deeper and jjioader ineisioii.s, and willi nearly cnneale or triangulai' leelli. 
.siiliaeiile or subrolnndate al tlie apex, ^'enerally moie or less distinctly pointing up- 
waids. 'i'lie shape of the leaves in both the s|)ecies is, for Die rest, lallier much varying, 
and in Hie figure annexed I have brought together a fairly ritdi material from different 
regions ol' Siberia and America in older to represent (he range of the variations of the 
leaves. 

After observing this difference in the structure of the leaves, I have made a more 
minute comparison between the Siberian and American s|)ecimens. 

There proved, indeed, to be a typical and ab.solutely constant difference in lin' 
shape of the petals. These are very small, generally only from !'> lo ,') mm. long. Fig. 8!) 
shows tile distinctions in the petals, and has been drawn from a great \aricly of speci- 
mens taken in various localities. T'ig. a — i show petals of American specimens, fig. 
n— t of various Siberian ones. It will appear that the size of the petals is much vary- 
ing, and so is the proportion between length and breadth. There is, on the other iiand. 
a marked difference in the shape of the petals in these two types. Thus, all of the 
American specimens are seen to have all i)ut oliovate petals, broadest above the 
middle, and broadly rounded at the lop, in Ihc lower pari gradually tapering, passing 
by degrees into the equally broad claw. 

The petals of the Siberian si)ecimens, on the contrary, are pointedly ovate, sub- 
acutish at the top, broadest below the middle, rounded at the base, and abruptly nar- 
rowed into the claw. This shape of the petals is constant in all the Siberian specimens 
I have examined. 

There is, according to the above mentioned, a difference so strongly marked, based 
upon absolutely constant systematic characters, between the American specimens and 
the Siberian ones that 1 have found it necessary to seperate them into 2 distinct species. 
As PuRSCH has described the species from American material, the name of Ranunciiliis 
Cymbalaria will have to be maintained for this one, the Siberian type being separated 
as a distinct species: 

Raiiiiiiculus (Oxygraphis) siibsimilis nov. spec. 

Radix /ihrosa. Humilis. inntiuumoilo '2—6 cm. nlhi. glabra vd pilis sparsis 
instructa, stolones repentes iiberius emitlcns. Folia ha.salia electa, longe petiolata. petioli 
2 — 5 cm. longi. basin versus marginibus mrmbranaceis dilatati. Lamina .J— /.3 mm. 
longa. glabra, in circuitu fere qiiadrala. basi plus minus rccle abscissa, superne leuiler 
altenuata, aniice 3 — 5 denlibus grossis vel lobis instructa, imstice integerrima: lobi plus 
minus distincte sublriangulares, basi lati.ssimi. superne cuneatini atlenu(di, apice 
subobtusi vel subaculi. Caules floriferi erecli, teretrs, apbglli. foliis ba.filaribus aequi- 
longi, rare foliorum longiludinem paulo superanles. vulgo simplires. unillori, rnro 
ramosi, bi-vel irijlori. Diameter floris 6—9 mm. Sepala '/— .5 mm. longa. e.vcavata. 

239 



ovata, reflexa, cjlabra. apice lale roliindata. fere Idnenna. piienc membranacea. Petala 
parva, 3 — '/ mm. longa. intense hilea, acriler ovciUi I'el snblrianfjnlalii. htlissiiiKi 
infra medium, apicem versus leviter allenuata. inilgo plus minus distincle subacutn. 
inferne in unguem aequilalum abrupte contnicla, supra unguem neclario distincio 
praedila. Carpella circa 1 mm. longa subcompressa. apice obliqua et in /vstrum 
breve, conicum protracta, tempore florescendi in capitulum, 3 — '/ mm. in diamelro 
confer la. 

This species seemed, in other respects, to be characteristic in having the stem 
generally rather short, most frequently about the length of the leaves or slightly longer, 
generally uniflorous and aphyllous, the leaves rather fleshy, and of a yellowish 
colour when dried. I have not been able to point out any marked difference in the 
structure of the achenes on account of the scarcity of my material, the ripe fruits being 
liable to loosening, and, in dried material, to falling off. 

Some years ago, in 1916, Ranunculus Cgmbalaria was also found in southern 
Norway, on Asmal, one of the islands in the Hvaler group. (R. Nordhagen in Nyt Maga- 
zin for Naturvidenskaperne B. 55, p. 119 — 145), and this locality being at that time the 
only habitat of the plant known in Europe, suggestions have been made as to the cause 
of this isolated occurrence.') 

The author supposes, no doubt with good reason, that it has recently immigrated 
into Europe, as a straggler over great distances, accordingly either from America or 
from Siberia. The former view seemed to be the most probable, as it approaches very 
closely a small group of American species, such as Eriocaulon seplangnlare With., 
Spiranthes Romanzowiana Cham., Sisgrinchium angustifolium Mii.i.., to be found in a 
few localities in western Europe, probably spread by the sea-currents of the Atlantic. 
He also asserts the possibility of the species having been introduced from Siberia, dis- 
persed by migratory birds on their way westwards, but if this be the case, it is rather 
strange that it is altogether wanting in interjacent places, as in central, eastern, and 
south-eastern Europe, tlie way of the Siberian birds of passage leading through these 
particular regions, abounding in situations apparently well suited for habitats. 

1 have, however, by this time examined these Norwegian specimens. In figure 88, 
the third row from above shows leaves, and figure 89 k— m petals from Nonvegian 
specimens. It appears that they agree into details with the American ones, witli the 
typical Ranunculus Cgmbalaria, and I may, therefore, lay down the Norwegian speci- 
mens to be connected with the American ones, and to have been spread from America. 
Where occurring in Asia, Ranunculus subsimilis did not seem to be dependent on saline 
soil only. On the contrary, the various authors seemed to agree on the opinion that it 
occurs rather frequently in swamps and on sandy banks of rivers. I have collected it 
myself on sandy, grass-grow n banks of rivers, near Ust Abakansk, where occurring asso- 

1) About the same time tie species was aiso fomid in auother locality uut for away, viz. iSu the south- 
western coast of Sweden, in Bohuslan. 

240 



cialcd will) plaiils sucli as lUrrovhlor odoidla, I'olriililld (inscrina. Uimiinciiltis iri)l(ins. 
Scirptis (tlpintis var. olifidiilliiis. in incipient flowering al llic l)ej^iiiiiiiiy ol .luiic. 

Owiiii; lo liic l;ul liial Ihis plan! ^lows under laliiei' differciil edapliical eoiidilions, 
ill very salileious lo coiiiplelely sallless, apparently generally sandy soil, there is a po.s- 
sihilily thai liie |)laiil may he influenced hy this eireumslance. On account ol' the 
scarcity ol' my material, wilii loo inaccurate records of situations. I have not heeii ahle 
to perceive any regularity in liiis direction. 

In conclusion I may add thai in the iu'ri)ariuni ol' liie I'niveisity at C.iiristiania I 
have seen a couple of specimens ,.Ex. llerl). Ind. Or. Hook. til. et riiomson, Hab. Lada- 
bele". Even in point of ha])itus these specimens differ rather much from the above- 
mentioned 2 types, the leaves being long and narrow, gi'iierally several times as long as 
broad. Some are completely entire and lanceolate, and others furnished with some few 
teeth near the summit. These .specimens also differ in the shape of the petals. Fig. 89, 
u — X, representing petals from two different specimens, siiow lliat the lamina is oblong 
elliptic, equally broad, obtusely rounded at both ends. My material, however, is not so 
extensive as to enable me to examine the constancy of these characters. There remains 
a possibility that the specimens in question may have to be entered as a third di.stinct 
species, distributed over south-western Asia, and that future examinations will establish 
the original Raiuinciiliis Cfimbalaria Pursch lo comprise several well defined species, 
both systematically and in point of geographic distribution. I might especially draw 
attention to the more isolated occurrences, such as those in South America and the 
above-mentioned Indian specimens. 

In alpine situations and in northern regions. Ranunculus (Ajmbahirid occurs under 
a slightly reduced form, var. alpina, recorded from Asia as well as from America. I have 
had no opportunity of examining it. 

Ranunculus plantaginil'olius Murr. in Nov. Comment. Goetting. \ 111. p. 391 (excl. 
syn. Amman.); Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 312; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 33; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 50, no. 33; Kegel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 42; Kpbi.i. Oj. A.tt. I (1901) p. 21. 
Ranunculus salsuginosus Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 33. 

Rather common on the .\bakan Steppe, at Ust Kamuishto, on saliferous soil, accom- 
panying Lepidium cvassi folium. Polentilla anserina, Primula longiscapa. Plantago mnri- 
tima, and Triglochin paluslie. In full flower in the second half of June. The leaves of 
the specimens collected are but slightly, nearly imperceptibly toothed. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia from the Altai region, eastwards to Trans Baikal, 
Mongolia, northern China. 

Ranunculus pulchellus C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Ait. II. p. 3.33; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 42; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 33; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. GO, no. 48; 
Kegel PI. Radd. (1861) p. 41; Ki)bi.a. <I)j. A.it. I (1901) p. 23. 

241 



In moist meadows near Minusinsk. In full I'lower al tlie beginning of July. 
Distribution: I'rom Russian Turkestan and the Altai region through southern 
Siberia to about Lake Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

Batrachospermum paiicistamineum (Tausch) Gelert, Stud. SI. Balidchiiim in Rolan. 
I'idsskr. B. 19 (1894—95) p. 2(3. Ranunculus aquatilis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 781; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 334; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 30; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 27; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 48, no. 30; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 38; KjiMj. <I)ji. A.it. I 
(1901) p. 21. 

subspec. divaricatum (Schrank) Gelert, 1. c. Ranunculus aquatilis /f capillaceus in 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 11, p. 334. Ranunculus aquatilis var. pantolhrix in Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 
27; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 38; Kptu. 1. c. Ranunculus aquatilis a in Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 48, no. 30. 

Common in still or very slow waters in the river Abakan, in shallow places, 
frequently accompanying Polamogeton perfoliatus and species of Sparganium. Most of 
the specimens had only young flower-buds as late as about the end of June; a few 
specimens, with fully opened flowers, however, show tliat the flowers are very small, 
the petals only about 4 mm. long, and, accordingly, somewhat smaller than recorded by 
Regel. The fruit-buds agree perfectly as to their shape with Gelert'-s drawing 1. c. p. 
16, fig. 17, whereby this form may be distinctly separated from the form sajanensis from 
the Sayansk district, described by Regel, recorded to have glabrous fruits. One of the 
chief characters of the variety is also recorded to be the stiffness of the filiform lobes 
of the leaves, not clasping together when taken out of the water. This species is also 
of common occurrence in the Urjankai country, where found by mc at Ust Sisti-kem, 
near Ust Kamsara, and at Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: The species is of common occurrence in the temperate regions of 
the northern hemisphere. South Africa and Australia. 

Oxygraphis glacialis Bunge, Suppl. Fl. Alt. p. 356; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 51; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 47; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 47, no. 29; Regel, PI. Radd. 
(1861) p. 50; Kpbi.1. ^.j. a.it. I (1901) p. 31. 

Only one specimen belonging to this species occurs in my collections, taken in 
the Altaian, on cliffs, among lichens, at an altitude of about 2200 m. above sea-level, 
near the perennial snow. The specimen, bearing 4 leaves, is 5 cm. high, the petioles 
about 4 cm. long, the lamina rather broadly ovate, about 1 cm. long; the margin is nearly 
entire or only slightly, nearly imperceptibly obtusely crenate. The sepals are ovate, 
about 5 mm. long. The flower nearly past flowering at the end of July. 

Distribution: Russian Turkestan, the Thian-Shan, the Himalayas, the eastern 
Altai, the Sayansk district (northern Mongolia), Trans Baikal, on the moulh of the river 
Lena, the Tshuksher Peninsula, Kamtchatka. 

242 



Callliit |):iliislris I.. I'l. I.appoii. (17:i7) |). 227 el Siur. PI. cd. II (17(i2) i>. 784; 
Ledeb. Fl. All. 11. |). :U);;; Tunzaii. Cat. IJaical. no. .52: Lcdcl). V\. Ross. I, p. 18: Tuiczan. Fl. 
Haical.-Dahur. (1812) p. (11. no. 10: Hci^el, IM. Hadd. (18(11) p. 'Yl; Hutli, Monogr. Gall. 
Cdllltd ill Mill. Vorli- (u-li. Naluiw. \:\0, l\ (isim p 17; i.'i.i.i.i <!>.i. A.n. 1 (lllOl) p :\2 

Hallicr conimon cnci ywhoio in iiioisl giass-fields. on brooks, flc. in llio leniloiy 
explored. Tbc inaleiial collecled varies considerably in iicaiiv all cliarailers, and llie 
numerous [onus seemed lo pass gradually inlo eaeli ollici. 

Near U.sl Abakansk 1 liave galliered a rallier luxuriaiil loriu. willi vigorous, eieel 
steins, generally bearing from 8 to 10 [lowers caeli. riie leases are markedly reniform, 
generally eomplelely or ueariv eomiiletcly cnliic. ICaeli flower is comparatively small, 
length of llie sepals from 12 lo 15 mm., and generally 5 in number. Moreover, these 
specimens are distinguished by having numerous follicles, varying from 12 lo 17 in num- 
ber. 1 have met with this species in brooks and swamps between Minusinsk and Kuslia- 
bar, on the Upper Amyl. the Sisti-kem and Bei-kem, riglil up to tiie Dora Steppe. In 
the Altaian found ])y me along mountain rivulets, up lo altitudes of about 2000 m. 
above sea-level. The .species flowers in .lune and July. 

In alpine regions of the Altaian I have collecled specimens Ijelonging to a lower 
form, with orbicular or cordiform leaves, and the margin acutely serrulate. The 
flowers are few in number, only 3 on each stem, comparatively large, the flower about 
3,3 cm. in diameter, and the sepals, of which the number is generally from 5 lo 7, are 
distinguished by being comparatively broad and short, and furnished with prominent 
darker nerves. The number of the follicles is cqmparatively small, generally from 5 to 
6. These specimens may possibly belong lo Caltha alpina Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 
(1866) p. 26, but all llie specimens being young and flowering, without rijje fruits, a 
reliable decision is difficult. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, Siljeria, eastwards lo the Sea of 
Okhotsk and Manchooria, nodhern and eastern Mongolia, the western Himalayas, China, 
Japan, Sakhalin, North America. In Tibet and the eastern Himalayas there occurs the 
nearly allied species, Caltha scaposa Hook, el Th. 

Trollius asiaticus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 782: Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 301: Bunge, 
Enum. All. no. 34: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 54: Ledeb. Fl. Moss. 1. p. 50: Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 63, no. 51 ex parte; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 57: Kin.i.i. <I>.i. A.it. 
I (1901) p. 33: Hulh, Rev. Art. Trollius (..Helios" Monall, Millli, Nalurwissensch. B. I\, 
no. 1) p. 2. 

var. typicus Regel. 1. c. p. 57: Hulh. 1. c. p. 3. 

Rather frecpient on the Abakan Steppe, in moist meadows near Askys, where occur- 
ring associated with Ranunculus aciis and R. repens. Primula sihirica. Cijpripedilum 
macranthum. Orchis sp. diu., Carer sp. div.. etc. I have, moreover, found this species 
near Kushabar, at Kalna. and L'st Algiac. Taken in full flower in June and July. The 
flowers in this species do not exceed, to judge from the material collected, 3,5 cm. 

243 



var. stcnopetalus Regel, 1. c. p. 57; Hutli, I. c. p. 3. 

Vei7 common in the Altaian, in alpine sitnations np to 20(M) m. above sea-level, 
where one of the prettiest plants, with large flowers, to 5 cm. wide, of a darkish yellow 
to an orange colour. This vai-iety is especially distinguished from the preceding one by 
its considerably large flowers, of a deeper colour. Occurring in moist, partly irrigated 
places, on mountain rivulets, etc., accompanying Cnltha palustris, Aquilegia glandulosa, 
Aconiliim laeve. Allium Schoenoprasiiin. and others. In full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, Russian Turkestan, northern Mongolia (the Sayansk 
district). 

Leptopyrum fumarioides Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Excurs. (1828) p. 717. Isopiirnm 
fumarioides L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 783; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 299; Turczan. Cat. Bai- 
cal. no. 59; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 53; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 66, no. 55; 
Regel PI. Radd. (1861) p. 63; Maxim, in Mel. Biol. XI (1883) p. 637; KptLi. $.i. A.it. I 
(1901) p. 35. 

On the steppe between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, near haljitations. In flower 
and with fruits at the beginning of June. Number of follicles generally 10, more rarely 
12 or 13. 

Distribution: Siberia, eastwards to the Amoor Province, northern and eastern 
Mongolia, Manchooria and northern Tibet. Of late also in France and Belgium 

(KOMAROW). 

Aquilegia glandulosa Fisch. ex Link. Enum. Ilort. Bcrol. II (1822) p. 84; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. II, p. 296; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 60; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 56; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 69, no. 59; KpM.i. <l).i. A.it. I (1901) p. 36. 

This species occurs in the Altaian from the limit of tree vegetation or somewhat 
lower, up to 2000 or 2100 m. above sea-level. With its splendid, large flowers of a deep 
blue, the diameter of which I have found to be up to 11 cm., it is one of the very prettiest 
and most conspicuous alpine plants of this region. In places, especially on somewhat 
moist mountain sides, it abounds, so as to cover the ground, here and there nearly 
exclusively, over large tracts of land. It is also frequently associated with the large- 
flowered Trolliiis asinticus var. stenopetaliis, and Callha palustris. The stems are gener- 
ally 50 cm. high, the lower part glabrous, and the upper part more or less hairy. Taken 
with fully opened flowers at the end of July. 

Distribution: Through southern Siberia and northern Mongolia from the Thian- 
Shan, eastwards through the Altai region and the Sayansk district to about Lake Baikal. 

Aquilegia sibirica Lam. Encycl. I (1783) p. 150; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 296; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 61: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 56 et 736; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) 
p. 68, no. 57; Kpuji. (Ki. A.it. I (1901) p. 36. 

244 



Scallerod in siil)al|)iiu' meadows in woods al)(>ul the I'pper Ainvl, wlicic freciuenllv 
oceuniii^ (o^cllicr with Venilmm (ilhiim. In lull flower in July. 

Dislrihulion: Siberia i'l-oin Ihe {^oveiniuenl of Tomsk to the west, and easlwaids to 
Trans Baikal and Yakutsk. 

Dt'lplunium jirandilloiiim L. Spec. PI. <(1. II (17()2) ]). 749; Ledch. Ik .\ll. 11. p. 
289; Turczan. Cat. Haicak no. ()."): kedeb. Fk Hoss. 1. p. (10; Tuiezan. I'M. Haieak-Daliur. 
(1812) J). 72. no. 63; Heoek PI. Uadd. (18(11) j). 6."); iManiliet. Kxpo.s. Synopt. Descripl. 
/;<•//)/((■/(. ("bine in Bulk Soc. Phil. Paris 1893, p. 1(18: llulh. Monogr. CiM. Drliiluniiim 
in Bolan. .lahrb. XX (1895) p. 4()1; Kpi.i.i. <l).i. A.u. 1 (1901) p. 37. 

The s])ecimens collected by me, belong to the form described by Tiiu;/.\ni.\()w. I. 
c. under k ,c. The stems are erect, from .")() to 60 em. high, generally branched only 
above the middle. The leaves arc divided hito narrowly linear segments, about 1 
or 1,5 mm. broad, in their whole length equally broad, and pointed towards the sum- 
mil. The length of the spur is about 15 or 16 mm., the average breadth about 2.5 mm. 
I'he whole plant is covered with rather dense, shoil, and appressed hairs. 

Common among dry sand, and in dr}% oj^en woods of Piinis silvcstris, about Minu- 
sinsk and the village of Buistraja. in similar situations near Tagarski osero as well as 
at Ust Abakansk. Here and there it is associated with Chamaevhodos crccld and 
Scabiosa ocliroleiica. In full flower and with flower-buds in the first half of July. 

Distribution; Southern Siberia, from about the Altai and the Yenisei, eastwards to 
the Amoor Province, Manchooria, Mongolia, northern China, Corea. According to Hitm 
1. c, this plant also occurs about Washington, a report also entered by Komahow, 
<1>.7. MaHma;y|jiii II (1903) p. 248 as well, adding, however, a sign of interrogation. 

Delphinium datum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 749; Ledeb. Fk Ross. I. p. 63; 
Turczan. Fk Baicak-Dahur. (1842) p. 75, no. 66; Regek PI. Radd. (1861) p. 69; Huth, 
Monogr. Gatk Delphinium (1895) p. 398; Kjiu.!. ip.i. A.it. I (1901) p. 39. Delphinium 
intermedium Ledeb. Fk Alt. II, p. 290. 

In Lliickets on the river Ahakan, near Ust Abakansk. khis species, however, is 
especially frequent about Kushabar, on somewhat moist, not unfrequently shady moun- 
tain sides, and in the subalpine tracts of land on the Upper .\myk where, in places, in 
glades, making up dense associations, not easily penetrable, where the stems may 
exceed considerably the height of a man, towards some 3 ni. high, or even more. It 
is here frequently associated with Veralrum album and Henicleuu} dissectum. In full 
flower in July. 

Distribution; Middle Europe, from the Pyrenees to the west, Russia and Russian 
Turkestan, Siberia, except the extreme east. In eastern Asia replaced by Delphinium 
Maackianum Regel. 

Aconitum ambigiium Reichenb. Illustr. Spec. Aconiti Gener. (1823—27) tab. XXIII. 

subspec. alpiiium (Turczan.) nov. comb. Aconitum ambi(/uum Reichenb. in Rapaics 

Raymund, Svstem. Acunili (lener. in Novinytani Kozlemenyek (1907) p. 144; Ledeb. Fk 

245 



All. 11, p. 28:5; Tunzan. M. Ikiical.-Dahur. (1842), p. 81, no. 72. Avoiiiliini Napelliis C. A. 
Meyer in Lcdeb. Fl. Alt. 11, p. 283; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 77; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1, p. 69. 
Aconitiim Napelliis /i alpiniim a (imbiginim Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 103. Aconitiim 
Napelliis /? (tlpiniim Refuel, Kptiji. "tji. Ajt. I (1901) p. 41. Aconitiim Napelliis fi alpinum 
h laxum. allaiciim ct soonoariciim Regel, 1. c. p. 104 et 105. [Tab. V, Fig. 1|. 

Tlie specimens referred to tliis subspecies by me, are especially distinguished from 
the typical species by having a lower growth, and jjy having few-flowered stems, general- 
ly 2-flowered only. The stems ai'e about 20 cm. high, bearing from 1 to 3, generally 2 
rather large flowers. They are, no doubt, identical with specimens which I have seen 
in the herbarium of the Imperial Botanical Gardens at Petrograd, with the following 
inscription, in Iurczaninow's hand, on a label: „Aconiliini Baicalense mihi y alpinum. 
In alpe Urgudei 1829. TuRCZ." It is no doubt the same specimens entered byTuKCZANiNOW 
in 1842, in his Fl. Baical.-Dahur. p. 81, as Aconitum ambi<niiim Rek.hknb. After a 
rather defective diagnosis, agreeing in the main with the above-mentioned specimens, 
however, he adds the following note: „Talis est planta, quam in alpe Urgudei et in 

Dahuria inveni " Regkl ha.s, on a subsequent occasion, examined these authentic 

specimens of I'ukczaninow's of Aconilum baicalense y alpinum. and has given the 
following additional note in the sheets: ,,.1. Napelliis L. ^ alpinum a ambiguum. teste 
Regel." 

This species, which seemed to be comparatively widely distributed in the alpine 
regions of central and eastern Asia, has by later authors been referred partly to A. 
Napelliis L., partly to A. anibif/uiim Rkichenb. Thus, Komahow enters it in his $.1. 
MaHmafyjiiu II (1903) p. 259 as A. Napelliis /J alpinum lusus a ambiguum Regel (A. 
ambiguum Turczan.). 

The distinctions between the two said species are, by the way, very trite, and the 
transition between the varieties of Aconilum Napelliis having toothed or smooth sta- 
mens — as Reichenbach's species .1. Hoppeaniim and Koelleanum, only to be under- 
stood as varieties of A. Napelliis — especially seemed to be rather insignificant. 

The reason, however, of my acquiescing in referring the specimens in cpiestion 
as a variety to A. ambiguum is owing to the fad lliat there really are universal although 
not very strongly marked differences between the Asiatic form and the European ones. 
The first-mentioned is distinguished by a more slender and fine growth, with fewer 
and more scattered flowers, and by being generally more or less glabrous, whereas the 
European A. Napelliis with its numerous varieties, by being mostly of a higher and more 
vigorous growth, more flowery and more densely flowered, with stems more or less 
distinctly hairy. The segments of the leaves in the Siberian A. ambiguum are also mostly 
broader than in A. Napellus and its varieties, and always broader than the stem. 

The specimens collected by me in the Altaian are distinguished by stems about 20 
cm. high, rigid, erect, or sometimes curved at the base. The root is tuberously thick- 
ened, about the size of a pea. The leaves are completely glabrous, deep]v5— 7 cleh, 
or divided, the divisions obovate, cuneate at Die base, deeply indented into lanceolate 

246 



sections, subnculisli :il llic lop. '\'\\r lower leaves aie ioiii^-pclioled. Ilie ii|)iiei- oiios 
sessile, 'i'lie llowcr eliislei is vei v lew -How ered, i^eneialiy 2-ilo\verecl, iiioie rarely 1 or 
!5-llow('re(l. on eomparalivel y sliorl pedicels, nUiier densely covered with veilowisli green 
liairs, lull nol Ljlaiidulai-, oT wliicli I have been alile lo ascerlaiii IliroULili a microscopic 
exaniiiialioii. I his haiiiiiess con.sists of 2-celled hairs, loniied iioiii one hioader, swol- 
len and harrel-l'oi ined hasal cell, and one loniJ and narrow, even, nearlv hvaline ioj) 




l"ig. i)0. Acoiiiliim iimhifiniim I^icicnKxii. subspcc. alpinum (Tlkczan.) 
nov. comb. a. Flower iC;i. - 1). - b. Nectaries — c. Stamens, (ca. "/i). 



cell. A similar hairiness is to be found in several other species of Acuniliiin. as for 
instance in .4. Utcvc. but not in all. The hairiness of ,1. batbidiim. for instance, con- 
sists of hairs of a ([uile different sirnebire. i'he pedicels are somewhat swollen at the 
to]i. The biaets are very small. Irniicale, unnerved, more or less hairy, according to 



247 



the pedicel. The flowers are rather large, and of a deep blue. The galea is more or 
less arched and high, the length to twice the breadth, and beaked at the top. The medial 
sepals are nearly orbicular, slightly oblique, from 12 to 15 nun. in diameter, witli distinct 
marginal hairs, and not unfrequently hairy inside. The lower sepals are ovate-lanceo- 
late, 11 to 14 mm. long, and 4 to 5 mm. broad, all but rounded, or slightly acutish at the 
top. When young the sepals are beset with scattered hairs, when older glabrous or 
nearly completely so, but generally with more or less distinct marginal hairs. The 
beak of the galea is generally furnished with a small tuft of hairs. The stalks of the 
nectaries are from 1,5 to 2,5 cm, long, curved, completely glabrous, the spur itself obtuse, 
and spirally rolled up at the top. The hind free lip is to 7 mm. long, and from 2 
to 3 mm. broad, slighdy cordately indented, with rounded sections, and completely gla- 
brous. In A. Napellus the lip is still more narrowly and deeply indented, and frequent- 
ly hairy. The stamens are completely glabrous, and the base furnished with broad wings 
or fringes, reaching half way up along the filaments, generally ending in a tooth on 
each side. This tooth, according to Heichenb.\ch, of some systematic value, may be 
more or less distinctly develoi:)ed, and may pass through a great variety of intermediate 
forms into nearly or altogether disappearing, the fringe then narrowing upwards, and 
passing gradually into the filament itself. Now and then it may be unilaterally developed 
as well. The number of the carpels is 3 (only very rarely 5), and they are completely 
glabrous. 

Specimens belonging to this species have been collected by me in the Altaian, in 
full flower in the second half of June, It also seemed to be rather widely distributed in 
the alpine regions of central Asia, eastwards right up to the Sea of Okhotsk. 

Aconitum volubile Pallas, En, Hort. Demidov, (1781) p, 21; Kpw.i. <!).:. A.it. I 
(1901) p. 41. 

siibspec. ciliare (DC.) Rapes, var. rectiuscuhmi (Reichenb.) Rapes. System, Aconili 
Gener, (1907) p. 155. .4. volubile Pall., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 281: Ledeb, Fl. Ross. I, p. G8: 
Regel. PI. Radd. (1861) p. 117. A. volubile var. villosum Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat, 
Moscou (1864^ p. 92. .4. villosum Reichenb,, Ledeb, Fl. Alt. II. p. 182; Ledeb. Fl. Ross, 
1, p, 68. A. villosum ic rectiusculum Reichenb. Illustr, Spec. Acomli (IS23 — 27) tab. XXVI. 

Taken in subalpine regions about Ust Algiac, where generally occurring in open, 
grass-grown places, in thicket of birch. With young, not fully opened flowers in 
the second half of July. 

Distribution: Siberia from about the government of Tomsk to the west, to the Sea 
of Okhotsk, northern Mongolia, northern China, Manchooria, 

Aconitum barbatuni Patr. in Pers. Synops, II (1807) p, 83; Rapes. System. Aconili 
Gener. (1907) p. 174; Reichenb. Illustr, Spec. Aconiti (1823)— 27) tab. XLV; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 72; Ledeb. Fl. Ross, I, p. 67; Turczan, Fl. BaicaL-Dahur, (1842) p. 79, no. 
69; KpH.i. 4)j. A-TT. I (1901) p. 43. A. Cmelini Reichenb., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 284: Tur- 

248 



czan. C.al. B;ii(;il. no. I'A: 'I'nivz;m. 1. c. (1812) |). 79. no. 70. ,\, ocltninlhiini C A. Meyer in 
i.edcl). l'"i. .Ml. II. |). L!cS."). .1. Ijiiocliniinn \:\\\ dmrlini el vai. Ixirlxiliim Hcf^el, PI. 
Hiukl. (18(il) p. 111. iH). IKi. 

The ai)()vc is one of llic iiio.st CDinitioii .species of Aconiliiin in the lorrilory 
explored, oeeuiiini; especially in dry meadows and on dc(li\ ilies in liie ti'ansition zone 
Ixiwccn liic slepjic and \\()od icj^ions — in llie wooded steppe rej^ion — as for instance 
alioni Kushaliar. About I'st Sisti-Ueni and I'sl Tara-keni I have taken it on dry, slopinj^ 
lulls, in open woods of pine and aspen, associated with ('.Dlijledoii sjnnosd. and others. 

Ihe species begins flowering about the middle of July. 

Dislribulion: Soulhcin Siljeria from Ihe goNernn.u'ul of Tomsk, eastwards lo the 
Amoor Province, northern Mongolia, noilhern China, Manchooria. 



'&^ 



Aconitum lacve Uoyle, Illuslr. llimal. (1834) p. I.'i: Papcs. System. Aconili Gener. 
(11)07) p. 1G7; Stapf, Aconites India Monogr. in Aim. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcut. X (190.")), 
p. 136, t. 92. A. c.rce/.s(/nj Reichenb. Illustr. Spec. Aconili (1823—27) tab. LIII parlim. 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 20. .1. liicorlonuin L., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 66 ])artim; Tuiczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 78. no. ()8. A. Lijcodoniini L /? scplenlrionale Herder, PI. 
Radd. (1861) p. 72. .1. vulparia C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 287. A. Lijcocionum 
p. lilac Regel in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou XXXIV (1861) p. 73 partim. .4. scplcn- 
liionale Kollc, KpH.T. <l).i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 42. 

A. laeve Royf.e is very nearly allied to A. seplenlriomde, occurring as a 
substitute for this species in Asia. The specimens found by me resemble much 
Reichenh.\(:h's figure of .1. e.vclsiiin I. c, entered by Rai'.vics R.WMrxi) loo. 
as a synonym of this species. The stalk of the nectaries, however, in the sjieci- 
mens collected by me, are furnished with scattered, but rather long, downy hairs. The 
medial sepals are rather ol)lique. which appears distinctly from the annexed figure of the 
flower and its component parts, fig. 91. The specimens are also readily distinguished from. 
St.\pi-'s drawing of this species 1. c. by their equally broad spurs, spirally rolled up at 
the top. tlie lips of which are also considerably shorter. Moreover, the flowers are larger 
than recorded by Siai'f, the maximal breadth of the galea, near the top, from 7 to 8 mm. 
The stamens are about 6 mm. long. 

Of common occurrence in the subalpine woods about Kushabar, in the .\myl valley, 
near IJst Algiac, and in Ihe laiga on the Sisti-kem. In full flower and incipient fruit for- 
mation in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Siberia, eastwards as far as the Amoor Province, northern Mongolia, 
C.orea. China. Tuikestan. the Himalayas, Cashmere. 

Actaea spicala L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 722. 

siibspcr. crylhrocarpa Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 79: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 71; Regel, 
PI. Radd. (1861) p. 110: h>i,i.i. (I>.t. A.n. I (1901) p. 44. /i spicala in Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 8 1. no. 76. ,S riil^ra Big., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 27."). /J ^'n/Z/f/wo/yja 

9r. 249 



Fischer ex. Tuiczaii. I. v. llulli, llevis. Ranunciil. Gall, in Eii^ler's Botan. Jahrb. XVI 
(1893) p. 309. 




Fi". '.tl. Aconiliim Icicvc Royle. a. Flower. — b. Galea — c. Medial sepals. — 
d. Lower sepals (ca. ^/i). — e. Stamens — f. Nectaries, (ca. 'Vi). 

In .sliady thickets, near Kusliabar, in the taiga on the Upper Aniyl, and near Ust 
Sisti-kem. With nearly ripe fruits about the middle of July. 

Distribution: The subspec. erijlhrociirpa is distributed over north-eastern Russia, 
Siberia from the Ural to Kamtchatka. northern Mongolia, Manchooria. Salchalin. 

Paeonia anomala L. Mantissa p. 247; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 277; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 83; Ledel). Fl. Ros.s. I. p. 74; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 88, no. 80; Regel, 



250 



II. I!:h1(1 (I.S(il) |). I'j:.; lliilli, Moiiof^r. datl. hwonid in En{,'lcr's Roliiii. .Iiiliili. \IV 
( l.S'.ILI) p. 2ruS: |,-|,i,i.i. <l'.i, A.M. I (I'.IOI) p. IC). 

/'. /(//>/(■(/ Iliu.Ki.. IM. K;i(l(l. (KSr.l) |). 12.') I'. (inoiDdlii ,< in I-fdci). l-'l. Hoss. I, p. 74; 
TinTzan. I. r. p. 88. 

Vciv coiniiion in llic woods ai>()ul liu' l'])!)''!' Aiiiyl IVoni Kushabar soiilhwards, 
and scalliMTd in IIr- Urjankai counli y al)out llu> livcMs Algiac and Sisti-kcni. Only a few 
specimens in llowcr, inosi of liicni jiasl flowerini^. and willi nearly ripe frnils, in llie 
middle of July. 

Dislribulion: Noiih-easiein Russia, Siljeria, irom llie I'ral eastwards lo Lake 
Baikal. Turkestan, northern Mongolia. 



V a i» a V e r a c e a c Jl SS. 

Chelidoniuni majiis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17()2) p. 723; Fedde, l^njxnuTav. in I'Jigl. 
I'llan/enr. H. 10 (IV. 104. 1909) p. 212; HyiuL. Papaveiac. in. <l>.i. Ciioiiii. ii ;i,u.ii.n. I!(irr. 
I (1913) ]). 10: Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. 271; Lcdeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 91; i:|,i,i.i. «!>.i. X.w. I (1901) 
p. .52. 

siihspec. grandiflorum DC. Syst. II (1821) p. 99; Fedde, 1. c. p. 215; llymi., Lc. p. 11; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 91. Chclidoniiiin nidjiis /S in Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
100, no. 90. Chdidonium nutjiis in Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 133, no. 1(K). Chelidonium 
grainlilloriim DC in Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 95. 

Rather common in thickets, on the i.slets in the Yenisei and Abakan rivers, where it 
begins flowering at the beginning of June. Observed by me at Karatus and Kushabar, in 
the Amyl taiga and in the I'rjankai country about the Sisli-kem, and near Kamsara. 
among brush-wood, on dry, stony slopes, and the like. This subspecies, occurring only in 
the eastern part of the geographical area of the species, is distinguished from the typi- 
cal form chiefly ]:)y its very long pedicels, from 5 to 10 cm. long, moreover by its broad, 
obtuse, frequently oval bracts, and lai'ge petals, to 1,6 cm. long, the apex often being 
more or less crenatc. The ripe capsules are generally considerably shorter than the 
pedicels. All of the specimens gathered are nearly completely glabrous, as regards the 
stem and calyx, only the under side of the leaves being sparingly furnished with long, 
scattered hairs. 

Distribution: Siberia, Dzungaria, Manchooria, China. Japan. Sakhalin. 

I 

Papavcr niulicaule L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 725; Ledeb. 1<"I. All. 11. j). 270: Tui-- 

czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 96, no. 89. 

subspec. xaiithopetalum (Trautv.) Fedde, Papnverac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 40 (IV, 
104, 1909) p. 379. Papcwer (dpiniim « niidicdulc Fisch. et Meyer, Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 270: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 92 ex parte; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 87 ex parte. Papaver nndkaide 
subspec. roininiiiw var xaidhopcUdum Trautv. Rull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou XXXIII (1860) 

251 



p. 90: Ilyiin.. Ikipavemc. in> 'IM. ('iirni|i. ii ,T,n.ii.ii. I'.uct. I (1913) p. i'(>. I'ajmvvr alpiiuim L 
/9 xanlhojM-lnhim iii Regel. PL Radd. (ISOl) p. 127, no. 152. Papmnr alpinnm L. ln'in.i.i 
(1).7. A.iT. I (1901) p. Til. Pnpaver cioceum Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 271. [Tab. VI, Fig. 2]. 




Fig. 92. Papat'cr niidicaute L. subspec. .vanllwpcUilum i,Ti>,.\utv.) Fi;ni)E. 
DifTerent types of leaves. (Vi). 

The specimens, which I refer to this subspecies, are distinguished by their large 
flowers, from 4, .^) to 6 cm. in diameter, altogether of the same brimstone colour. The 



252 



t-> 



.sc;ii)(-' is lioiu 1.") lo 2") cm. liigli. ;hu1 i)csct willi iDugli, asci'iuliiii^, riilliiT stiff, scallcied 
hairs, of a iif,'lit yellowish hiown coloiii-. These hairs qrow darker and denser towards 
liic ii|i|>cL' |>aii ol Ihc s(a|)c, iinnicdiaU'ly ix'low llic fh)\\('r. The ll()\\ci--l)iids arc nearly 
f;i()l)ulai'. and covered with lallier dark, nol tjlossy liairs. 'I'lic filanienls. at anv I'ale in 
dried specimens, are of a greenisli or bluish green colour. Tiie petals are broadly 
obovalc, or broadly triangular, the upixu" part cut off scpiaie, the margin more or less 
distinctly indented. The leaves arc somewhat varying, geneially about 10 cm. long, pin- 
nately divided, with two j)airs of lanceolate side pinnae, .slightly lai)ering towards the 
sununil. 'I'lw ItMinina! i)inna generally of Ihc same size as the side pinnae. i)ul mostly 
somewhat broader. Sometimes the leaves may be nearly 2-pinnate. Ihc |)iiniary lobes 
being pinnatifid or deeply indented. The leaves are covered, on the uppci- as well as on 
the under .side, with long, rough, scattered hairs, of a light, nearly wiiilc colour. The 
petioles are mostly glabrous (f. liijnnim pKnuK, 1. c. \). 380). The plant is densely 
cespitose, surrounded at the base by withering rests of leaves, of a brownish 
colour. 

Gathered in full flower in the Altaian, at an altitude of al)()ul 2100 m. above sea- 
level, at the end of July. Occurring there among mosses and lichens, on moist, shady 
slopes with a northern aspect, accompanying Cnnlaminr bcllidi folia. Ranunculus frif/idus, 

Valeriana capilata. Scdnni Rhodiola. Salices. etc. 

Distribution: Northern portion of the central Asiatic territory, northern Mongolia, 

eastern and north-eastern Siberia lo Kamlchalka. 



Papaver somniferum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(12) p. 72(1; K|ii,i,i. 'l>.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 52. 

subspec. setigcrum (DC.) Elk, Monogr. (1839) p. 30; r>\ nn., Papaverac. in, <I>.i. Cnnn].. 
II ,l,a.ii.ii. Itiici. I \U)]'d) p. IS, Papaver seligeruni DC. Fl. Franc. V (Suppl. IsiB) p. 585; 
Fedde, Papaverac. in F.ngl. Pflanzenr. H. 40 (IV, ](J4, 1909) p. 342. 

.\ few specimens of this one collected by me along the road between Karalus and 
Ivushabar. In full flower in the middle of July. 

Distribution: A native of the Mediterranean countries, Cyprus, Madeira, the Canai^ 
i.slands. Scattered in Siberia. 



Corydalis pauciflora (Steph.) Pcrs. Synops. Plant. II (1807) p. 2(19; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
Ill, p. 240; Tu.rczan. C.at. Baical. no. 97; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 97 et 746; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 102, no. 92; Kegel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 134, no. 1(13: IVpi.i.i, 
*.i. A.iT, 1 (I'.Kil) p. 55; Rynrb, Papaverac. rrh <1m. Ciiuiiii. ii ^bi.n.ii. liner. I (1913) p. 5'2. 

Some specimens gathered by me in the Altaian, about the limit of tree vegetation, 
in moist, grass-grown places, near a mounlain l)rooklet. Nearly past flowering at the 
end of July. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, northern Mongolia, the Caucasus, arctic America. 

2.53 



(" r u c i f or a e J USS. 

Lepidiuni apetalum Willd. Spec. PI. Ill (ISOO) p. 439; r)ym'h, Papcwerac. nu <I'.i. 
Ciiaiiii. II ^a.ibii. Bdir. I (1913) p. 90. Lepidium micranlhiim Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. I, p. 205 et 765 
ex parte (incl. van apelalum); Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 112; Thellung, Gait. 
Lepid. in Mitt. Bot. Mus. Univ. Ziirich. 28 (1906) p. 131: K|,i,i.i. <l'.i. Aat. I (1901) p. 
no. Lepidium incisiim Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 193. 

Occurring as a ruderal plant at and about Minusinsk, and scattered near liabita- 
tions in tlie Urjankai countrj'. Witb flower and fruits in June— August. This species 
is vei-y nearly allied to Lepidium ruderale, being the European species, and Lepidium 
o/>e/a/»m the one taking its place in Asia. By human agency, however, the geographical 
ranges of these plants have been confounded, so as to spread Lepidium ruderale over 
great parts of Siberia, eastwards to about Lake Baikal, while, on the other hand, Lepi- 
dium apetalum has also been introduced into Europe. Accordingly, both the species 
occur at Minusinsk. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, eastwards to China, Corea, Mongolia, the Hima- 
layas, Tibet, Cashmere, Turkestan. Introduced into Russia, western Europe, and North 
America. 

Lepidiuni ruderale L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 900: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 195; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 177; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 204 el 765 (excl. loc. Baikal et 
Davuriam); Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 289. no. 169; Thellung, Gatt. Lepid. 
p. 135; Bymi,, Cruciferae in. <I>.i. Ciirmp. ii ;i,a.ii,ii. Boct. I (I913\ p. 94; Regel, PI. Radd. 
(1861) p. 209, no. 246; K])i.i.i. <lu. A.it. I (190i) p. 110. 

Scattered as a weed in the streets of Minusinsk, and in Ihe neighbourhood of 
that town. With flowers and fruits in June and July. 

Distribution: Europe, and south-western Asia to Ihc Himalayas and Tibet, Siberia 
to about Lake Baikal, South Africa, North and South America. 

Lepidium crassifolium Waldst. et Kit. PI. Ran Hung. I (1799) p. 4: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
Ill, p. 185; Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 109; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 208 et 765; 
KptLT. <J).T. A.rr. I (1901) p. 112; r.yiiih, Cruciferae bt. (I>.i. Ciioii]!. n Ja.iMi. nuci. I (1913) 
p. 97. Lepidium carlilagineum (I. Mayer) Thellung subspec. crassifolium Thellung, Gall. 
Lepid. p. 153. 

Rather common on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto, on saliferous soil, and 
on the banks of the salt-lake Tagarski osero. In flower and with young fruits in the 
second half of June. The specimens are beset with scattered hairs all over the stem, 
riie basal leaves are oblong, or spatulate-oblong, and rather deeply indented, as is also 
the case in the lower stem-leaves. The specimens therefore much resemble van denla- 
tum (Boiss. et Hall.) Thellung, 1. c. p. 155. 

Distribution: Austro-Hungary to the west, through south-eastern Europe and 

254 



luljoiiiiiit^ ])()ilic)n.s ol Asia lo At|;lKiiiist;ui, 1 urkcslaii and lialiichislaii, Syria, soulli- 
wesleni Siljcria, eastwards lo the Minusinsk dislricl. 



Li'pidiiiin lalil'oliuin !.. S]nx. IM. ni. 11 (17(i;5) p. 89'J; Lcdci). l"l. All. Ill, p. 189; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 178: Lodfh. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 207: Tuiczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 289. no. 170: Lcdcl). Fl. Ro.s.s. I, p. 20(1 el 7(i.'): riicilung. Gall. Lrjud. p. 158; 
Kpi.i.i. <Im. A.iT. I (llMil) |). Ill; riymi., Cruciferae m. 'i>.i. ('iium|i. ii ,I,a.ii.ii. Hik-t. I (19i;5). |)(;.(; 

subspec. sibiricum (Schweigg.) Tliellung, 1. c. p. 159 et 161; Iiynn,, 1. c. lA'jndinin 
lalifoliiiin vai". a/fine C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 189; Turczan. I. c. (1842) p. 
290; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 210, no. 247. 

Young specimens, bearing only leaves and quite young flower-buds, laken by me 
on the salt-lake of Tagarski osero, south of Minusinsk, at the Ijegiiming of .luly. In the 
Urjankai country I have found the species past flowering and nearly withered on the 
steppes on the Ulu-kem at the end of August. The specimens gathered are distinguished 
bj' their rather large and broad leaves, which are sessile and nearly cla.sping the stem. 
The margin of the leaves entire, or only slightly and irregularly indented, the upper as 
well as the under side of the leaves and the stem rather densely puberulent. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over southern and central Europe, North 
Africa, and temperate portions of Asia. The western parts of this area (Europe, North 
Africa and south-western Asia) are taken up by subspecies eiilali folium, while, on the 
other hand, the eastern parts (from Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet, and eastwards through 
soulliern Siberia, Mongolia, and China) are taken up by sub-species sibirictiii). In bound- 
ary districts both forms occur growing together. 

Lcpidium cordalum \Villd. ex Stev. apud DC. Syst. II (1821) p. 554; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
Ill, p. 186: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. AU. no. 110; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 207 et 765; 
Kpbu. 'l'.!. A.n. I (1901) p. Ill; in iir[>. Cruciferae m^ <I>.t. Cndnp. ii ;i,a.n>ir. liocr. I (191.S) 
p. 104. Lcpidiiin} lali/oliiun subspec ainplexicaiile var. /i cordalum Thellung, I. c. p. 
li;0 el 163. 

On saliferous soil, on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto. Flowering and 
with young fruits in the second half of June. The specimens gathered are characteristic 
in having very narrow leaves, from 3 to 5 mm. bi-oad, and the length to ten times the 
breadth, the margin rather deeply and sharply dentate, moreover, in having the stems 
generally unbranched. or only very slightly branched, frequently sparingly pubescent. 

Distribution: The geographical range of this species is confined to south-western 
Siberia and adjoining regions of Dzungaria, Turkestan, and Mongolia. It was heretofore 
not observed farther lo the cast than fhe government of Tomsk. 

Bunias orienfalis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 936; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 226. 
This species I have found as a weed in a corn-field by the road between Karatus 

255 



and Kushabar. It docs not seem to have been previously observed in Siberia, and is not 
mentioned in any of the floras from (here within my reach. Korshinsky also declares 
in Tentamen Florae Rossiae Orientalis, St. Petersburg 1898, p. 48: „Per Rossiam euro- 
paeam distributa; terminum orientalum (secus jugum Uralense) in ditione nostra attin- 
gens; deest in Sibiria et Turlcestania." It probably belongs to the series of A\eeds 
nowadays spreading over Siberia by the improved means of intercourse. 

Distribution: From the Orient and European Russia the species seemed to be 
wandering westwards through Europe, where it is known from middle and northern 
Europe up to southern Scandinavia, as well as eastwards through Siberia, where I have 
found it as for east as the government of Yeniseisk. 

Thlaspi arvense L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 901; Ledeb. Fl. .\lt. Ill, p. 94; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 149; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 81 : Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 162 
et 756: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 263, no. 141; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 
201, no. 225: Kpbu. "I'.i. A.it. I (1901) p. 87; ];yiin,. Crnciferae r.i, <r>.i. C'lioiiii. n ,T,:(.h,ii. 
BocT. I (1913) p. 110. 

The species varies considerably in the height and ramification of the stem, and in the 
size, length and breadth of the leaves, the margin of which is sometimes entire, or more or 
less distinctly serrulate. In point of the shape of the young fruits the specimens collected 
really seemed to have to be referred to f. Ujpiciim RrscH (Rhoead. in Fl. Cauc. Crit. 
Ill, 4 (1908) p. 157), though other specimens have more orbicular fruits, and the sum- 
mits more broadly incised, so as to make them look more like f. baicalense (DC.) C. 
A Meyer, Verz. Cauc. (1831) p. 184. 

These two forms therefore seemed to pass into each other. According to Lkdkis. 
Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 94, the latter form is not invariable when cultivated, either. The species 
is scattered as a weed over the traversed regions of southern Siberia, on the borders of 
fields, etc.. on the Abakan Steppe, between Minusinsk and Kushabar, as well as in the 
Ui-jankai country, where found by me near Ust Sisti-kem and at Ust Uss. Taken with 
flowers and young fruits in June and the first half of July. 

Distribution: Throughout Europe, south-western Asia, through the Thian-Shan, 
Pamir, and the Himalayas to China, soutliern Siberia and norllu'rn Mongolia, North 
Africa. Introduced into North America. 

Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Fl. Carniol. ed. 11, 2 (1772) p. 26: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 176 et 759; Kpw.i. tl'.i. A.it. I (1901) p. 92; bymh, Ciiuiferae in. <I'.i. Cuoni.. 
II ^a.Tbii. I'.urr. I (1913) p. 138. 

As a weed near Ust Abakansk. Only young specimens Ijcaring flower-buds al the 
end of June. 

Disti-ibution: Europe, except the exti'eme north, Asia Minor, Syria, south-western 
Siberia to the government of Yeniseisk, the .\moor Province, North Africa. Introduced 
into North America and Australia. 

256 



Sisyinhi'iiiiu lu'U'roiiKilliiin ('.. A. Mc) t r in Ltdcli. 11. All. ill, p. lii'i; Tiirtzaii. tlal. 
Ikiiial. IK). 1(;(1: Lcdel). Fl. lU)s,s. 1. p. 178; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Daluir. (1812) ]>. 273, 
lU). 1,^)2: K'|ii,i.i. Mm. A.ii. I ( I'.MIl ) p. IKl; iiyiiii., (!nirifciuc in, <l'.i. {'iirmi.. ii ,l,;i.ii.ii. IIuct. 
1 (1913) p. 142. 

On an isici in llic river Al)akan. nrar I'st Ahakansk. in slony and .sandy places. 
\\ iiii liowcrs al liic rnd ol' .Innc. 

Dislribnlion: In middle Asia lioni Tnrkcslan and Ai'ghani.slan, Pamir, liijel, 
Mongolia, sonlhern Siberia, norlhern China, norlheni Corea. 

Sisymbrium jimci'iiiii Marsch.-Bicb. Fl. Tanro-Cauc-. II (1808) j). Ill d 111 (181!)) 
p. 14U; Lcdeb. ¥\. Alt. Ill, p. 127; Tmczan. Cat Baical. no. 159; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. 
PI. Fl. Alt. no. 88: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 177 et 759; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (18-42) 
1). 272. no. 151: Regel, PL Radd. (1861) p. 203, no. 234; l,-|.i.i.i. 'Im. A.rr. I (1901) p. 93; 
liymi.. ('nicifcnic i;i. <l'.i. ('Moiip. ii ,l,:i.ii,ii. Hocr. I (1913) p. 145. 

The specimens collected are distinguished by their very long and narrow leaves, 
the lower ones linear, from 1 to 1.3 mm. broad, and from 4 to 7 cm. long, the upper 
ones linear-filiform, 0,3 mm. broad, and from 3 to 4 cm. long, more or lesse acuminate at 
the summit. The leaves are entire; only some of the lower ones having one or a few 
awl-shaped teeth about the middle of the leaf. The plant is glabrous all over, the sepals 
included. In point of their narrow leaves these specimens recall in a high degree var. 
soongoricum Regel-Herder in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou (1864) p. 141. no. 98 b, and in 
point of their completely glabrous sepals var. laii folium Korsh. in Fragm. Fl. Turk. I 
(1898) p. 412, no. 24. The stems are solitary, unbranched in the lower part, and in the 
upper part with one or a few short branches, only 1 to a few cm. long. The petals are 
small, from 5 to 6 mm. long. Taken ou the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto. In 
full bloom in Ihe second half of June. 

Distribution: In middle Europe from Hungary to the west, through southern and 
middle Russia and adjoining portions of Asia to Turkestan, Siberia, and Trans Baikal, 
northwards and eastwards right up to the Upper Lena and the Upper Kolyma. 

Sisymbrium Sophia L. Spec. Pi. ed. II (1763) p. 920: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. p. 135; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 180 et 7(50; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 161: 4\uczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 274, no. 153: Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 203, no. 235; Kpi.i.i. «l).i. A.it. 
I (1901) p. 94; Byiirb, Cnici ferae n-h $.i. Ciioii|i. ri ;i,a.ii,H. Hocr. I (1913) p. 148. 

In the territory explored, the species varies veiy considerably in hairiness, rami- 
fication, height, and above all, in the size of the leaves, and the breadth of tlie segments. 
In dry places, for instance in the steppe regions about the river Abakan, the segments 
are generally very fine, almost filiform, and like the plant in general, rather densely 
hair)^ whereas, in humid habitats, besides being more vigorous in growth, having con- 
siderably broader segments as well; breadth of the lobes to 2 mm. in Uie specimens 
gathered, and the whole plant glabrous, and of a fresher green. The species is rather 

257 



coimiion in llie Minusinsk dislrid. lor instance on the islets in the lower iiart of tlie river 
Abakan, near Askys, Ust Kanuiishto, Usl Alnikansk. along road-sides, etc., in several 
places between Minusinsk and Ku.shabar, where rather frequently to be met v\ ilh in 
the streets, on the river Aniyl, near Petl•opa^^■lowsk, and in tlie Urjankai country, near 
Kamsara, and at Ust Tara-kem. Taken floweinng and with young fruits in June and July. 
Distribution: Europe, except the extreme northern portions, western and central 
Asia to India and Tibet southwards, and the Pacific Ocean eastwards. leather common 
in the taiga and sleppe regions of Siberia, scattered in Mongolia and China, Japan, 
North Africa. Introduced into North America. 

Sisymbrium salsugineum Pallas, Pxeisc Verschicd. Statthallersch. Russ. Reiches, p. 
4(36 et 740; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 145; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 164; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 
185; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1842) p. 275, no. 155; K|ii.i.i. 'lu. A.n. I (1901) p. 95. 
Ambidopsis salsugineum (Pallas) Busch, Cniciferae ht, <l>.i. Ciionp. n ^Va.ii.ii. liru r. I 
(1913) p. 136. 

On saliferous soil, on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto. Nearly past flower- 
ing in the second half of June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Rus.sia, Russian Turkestan, southern Siberia, eastwards 
to Trans Baikal and Yakutsk. 

Isatis costala C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 204; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
All. no. 116; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 211 et 766; Byiin>, Cniciferae v.b iIm. Cnruii). ii ,T,a.ii.ii. 
BocT. I (1913) p. 160. 

f. lasiocarpa (Ledeh.) Busch, 1. c. Isalis lasiocarjxt Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 211 et 767; 
Kpti.T. <I>.i. A.iT. I (1913) p. 113. Isalis hebecarpa C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. All. 111. p. 
205 (excl. .syn.). Isalis coslala f. hebecarpa Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 211. 

On dry rocky slopes on the river, near Minusinsk; with flowers at the end of June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, Russian Turkestan, southern Siberia (southern 
portions of the governments of Tomsk and Yeniseisk), northern Mongolia. 

Sinapis alba L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 934; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1. p. 218; I'.y.ub, 
Cruciferae m, 'I'.i. Ciirmp. ii ,T,a.iMi. Hdcr. I (1913) p. 164. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, in the neighbourhood of culti\ated places. 
With young flowers and flower-buds about the middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, south-western Asia, India, Tibet, southern Silx-ria 
(the governments of Tobolsk, Yeniseisk, and Yakutsk), the Canary Islands, North 
America (introduced). 

Brassica campestris L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 931; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 212; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 183; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 122; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 293, no. 174; r.yuii,, Cri/r//'m(ei!h<l>.i. Ciioiip. ii ,T,a.ii>ii. 1!(k i. I (1913) 

258 



p. 170. linissicd Lidjxi Lcdrli. I'l. lioss. 1. j). 21(1 el 7()'J. lUdsskd Htipit viir. ((iiiipislris 
G. Koch, Rogol, PI. Hadd. (18(il) p. 'ill. no. t.'4U; K|,i,i.i. <l).i. A.ir. I (1901) j). IKi. 

A.s a weed in lidds licri' and IIktc aloiii^ llic road-side l)elwccn Minusinsk and 
Kuslial)ai\ In liowi r and wilii yomif.; I'liiiLs al tiic beginning of July. 

Dislrihulion: iuiiopc. I'xci'pl (he cxlrenic norlh, soulh-wesleni .\sia, southern 
Siberia I'loni (lie I ral lo Kainlehalka, norlhein Mongolia. (.Iiina, .Japan, Mesopolaniia, 
Syria, Arabia, Norlh Africa. 

Brassiea jiiiu'ea (L.) Czern. Com]). Charkov. (1859) |). 8: i.'in.i.i. 'Im. A.ii. I (l'.M)l) 
p. 117: I'lyiui,, Criicifi'ldc i;i. <l>.i. ('iioii|f. ii ,l,aii'ii- limi- II (li)l.")) p. 178. 

As a weed near I'sl Abakansk. In full flower al Ihe end of .June. 

Dislrihulion: Soulh-easlern portion of Hu.ssia, and adjoining portions of Asia, the 
Thian-Shan, Dzungaria, Afghanistan, India, south-western Siberia, Mongolia, eastern 
Asia, Japan, North Africa. 

Brassiea Napus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 931; Ledeb. Fl. Hoss. I. j). 217 el 709; 
r>yiiri., ('.nivifvrae in. (I'.i. C'lioiip. ii ^T,a.ii.ii. Bikt. I (1913) p. 171. 

In fields on the road between Minusinsk and Kushabar; flowering and vsiLh nearly 
ripe pods about the middle of July. 

Distribution: Europe and south-western Asia to about the Thian-Shan, southern 
Sibei'ia. 

Barbarea stricia Andrz. in Besser, Enum. PI. Volh. (1822) p. 72; Ltdcb. I'l. Uoss. I, 
p. 115; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 229, no. 104; Kpi.i.i. <|..i. A.n. I ( 1901) p. 65; 
liyurh. Criicifenie wu <I'.i. Ciiriii|i. ii ^(a.ii.ii. liner. II (1915) p. 187. liarlxiri'd iniU/ciris 
K. Br. /i slikia Hegel. PI. Radd. (1861) p. 155, no. 173. 

In the specimens gathered, the side pinnae of the radical leaves are wanting, the 
terminal pinna thus alone constituting the leaf, being very large, and gradually tapering 
towards the petiole, and being more narrow at the base than is usually the case in 
Scandinavian specimens. On the river Amyl, near Kushabar, and near Kalna. in moist 
meadows, and on the Upper Sisli-kem. Specimens taken here al an altitude of 1500 m. 
above sea-level, July 25th, nearly past flowering. 

Distribution: F>urope, except the south-western portions, and adjoining poilions of 
Asia lo Turkestan, southern Siberia, eastwards lo about Lake Baikal. 

Barbarea arcuata Rcichenb. in Bol. Ztg. (1820); Ledeb. ¥\. .Ml. 111. p. 11; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 109: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. I, p. 115 el 748 (cxcl. locos Sibiriam baical., inter 
Aldan el Ochotzk el ins. Silcham.); Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 228. no. 102; 
Byiu'L, Cniciferae nt tl'.i. Crioii|p. n ^(a.iMi. liner. II (1915) [). 192. Barbarcd vulgaris 
var. n/r»a/«apud Regel, PL Radd. (1861) p. 157, no. 176; K|ii.i.i. <S>a. A.it. I (1901) p. 66. 

siil)S]>ec. lypica Busch, Rhoead. (1909) p. 313. 

259 



Rather common on the low islets gi-own ^\ ilh brush-woofl in the Yenisei, near Ust 
Abakansk, where taken by me in full flower at the beginning of June. The specimens are 
completely glabrous. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north, Caucasia and south-western Asia 
lo the Thian-Shan, eastern Turkestan, Tibet and the Himalayas, southern Siberia to 
Lake Baikal, southern Mongolia. 

Nasturtium pahistre DC. Syst. II (1821) p. 191; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 8: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 104; Ledeb. H. Ross. I, p. 112; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 226, 
no. 99; Regel, PL Radd. (1861) p. 151, no. 173; Kpuj. lu. A.n . I (1901) p. 64; Byun,, Crucife 
me wh (I>.T. Ciioiip. II ^a.TbH. Boot. II (1915) p. 201. Nasturtium densiflorum Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 105; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 226, no. 100. 

It appears from the material collected that the species varies considerably, espe- 
cially in the shape and size of the silicic and the form and incisions of the leaves. The ter- 
minal lobe of the leaf is always comparatively small, narrowly triangular in outline, and 
tapering towards the summit, by which characters all the Siberian specimens in my col- 
lections are distinguished. The auricles vaiy much in size, and so do the petioles in 
length. In many specimens the upper cauline-leaves are also markedly petioled. The 
sepals in the Siberian specimens are frequently furnished with rather long, white, 
intricate hairs, which is an especially predominant character in the quite young flower- 
buds. Such hairy sepals are to be found in some Scandinavian specimens as well, but 
not so commonly or so predominantly as is tlie case in the Siberian ones. A similar 
hairiness may also occur in the auricles, and, exceptionally, along the greatest nerves 
of the leaves. As for the rest, the plants are completely glabrous. The species is very 
common in the Minusinsk district, where collected on swampy river-banks, along the 
Yenisei and Abakan rivers, on islets in the said rivers, near Kushabar, and on the 
banks of the river Amyl, on the Sisti-kem, and at Ust Tara-kem. The species begins 
flowering here in the first half of June. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Europe. Caucasia, south-weslern Asia, Turkestan, 
Siberia, the Himalayas, India, Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Jajian, North .Vfrica, 
America, Greenland, New Zealand. 

Armoracia sisynibrioides (DC.) Cajaud. AUuv. (190a) p. 33; Fiyiuh, Cruciferne wh 
i\i. Ciir)ii|i. II ,lu.ibii. BocT. H (1915) p. 219. Cochlearia sisynibrioides DC., Ledeb. Fl. Hoss 1, p. 
158; Kpbi.i. $.1. A.iT. I (1901) p. 86. Cochlearia g rand i flora DC, Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 148; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 261. no. 140; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 159; 
Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 200, no. 223. 

Scattered on tlie islets in the river Abakan, especially in moist, grass-grow n fields, 
near stagnant water; with flowers and young fruits in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, from the government of Tobolsk to Trans Baikal 
to the east, Sakhalin. 

260 



Cardainiiu- fcniiirolia (l.cdcli.) riii(V,;in. Index in liiill. Soc. Iin|). N;il. Moscoti (\K\7. 
I) p. r)7, no. :')<S: Inrc/;!!!. (,;il. Iknial. no. I'JO: Inn /.an. I'l. iJairjil.-lJalmi-. (1812) j). 
2.'i8. no. llhllyiiii,, ('.nicifrnii' ki. <1>.i ('iinii|i. n ,l,a.iMi. liner. II (1!)!.")) p. 2151. Driitaiia 
iiu'rrni)hiill(i ("iforf>i, Lcilrh. I'l. lioss. I, p. \'M) (won \\\\\d.). Denlarid Icniiifoliit l.vdc]). 
I'l. .Ml. III. p. ^^^■, Ledeh. Fl. Ho.ss. I. p. KlU: i;,,,,,.,. <I).i, A. it. I (lilOl) p. 72. 

In l'loi.'^l. i^iass-iii'ow n plan's on llic liscr Abakan, near .\..sk\'.s. Mowcring in .hiiic. 

1 )i.slril)nlion: Middle liussia (Perm. Tula). Siheiia. IVoni llie Allai lo KanitelialUa. 
.Maut'liooria. Sakhalin. 

Ciirdaniiiie macropliylla Willd. Spec. I'l. III. p. 181; Ledeii. V\. .Ml. 111. p. :58: 
Turczaii. Cat. Haieal. no. 124; Karel. el Kiril. I'".nnni. I'l. l-'l. .Ml. no. (il: l.edeh. I'"l. I'los.s. 
I. p. 128 el 75U; TiUTzan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 210. no. 118: l.'in.i.i, (Im. .\.ii. I 
(1901) p. 72: Ilyiiri,. Criicifernc in, <l>.i. ('iinii|i. ii ,l,;i.ii,ii. Udci. II (I',)].")) p. l';{i;. I)cnl<iri(i 
nutcruplujlla W.. Rcsel. PL Hadd. (18(il) p. 17(1. no. 191. 

Rather frequenl in llie subalpine wooded region.s in Ilie Sayan.sk mountains, 
between Kusiiabai and I'st Algiac, on the Sisli-kem. especially in boggy and moist, 
grass-grown places. CoUecled in full flower and wilh half lipc finils :il>oiit the middle of 
,Iuly. Colour of the flowers light red, almost whili'. The fruits are besci with lalher 
stiff, white, scattered hairs, f. eriorarpa Hrscn, I. c. 

Distribution: The Ural (Perm), Siberia lo Kamtehalka. northein Mongolia. 
Sakhalin. 

Cardaniine impaticns L. Spec. PI. ed. II (176:^) p. 914: Ledeb. Fl. .Mt. III. p. 10: 
Ledeb. Fl. Rt)ss. I, p. 128 el 7."^0: lV|ii,i.i. »l>.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 71: i;yiiri. Criirifrnti- i;i. <l'.i. 
Ciii'piiii. II , (a. II. II. i'xicT. II (191.'i) p. 242. 

par. connmiiiis Busch. 1. c. p. 213. 

In moist, shady places, on the banks of a lirook, near Kusiialiar. In full flower in 
Ihe middle of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreine northern, western, and southern portions, 
through south-western and middle .\sia, eastwai'ds lo China and Manchooria. .lajjan, 
Sakhalin. 

Cardaniine pralensis L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (17();')) \^. 915: Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. 111. p. ;')7: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 123; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 12.5: Turc/an. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 240, no. 117: Regel, PI. Radd. (18G1) p. 175, no. 192; Kpw.i. <l>.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 
71; Ryiin.. Cnici ferae uh <l).i. C'liOiip. ii ^T,a.ii.ii. lidcr. II (1915) p. 258. 

Rather connnon in the territory explored, especially on river-banks, in moist 
meadows, etc.. on the islets in the livers Abakan and Yenisei as well as on Ihe l)aidvs, 
where collected by me in full flower in .lime. Mosl of Ihe sjiecimens belong lo f. iijpiea 
M.AXiM. (Bull. Ac. 18 (1873) p. 278). Near Askys I have taken some .specimens belong- 
ing to a form with small pinnae, only from ;> lo 5 mm. in diameter, and witli ])eta]s 

•ICA 



iiom 5 U) (i mm. long, f. parvifolin \Vimm.-("irab. I'l. Siles. II (1829) p. 2(i6. Besides, I 
have also louiid the s])ecies to be lalher frequent in llie Urjankai counhv. for iiislancc 
near Usl Sisti-kenl, the Kamsara, and Ust Tara-kem. 

Distiibution: Nearly all over Eiu-ope, except the extreme south, Siberia, northern 
Moneolia, eastern Asia. North America, Greenland. 



"&^ 



Cardamiiie bellidilolia L. Spec. PL ed. II (1763) p. 913; Ledeb. Fk Ross. I, p. 123; 
Regek PI. Radd. (1861) p. 170, no. 188; Kptu. a>.i. A.it. I (1901) p. 70; Byiui,, Cniciferae 
r.'b <I>.i. CuGiip. n ;i,a.iwi. Boct. II (1915) p. 268. Cardamine lenensis Andrz. apud Ledeb. Fk 
Alt III, p. 33; Turczan. Cat. Baicak no. 118; Ledeli. Fk Ross. 1, p. 123; Tuixzan. Fk 
Baicak-Dahur. (1842) p. 237, no. 113. 

In the Altaian, at an altitude of about 2000 ni. above sea-level, especially on moist, 
shady slopes with a northern aspect, among moss and lichens, accompanying Papauer 
niidicdulc subspec. xaiillioprlaluiu. Rtinunciilns frigidns. Valeriniui capitala, Alsine arc- 
iica. etc. In flower and with young fruits at the end of July. All of the specimens collect- 
ed belong to t gennina Busch, k c. They are large and \'igorous, and agree perfectly 
with the specimens from Norway, with which I have made a comparison. The petio- 
le generally considerably longer than the orbicular, ovate, or cordiform blade, the 
summit of which is either rounded, or sometimes finely subacute. The stem is 2 — 8 cm. 
long, overtopping the leaves, and generally furnished with a single cauline-leaf. 

Distribution: Arctic Europe and Asia, the Altai, the Sayansk district. Trans Baikal 
mountains. North America. 

Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. Fk Carn. ed. II. 2 (1772) p. 30: Ledeb. Fk Alt. Ill, p. 23; 
Turczan. Cat. Baicak no. 113; Ledeb. Fk Ross. I, p. 118; Turczan. Fk Baicak-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 232, no. 108; Regek PI. Radd. (1861) p. 160, no. 182; Kpbiji. tl'j. A.it. I (1901) p. 67. 

Rather common in the territory explored, where especially occurring in dry mea- 
dows and on mountain slopes. The species is here much van'ing in the form and size 
of tlie leaves, height of the stem, and floweriness, as well as in the density of the hairs. 
The specimens generally seemed to be distinguislicd by comparatively long and fine pedi- 
cels, generally from 1 to 1,4 cm. long about the time of ripening of tlic fruit. The species 
begins flowering at the end of May. 

Distribution: Europe, the wood and steppe regions of Si])eria, the .\llai, the 
Sayansk district. Trans Baikal, eastern Asia, North America. 

Arabis incarnata Pallas in herb. Lambert ex DC. Syst. II, p. 210: Ledeb. Fk All. Ill, 
p. 22; Turczan. Cat. Baicak no. 114; Ledeb. Fk Ross. 1. p. 119: Turczan. Fk Baicak- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 233, no. 109; Kpuji. <ki. A.it. I (1901) p. 68. 

Scattered on dry, rocky declivities on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishto, 
where collected by me, flowering and with partly ripe fruits in the second half of .lune. 

262 



I'lic poliils luc pailly pink, partly nearly while. Also loiind hy me in similar silnalions 
al Kusliahar, near Ihe ri\cr Aniyl. and neai the i)i)ia Stepjn'. 

I )islrii)nli()n: i'rom llie .\llai lo llie wesl. Ihrouf^h .souliiern Siberia and iiorlJicrn 
Mongolia lo liie lvhint;an niounlains Lo llu' easl. 

Arahis lu-iulula L. Spec. 1>1. ed. II (1763; p. 9:50; Ledeb. Fl. .\ll. III. p. 2."): Tmczaii. 
Cat. Hairal. no. 11(1: Lcdeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 122; Tnre/.an. \'\. I'.aical.-Dabur. (1812) |). 
2:^1. no. Ill; r.egel, PI. Hadd. (18()1) p. 1(11). no. lH(i: i;|,i,i.i. 'I'.i. A.rr. 1 (IDOl) p. (18. 

Hy the road-side, near Kushabar. Willi young [lowers in Ibe I'irsl half of July. 

Dislribulion: Middle Russia, Siberia, Mongolia, the Thian-Shan, llie .\llai, ea.sterii 
.\sia. Sakhalin, .lapan. 

TurriJis glabra L. Spec. PI. ed. II (\H\?,) p. iKU): Ledeb. Fl. All. III. p. 1.5; Turczan. 
Cal. Raieal. no. Ill; Karel. cl Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. All. uo. (iO; Ledeb. Fl. Ro.ss. I, p. 11(5: 
Turezan. Fl. Haieal.-Dahur. (1842) p. 2:U, no. lOli; Regel. PI. Radd. (18(11) p. Kid. no. 
ISI; Kpi.u. 'I'.i. A-rr. I (1901) p. (Ml. 

Scattered as a weed in fields on llie ii;ad belwceii .Minusinsk and Kushabar; 
flowering in July. 

Distribution: Europe, soulh-weslern and middle Asia, soulhein Siberia, eastern 
Asia, North America. Australia. 

Macropodiuni nivale R. Br. in Hort. Few. ed. II, IV. ]>. 108; Ledeb. Fl. \\[. Ill, j). 
32; Turczan. Cat. Raieal. no. 117; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 132; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 236, no. 112; Ki-u.i. (D.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 74. 

In the Altaian, in alpine tracts, near the perennial snow, on cliffs, among moss 
and lichens. Willi flower-buds and some fully opened flowers at the end of July. 

Distril)ution; The Altai lo the west, through the Sayansk district lo Trans Raieal 
and northern Mongolia. 

Alyssuni lenense Adams, Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou \'. ]>. 1 10: 1 urczan. Cat. Raieal. 
no. 127; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 246. no. 123; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 
179. no. 198; i^pi.i.i. iI).t. A.rr. I (1901) p. 76. Aliissiim alliticum C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. 
Fl. .Ut. 111. p. 55. Alijssiuu Fisrhrridiuim DC., rurczan. Cal. Raieal. no. 125; Ledeb. 
IT. Ross. I, p. 138; Regel, 1. c. p. 179. Odonlairhena Fisrhcridiui C. A. Meyer in Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 245, no. 122. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, on dry, Devonian cliffs of sandstone, with ripe 
fruits in the middle of June, and on dry cliffs on the Kamsara and the 4"ara-keiii. with 
fruits in August. 

Distribution; South-eastern Ru.ssia (about the mouth of the Volga). Turkestan, 
northern Mongolia, southern Siberia from the I'ral lowaids Manehooria. 

263 



Alyssum alpcslrc L. Mant. p. 92; Rcgel, PI. Hadcl. (18G1) p. 180, no. 201; K|,i.i.i. <T).i. 
A.iT. 1 (lUUI) p. 77. Odonlanhcnn alpeslris Lcdcb. Fl. Hoss. 1, p. 142. O. toiiiiosa 




Fit;.- 93. Macropodium nivalc \\. Bh. ('/i). 

Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 244, no. 121. 0. oboimla C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. Ill, p. 61; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 142; 0. micwphijlln C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
Ill, p. 63; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 143. Ah]ssiim lorluosiim in Turczan. (Lat. Raical. no. 126. 



264 



Occiiiiiiiq csiicciiillv ill ^i;i\{'lly. siiiidy phu-cs. on im uiiil.'iin slopes, etc.. on llir 
sicppcs Ix'twi'on Miiuisiiisk iiiul I si Aliukansk. and siallcrcd on llic Abakan Slcpijc, 
IxIwcHMi I'sl Al)aUansU and Askys. In lull flowiT, and with a few ripe pods in llic 
iiisl hall' of Jnne. 

Dislriliulion: Southeni Kiiropc, llic Caucasus, soulli-wcslci n Asia. Turkestan, 
soullu'i'ii Siberia and noiliieru Mongolia, Maneliooiia. 






Draba iiemorosa L. Spec. PI. ed. I {l~')'.\) p. (Vi;^; Tinc/an. Cat. Raical. no. II."): 
l.edel). I'l. Koss. 1, p, 154 cl 7.')('); Tuiv/an, l'\. 15ai(al.-l )aliui . (lcS12) p. 2()0. no. liVS; 
Hegel, I'l. Hadd. (1861) j). I'.t.S, no. 220: Kpi.i.i. 'Im. A. it. I (1001) p. <S."). 

r. leiocarpa Ledeh. 1. c. Dnilxt liilca (iilih , Ledeh. l-'i. .Ml. 111. p. <S;>: Turc/an. I. c. ]). 
2.50, no. I."i7: Hegel. 1. c. 

On an islel in Ihe Yenisei, near I'sL .Vbakansk, in dry. sandy meadow, in abun- 
dance: in flower and with ripe fruits at the beginning of ,Iune. In Ihc Urjankai country, 
near I'sl Tara-keni, on dry sleppe meadows, and in dry, open larch-forest. 

Distribution: Middle and south-eastern Europe, the Caucasus, south-western .Asia, 
Tibel, Siberia. Mongolia, (".iiina, Coiea, Japan, North .\ineiica. 

Hesperis natroiialis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 927; Ledeh. PI. Hoss. I, p. 171 el 
759: Hegel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 202, no. 229; Kpw.i. 'l>.i. A.n. I (1901) p. 89. Hesperis sibi- 
rica L., Ledeh. Fl. All. III. p. 115: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 153; Karel. et Kiril. Enum, 
PI. Fl. All. no. 87; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 267, no. 145. 

On grassy hills, in Caragana thickets, on the steppes between Minusinsk and Ust 
Abakansk, ^Yhere collected with young flowers at the beginning of June. In tlie Urjan- 
kai contry, near Ust Sisti-kem. The leaves of the .specimens taken are either entire, or 
more or less deeply indented. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia and south-western Asia lo Turkestan, Siberia, east- 
wards to about Trans Baikal and the government ol Yakutsk, northern Mongolia. 

Dontoslenion niicrantiius C, A. Meyer in Lcdeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 120; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 174: Turczan. F4. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 2()8, no. 147; K]ilu. $.t. A.n. I 
(1901) p. 91. Aiidrzcjuii'skid piiruiflora in I'urczan. Cat. Baical. no. 155. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kamuishlo, especially on rocky slopes, 
where collected by me with young flowers about the middle of June. 

Distrilmtion: 4"hrough southern Siberia, from Ihe .\llai to Trans Baikal, northern 
Mongolia. 

Erysimum altaicum C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, ]>. 153: Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 165; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 188; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 276, no. 156; 
Kpi.i.i. 'I'.i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 97. Enjsimum Clirininllins Pers., Hegel, PI. Hadd. (1861) 
p. 204, no. 238. 

2ij 2(55 



The specinions coUocUhI vai v l)el\vccn 25 and 35 cm. in liciylil. Tlic loaves narrow, 
2 to 2,5 mm. broad, and 1 lo X iin. long, conduplicalc, .so as lo give Ihem an appe- 
arance of being onlj' about 1 nnn. liroad, always completely entire, with short, 
appressed hairs. The pedicels 2 to 4 mm. long, only about half the length of the calyx. The 
whole plant of a light yellowish green. Rather common on the Abakan Steppe, espe- 
cially in open, grass-grown places, on mountain slopes, etc., where to be mot with in full 
flower, here and there already past flowering at theA)eginning of June. 

Distribution: The Caucasus (on Mount Elbruz up to 8000 ft. above sea-level), Ru.s- 
sian Turkestan, southern Siberia, from the government of Tomsk to Trans Baikal, north- 
ern Mongolia. 



'&^ 



Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 923; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 
155; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 166; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 99; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 189; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 277, no. 157; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) 
p. 206, no. 239; Kiiw.i. *.t. A.it. I (1901) p. 98. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, in the neighbourhood of cultivated fields and 
waste places; with flowers and young fruits in the middle of June. I have also collected 
the species in thickets, near Kushabar, and near Ust Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia from the Ural to the Pacific Ocean, northern Mon- 
golia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, North Africa, and North America (introduced?). 

Erysimum hlcraciifolium L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1703) p. 923; Kpu.T. <I).t. A.aT. I (1901) 
p. 98. Kriisimnm virgdliim in Ledeb. FL Alt. Ill, p. 156: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
167; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 98; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 278, 
no. 158: Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 206, no. 241. Eriisinmm Marschallianiim in Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 158; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 189 et 761. Eriisiimim slmiiiin in Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 189. 

Scattered on the Abakan Steppe and in its environs, in dry, grass-grown places, 
where I have gathered it with young flowers about the middle of June. This species occurs 
here in a form especially characterized by its narrow, nari'owly lanceolate to linear 
leaves. In the Urjankai country I have found the species near the Kamsara. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, soulh-woslern Asia, the Himalayas, Siberia, from 
the Ural to Trans I^aikal, northern Mongolia, North America. 

Camelina niicrocarpa Andrz. in DC. Syst. II, p. 517 et in Prodrom. I, p. 201; Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 177; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 176; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. AU. no. 
106;Ledeb.F!. Ross. I, p. 196 et 764: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 288. no. 168; 
KlH.i.i. <I..i. A.1T. I (1901) p. 104. 

Dispersed in the tracts about the river Abakan, in sandy meadows, in open brush- 
wood, along borders of fields, etc. Flowering and with partly ripo fruits about the middle 
of June. 

26G 



Disliilnilion: Kuiopc. cxccpl llic nortliern rcf^ions, soiilli-wcslcrn Asia to Persia 
and 1 111 Ivcslaii. muiIIiciu Siberia, caslwai'ds to al)()iil Lal^c liail<al. 

Capsflla bursa pasloiis (L.) Moencli, Mclh. (1794) p. 271; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Til. p. 
198: Tuic/.aii. Cat. Haical. no. 179; Karel. etlvirii. luuim. PI. Fl. Alt. no. Ill: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ros.s. 1, p. 1!»9 et 7M: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daluir. (1812) p. 290, no. 171; Kegel, PI. 
Radd. (18G1) p. 201. no. 227; Kpi.i.i. <I>.i. A.n. I (1901) p. 106. 

As a weed in eoin-1'ields. along road-sides, etc., very connnon between Minusin.sk 
and Kusliabar. in farm-yards in Ibe Amyl taifja. at Ust Algiac, I'st Sisti-kem, near tbe 
Kam.sara. and about llie Dora Steppe. Flowering Ibe wbole summer. 

Distribution: .\s a weed nearly all over tbe globe. 

Kapiianus Haphaiiistrum L. Spee. PI. ed. II ( 1763) p. 93.5; ]")yiiri., Cniriferae i;i. 
'I>.i. ('iiriM|i. M ,l,a.ii.ii. Jiiier. 11 (1915) p. 183. llajilutnislnuu innociiiim Murr.. Ledel). b"l. 
Ross. I, p. 22.5 (non 771). 

As a weed .scattered in fields on Ibe road Jxiwecn Minusinsk and Kusbabar; a 
few s])eeimens I bave also founti in fields, near I'sL Sisti-kem, nearly past flowering 
and witli ripe fruits in Ibe second balf of .\ugust. 

Distribution: Europe, northern Asia, Norlb America (naturalized from Europe). 

1) r o s e r ii c e a e IM'. 

Drosera rulundil'ulia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 402; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 206; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 2(H ct 773: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dabur. (1842) p. 309, no. 195; Rcgel, 
PI. Radd. (1861) p. 502, no. 267; K],i,i.i. <l).i. A.rr. I (1901) p. 12S; Diels, Droseraceae in 
Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 26 (IV, 112, 1906) p. 93. 

On .S'/j/K/f//)///;] swamps in the Amyl valley and on the Sisti-kem. between Ust Algiac 
and Tsheberlasb. In full flower at the beginning of August. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia to Kamtchatka, Sakhalin, Jajjan, North America, 
Greenland. 

Drcscra anglica Iluds. Fl. Angl. ed. II (1778) p. 135; Turczan. Cat. Raical. no. 207; 
l,>i,i.i. «l>.i. A.iT. I (1901) p. 129; Diels, Droseraceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 26 (IV, 112. 
1906) p. 96. 1). longifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 403 pro parte; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, 
p. 261; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 309. no. 196: Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. .503. 
no. 268. 

Scattered on .S7»/(af//H//;;-s\\amps in tbe subalpine taiga territory on tbe .\niyl. 
V Distribution: Subarctic parts of Europe and Asia, in Siberia eastw'ards to Kamt- 
chatka. Sakhalin. .lapan, North .\nieiica. the Sandwich Islands. 

Drosera intermedia Hayne in Schrader's Neues Journ. I (1800) p. 37: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ro.ss. L p. 262; Diels. Dnisrrdccae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 26 (IV. 112. 1906) p. 83. 
In,S7>/(a.r//((/;ji-swam|)s in the Amyl valley. 

Dislribulion: Europe, southern Siberia. Xorlli .\nierica. tbe West Indies. 

2(37 



V r a s s II 1 a c e a c DC 

Bulliarda aquatica (L.) DC. in Bull. Soc. Philom. no. 19, p. 1 el Prodiom. Ill (1828) 
p. 382; Lcdel). Fl. Ross. II, p. 172. 

On an i.slct in llie river Abakan, near the nioulh, on moist river-banks etc. The 
species seemed to be very rare in Sil)eria, or has at any rale been overlooked. 

Distribution: Europe, southern Siberia (Minusinsk), North America. 

Sedum quadrifidum Pallas, Reise Russ. Reich. Ill, p. 25, 33 et 316, ajjp. \x 73U. 
no. 90; Ledcb. Fl. All. II. p. 196; Turczan. Cat Baical. no. 476; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 177; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 247, no. 465; Maximowicz, Crassiilac. Asiae Orient, p. 
729 (Mel. Biol. B. XI); Kpi,i.i. *.t. A.it. II (1903) p. 455. 

In the Altaian, above the limit of tree vegetation, at an altitude of about 1900 m. 
above sea-level, among sand and gravel. Flowering, and partly past flowering at the 
end of July. The specimens taken are from 6 to 7 cm. high; the stamens somewhat shor- 
ter, more rarely of the same length as the petals. 

Distribution: Northern Russia, the Thian-Shan. Turkestan, Tibet, the Himalayas, 
the Altai, the Sayansk district, norllu'rn Mongolia. 

Sedum Rhodiola (L.) DC. Prodrom. Ill (1828) p. 401; Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 194 in 
nota; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 470; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 179; Maxim. Crassiilac. Asiae 
Orient, p. 734; Kptr.i. 'I>.t. A.it. II (1903) p. 45(). Sedum elongaltim Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 
193; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 243, no. 461. 

In the Altaian, at altitudes of aliout 2000 m. above sea-level, on moist and shady 
slopes with a northern aspect, in places gro\\n with mosses and lichens, accompanying 
Cavdamine hcllidifulia, Papaver niidicauU' var, xanlhopclahim, Valeriana capilala, Raiuiii- 
ciiliis fridigiis, etc. In full flower at the end of June. 

The leaves in the .specimens collected, especially the upper ones, are comparatively 
narrow, nearly lanceolate, or more equally narrow throughout their length, to 30 mm. 
long, and 6 mm. broad, the summit rather sharply pointed, the margin in the upper half 
rather deeply indented. Thus, it agree rather perfectly with /S elongaiiim maxim. 

Distribution: Northern and arctic regions of Europe, alpine regions of the middle 
Europe, northern Asia to Kamtchatka, Turkestan, the Altai, the Sayansk district, the 
government of Irkutsk and Trans Baikal, Ya!;ulsk, northern Mongolia, northern Man- 
chooria, Sakhalin, Canada. 

Sedum populifolium L. ¥\\. Supplem. p. 242; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 189; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. II, p. 180; K])hi.i. <I).i. A.ii. 11 (1903) p. 457. 

On moist, shady, mossy cliffs on the banks of the Bei-kem, in several places be- 
tween Utinski porog and Buluk. In flower, and with partly ripe fruits, at the end of August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia (eastern part of the governments of Tomsk and 
Yeniseisk), northern Mongolia. 

268 



Sediim purpiircum (I-.) Link, Imuuii. Horl. licrol. I (1821) p. i:57: Lcdt-l). Fl. All. 11, 
p. I'JO: Lc(kl). IL Uoss. II. p. 181: i;pi,i.i. 'I'.i. A.n. II {VMA) p. l.")8. Scdiiin Tclcphiiiin 
L. v;\i-. purpiiiriin) I> , M;i\iin. ('nissiihic. Asiac Orient, p. 752. Scdiim Tclt'pliiiini L. /i 
Turczan. I'i. Hair:il.-!);iliiii-. (KSII) p. 2ir,, no. lOl. 

Hallicr conunon in sonicw lial drv meadows, riccpicnliy in open laiX'h-forcsl, clc 
ai)onl liio Si.sli-kinn. at Tshehertasli, and I'st Si.sti-kcni. 

IMslriiuilion: Kuro])i' (in Norway, Snndalsoron, I'hint/ lUl 1, introdnci'd?). Siiji-- 
ria. noilliwards to al)ont 02 north lat. (the gov(M innent of Tol)olsk) and eastwanl.s to 
Kanik'iialka. norliuin .Mongolia, Manchoona, norliu in CJiina, Sakliaiin, Japan. 

Si-duni Aizoon !.. Spec. PL ed. II (1702) p. 017: Ledeh. Fl. All. II. ]). liKJ; Tuiczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 472; Ledeb. FL Ross. II. p. 183; Tuiczan. Fl. liaical.-Dahur. (1841) p. 21."). 
no. '102: Maxim. Crassiilar. Asiae Orient, p. 750; I>|ii,i.i. 'P.i. A.n. II (1!K);5) p. &.). 

On the Sisti-kem, on div slo|)es facing south and overgrown with cojise \\ood, 
rather common, antl in full bloom at the end of July. Form of leaves broadly lanceolate. 

Distribution: Throiighoul Siberia, from liu' I'ral and .\ilai lo Kamlchalka, north- 
ern Mongolia (var.), eastern Asia (Manchooria. norlhein and ci'nlrai China. C.orea), Sak- 
halin. Japan. 

Seduin hybriduiu L. Spec. PL ed. II (1702) p. 017: Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. l'.)2: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 173: Karel. et Kiril. linum. PL M. All. no. M.'icJ: Ledeb. F'l. Ross. II. ]>. 
183; Turczan. M. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 24.'). no. 103; Maxim. Crassiilac. Asiae Orienl. p. 
701; ],-|, 1.1.1. <\K\ A.M. II (1903) p. 460. 

On the Abakan Steppe, between Askys and Ust Kamuishlo, on dry, sloping cliffs, 
and near the Bei-kem, at Ivst Sisti-kem. With young flowers in the second half of June, 
wilh flowers and fruil aboul Ihe middle of Augu.st. 

Distribution: 4'lie I'lal, Ihe Caucasus, Russian 4"urkeslan, southern Siberia, east- 
wards to aboul Lake Raikal. northern Mongolia. 

Colylfdon spiiiosa L. Spec. PL ed. 11 (1702) p. 01."); Maxim, (jussiilac. Asiae Orient, 
p. 725: Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. 2(K): Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 467; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PL 
Fl. All. no. 355. ['lubilicus spinosiis DC. Prodrom. III. p. 400; Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. II, p. 174: 
Turczan. L'l. Raical.-Dalun . (1844) p. 241, no. 4.59: i.'pi.i.i. >\>a. A.n. II (1903) p. 1.52. 

Young, globular lo ovoid clusters of leaves, only from 2 lo 3 cm. high, gathered by 
me on dry, sandy slopes on the Yenisei, between Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk, at the 
beginning of June. Besides, rather frccpient al Fst Sisti-kem, in diy, .sandy i)laces. on 
sandy declivities towards the Bei-kem, etc.. where collected in full flower in the middle 
of Augu.st. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, Russian Turkestan, the Thian-Shan, the Altai, 
southern Siberia, easlwaids to Mancliooria, Mongolia, .southwards lo weslein Tibet and 
Gobi. 

269 



S a X i f r a g a c I' a e V KxNT. 

Saxii'raga androsacea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 571; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 225; 
Ki)w.T. tl>.i. A.1IT. II (1903) p. 479; Engl, et Irnischer, Saxifrag. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 67 
(1916) p. 302. 

/. unifJora Wulf. in Fl. Nor. ed. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien (18.58) p. 464; Krylow, PI. Altai- 
cae Novae II. no. 13 in Acl. Hort. Pelropol. XXI (1902) p. 16; Engl, et Irmscher, 1. c. 
p. 304. 

The leaves are very small, entire, and, as the whole plant for the rest, slightly glan- 
dular hairy, especially so along the margin. The stems are from 3 to 3,5 cm. high, uni- 
florous, and furnished, with generally 2 narrt)w, oblong, entire, slightly 3-nerved leaves, 
from 3 to 7 mm. long, and rounded at the top. 

On moist cliffs in the Altaian, at an altitude of about 1900 m. above sea-level: with 
flowers at the end of July. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe, the Altai and the Sayansk district. 

Saxifraga oppositifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 575: Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 21; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 487; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. II, p. 204; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1844) p. 259, no. 476; Kpuj. <I>.i, A.Tr.TI (1903) p. 471. 

In the Altaian, above the limit of tree vegetation, on humid rocks; with flowers at 
the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine tracts of Europe, arctic islands, arctic and alpine 
regions of Siberia, northern Mongolia, Tibet, North America. 

Saxifraga sibirica L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 577; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 121; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 489: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 369; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. 11, p. 219; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 263, no. 480; Kpbi.i. $.t. A.it.II (1903) p. 477; Engl, 
et Irmscher, Saxifrag. in Engl. Pflanzeni'. H. 67 (1916) p. 262. 

var. eusibirica Engl, et Irmschei-, 1. c. j). 264. 

Ihe specimens collected have comparatively low stems, only about 6 cm. high. The 
basal leaves about 1 cm. in diameter, always 5-lobed, the bracts cordiform. Petals 1 cm. 
long, 2 K' times as long as the sepals. Stems, pedicels and petioles pubescent, especially so 
on die upper pails, the blade generally more or less glal)rous, f. vcslUa P>ngl. et Ikmscukr- 

Rather common in the Altaian, in humid places, at altitudes of about 2000 m. 
above sea-level: in full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Eastern and south-eastern Europe, Caucasia and south-western Asia 
to Turkestan, the Himalayas, Tibet, Cashmere, through southern Siberia (the Altai, the 
Sayansk district, Baikal, Trans Baikal) to the Amoor Province and Manchooria, northern 
Mongolia. 

Saxifraga punctata L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 574; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 118: Ledeb. 
Fl. Boss. II, p. 215; K]ii,i.t. <I>.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 476; Engl, et Irmscher, Saxifrag. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 67 (1916) p. 9. Saxifraga aeslivali.'i Fisch. el Meyer, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petro- 

270 



pol. I (liS;)r)) [t. ;w: lurcv.an. Cal. Ikiical. lu). I'JS; Tuiczau. I'l. liaical.-Daliur. (1?<1I) p. 
269, no. 487. 

ixir. lypica Kiif^l. d li iiisclni-, I. c. p. 10. /'oinui. 

Ilic spociinens coUoded of llii.s widely di.sliil)iile(l and iniuli varying species have 
mostly ralluM- l)n)ad and Hal filanienl.s, nearly lif^uliforni. al)oiil one lliird sliorlcr than Hie 
petals, with anllu is of a biinistonc colour. Petals obovate, of a white colour from 2 to 
2,.'S mm. liiiiy, 2 lo \\ times as long as the .sepals. The pedicels arc 5 to 8 mm. long. 
Scape 1.') to ijO cm. iiii^li. in liic upper part markedly glandular liairy. The inflorescence 
■1 to 5 cm. Ioiil;. ovoid, and willi rather widely spreading i)ranilH's, not uiilV((|ii(nHy rect- 
angularly. Nundxr ol capsules 2 or !! Lowest bract from 0.5 to 0,7 cm. long, linear to 
lanceolate, the up|)i'r ones smaller, from 2 to 'A cm. long, and linear. LcMigth of the jjctioles 
;5 to I times the diameter of the blade, liie uuu'gins of which arc lomparatively coar.sely 
iiuicnli'd. gi'ncrailN with from 20 to 2.5 teeth, measuring ainuit '.'> nun. in length and 
jiri'adlii. and iiic sunnnil slightlv pointi'd. 

in the .Mlaian. at aUiludes of about 2()00 ni. aliovc sca-lcvel. in moist, moss-clad, 
shady ])laces. in full flower at tlie end of .July. 

Distribution: I''rom eastern Russia, Ihroughout Siberia, to easli'rn .\sia. North 
America. 

Saxil'raga crassil'olia L. Spec. IM. ed. II (17112) p. 57;): Letlcb. Fl, .Vll. 11, p. 117: 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 192; Lcdeb. Fl. lloss. II. p. 214: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1841) p. 264, no. 481: i;i,i,i.i. «l).i. A.n. II (I'.iO.'J) p. 475. Snxifraga coidifolia Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 367. 

Rather common about the Upper Amyl, in subalpine wooded regions on mountain 
slopes, etc. as well as in the Altaian, where ascending to altitudes of about 16 — 1700 m. 
above seadevcl, often associated with Biiiihi roliiiulifolid. TrdUitis (isidliciis, etc. Gathered 
in full flow t'r in second half of .lul\. I'lie s])ccimcns colli'cli'd aic coni|)letely glabrous, the 
leaves obovate. Hie niaigin t rcnalc-dentate. llie j)etals arc of a light red, to 14 mm. long. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, from the southern ])arl of the government of Tomsk 
lo ihe southern ])arl of the government of Yakutsk, the Yablonoi mountains, northern 
Mongolia. 

Saxifraga nielaleiica Fisch. Cal. llort. Gorenk. etl. I (1808) j). 99; Lcdeb. Fl. Alt. II. 
p. 119; lYuczan. Cat. Baical. no. 497: Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 20; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. H, p. 212; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 266, no. 484; Engl, el Irmsclier. Sarifrag. in l*mgl. 
Pflanzcnr. H. 67 (1916) p. 56; K|,i,i.i. 'Im. A.n. II (1903) p. 473. 

Rather common in the .\ltaian. at altitudes of about 2000 m. above sea-level, in 
moist j)lace.s. among mosses and lichens. In full flower at the end of .Inly. Height of .scape 
varying from (i to 20 cm., and number of flowers from 2 to 10, generally from 4 to 8. 

Distribution: The Altai and Sayansk districts, northern Mongolia. 



Saxifraga Hiiculiis L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 675; Ledeb. Fl. .\U. II. p. 121; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. II, p. 210; Tuiczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 270, no. 488; Kptiji. $.t. A.tt. II 
(1903) p. 473: Engl, et Irmscher. Saxifrag. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 67 (1916) ]). 110. 

In the Altaian, near the limit of tree vegetation, in moist, moss-grown places. In 
full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, arctic islands, Caucasia, Turke- 
stan, arctic Siberia, the Altai and Sayansk districts, Trans Baikal. Tilxl, the Himalayas, 
Cashmere, Mongolia, western China, North America. 

Saxifraga stellaris L. Fl. Lapp. (1737) no. 175 et Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 572. 

snbspec. comosa lielzius. Fl. Scand. Prodrom. (1779); Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 211; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 268, no. 486; Engl, et Irmscher, Saxifrag. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 67 (1916) p. 81. Saxifraga foliosa R. Br., Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 496. 

This species is spread in the Altaian, in places grown with mosses and lichens, here 
and there accompanying Phgllodoce coerulea, and tlie like. All of the specimens collected 
have the stems comparatively low, from 5 to 10 cm. high. The basal leaves are from 0.8 
to 1,5 cm. in length, cuneately tapering towards the base, the summit 5-toothed, with a 
large and broad median tootli, and 2 smaller and narrower ones on each side. The in- 
florescence is short and narrow, 1 to 2,5 cm., rarely to 3,5 cm. long, and generally consist- 
ing of from 3 to 7 shortly stalked or sessile gemmae, the leaves of which ai'e ovate, ses- 
sile, from 1 to 2 mm. long, of a green colour. Generally one solitaiy flower is to be found 
at the top of the scape, mostlv more or less incompletely developed, and sterile, 
or tlie top flower wanting altogether. The whole plant is beset witli long, white, scat- 
tered hairs. The specimens collected thus seemed to be intermediate between Die forms 
eucoinosa and inimitipekda Engl, et Ihmscher, 1. c. p. 83. 

Distribution: The subspec. comosa is distributed over the arctic regions of Europe, 
arctic islands, arctic Siberia, the Sayansk mountains. North America, Greenland. 

Saxifraga bronchialis L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 572; Ledeb. ¥\. .\ll. 11. p. 124 in 
nota; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 500; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 207; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1844) p. 271. no. 490; Engl. Monogr. Saxifrag. (1872) p. 215. 

In the Altaian, on the Upper Sisti-kem. Flowering at the end of .luly. 

Distribution: Northern Russia, northern Siberia, the Altai and Savansk districts. 
Trans Baikal, eastwards to Kamtchatka. North .\mcrica. 

Chryscsplenium nudicaule Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt II. p. 114; Bunge, Enum. .\lt. p. 
20; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 226; Maxim. Diagn. Plant. Nov. Asiat. in Mel. Biol. IX (1877) p. 
759; Franchet, Monogr. Chrijsosplpnitim in Nouv. .\rch. Mus. Hist. Natur. 3. Ser. (1890) 
no. 2; Kpbu. <I).t. A.it. II (1903) p. 480: Ilciqiacni;;!, lui.Mm'.inMi.unhiH ivh 'k'AWiii.o. tl).i. Aaiar. 
Pocciu 7 (1915) p. 13. 

In moist, shady places in the Altaian, near the limit of tree vegetation. Nearly past 
flowering at the end of July. 

272 



l)isUil)iili()ii: Hiissiaii 'liirUi'shui, tlir Tliian-Sliaii. llic Allai and Sayaiisli dislricls, 
noilhcni Moiif^olia, KaiulclialUa, norllieni tUiiiia. 

Chrysospli'iiiuin altcMiiit'olitiin L. Spec. PI. cd. II (17()2) p. 5()'J; Lcdeb. Fl. \\[. II, p. 

11.'): Turczaii. Cal. Haicai. no. .")(»2; Lcdoh. l'"l. Ho.ss. 11. |). 'I'liV. TiiiTzaii. Fl. liaical.-Daiim-. 

(1811) p. 272, no. lUl: Maxim. Diagn. I'lanl. Nov. Asial. l.\ (l<S77j p. 7(J0; Fraiuliol, 

Monoor. Chnisospleniiim (kSiK)) p. KMi; Kpi.i.i. <1m. A. it. II (1903) p. 4S{); llciqiacuiiii, 

liaMiH'.in\|i;iii;i.lM K I. 'l'(M'irin;i i, <l'.i. .\;;iai. i'lii-ciii 7 (litlij) J). -'2. 

Scallercd in nioisl, shady places in llie laiga ahoul liic rppci- Amyl. and near I'sl 

.\!i;iac. Past ilowciing in the second half of July. 

Disliihulion: Furope, except the most southern jjoilions. arclic islands, llie Cau- 
casus, arctic and wooded regions of Siberia, norlhciii Mongolia. Ihc Himalayas, Man- 
chooria. norlhein China. Saklialiii. .lapan, North America. 

Pariiassia palustris L. Sj)ec. Pi. ed. II (17()2) |). iJOl: Ledeh. V\. All. I. |). 127: Tuiczan. 
Cat. Baicai. no. 2()S; Karel. (-1 Kiril. I'.num. PI. Fl. Ail. no. ]K\: Leddi. 1"1. I'.oss. I, p. 2(i2; 
Tnrczan. Fl. I'.aical.-Dahur. (1842) p. ;>10. no. I',t7: Hegel, Pi. P.add. (18()1) p. .")()1: Kpi.i.i. 

<u.i. A.1T. 11 (i'.K);5) p. 18;;. 

In moist meadows and in liiickel.s. scalteied along the river .\l)akan and in llie 
subalpine taiga territory about the river Amyl. at Kushabar and Kalna, rather com- 
mon at Ust Algiac. In the .Altaian found by me in moist, grass-grown places, to above the 
limit of li-ee vegetation. Ihv species begins flowering in tiie middle of .lunc. 

Distrihiilion: Europe, the Caucasus, soulli-western Asia to Turkestan, the llima- 
hiyas and Tibet, arctic and wooded regions of Siberia, nortiiern Mongolia, northern C.hina, 
northern Corca, Sakhalin, ,Iapan. North America. 

Ribcs pelraeum AVulf. in Jacq. Miscell. 11, p. 36: Maxim, in Mel. Biol. IX. p. 230; 
Ledeh. Fl. Ro.ss. II. p. 198; lledlund in Bot. Not. 1901, p. 106; K,,„i.i. 'l>.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 
46.5. Ribcs Hicbcrsslcinii Berk. lledlund in Bot. Not. 1901, p. 105. Ribrs airopuvpuieiun C. 
A. Meyer in Lcdeb. Fl. All. 1. p. 268. Ribcs Irislc Bunge, Enum. All. j). 11; Turczan. Cat. 
I'.aical. no. 181; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1814) p. 2.53, no. 470. 

Scattered on the banks of the rivers Amyl and Bei-kem. near the Dora Steppe, and 
between Ust Sisti-kem and lUduk. especially in moist, moss-grown and shady places, and 
in humid chinks of rocks, near the river. With ripe fruits in the second half of August. 
Young twigs of this jilant observed by me as used for pipe-stems by the natives, after the 
pith being removed. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, Caucasia, south-western Asia, Siberia to the Amoor 
Province, Manchooria, norlhein Mongolia, the Himalayas, Sakhalin, Japan. 

Ribes piibesccns lledlund, Bot, Not, (1901) p. 100; Kpi.i.i. -t'.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 464. 
Ribes riibriiin L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(i2) j). 290 ex paile; Ledeh. Fl. .\lt. I, p. 267: Turczan. 
Cat. Baicai. no. 48; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 363; Ledeh. Fl. Boss. II, p. 199; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 252, no. 469; Maxim. Mel. Biol. IX, p. 233. 

273 



Coininon in Ihe I'liankai district, especially along the rivers SisU-kem and Bei-kem, 
mostly in thickets; with ripe fruits in August. 

Distriljution: Nortliern and middle Europe, the Caucasus, Turkestan, the western 
Himalayas, Siberia (in the government of Tobolsk to 67'' north lat.), eastwards to Kaml- 
chatka, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin. 



■&^ 



Ribes procunibens Pallas, Fl. Ross. II, p. 35; Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 14; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 483; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 198; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 255, no. 
473. Maxim. Mel. Biol. IX, p. 117; Kpw.i. 'D.i. A.ir. II (1903) p. 468. 

On the banks of the Bei-kem, between Cha-kul and Ust Uss, especially in moist and 
boggy places, in thickets of foliferous trees. With quite ripe fruits at the beginning of 
September. 

Distrilnilion: Throughout southern Sd) ;ria, eastwards to Manchooria, northern Mon- 
golia. 

Ribes nigrum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 291; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 269; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 486; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 364; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 200; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 254, no 471; Maxim. Mel. Biol. IX, p. 222; K].m.i. 
•I'.i. A.iT. II (1903) p. 468. 

Common in the Urjankai district, along the rivers Sisti-kem and Bei-kem, especially 
in open brush-wood or on sunny hill-sides near the rivers. The fruits ripen here about 
the middle of August and arc much ajjpreciated by bears, occurring in rather great num- 
bers in the said district. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia (in the Yenisei valley northwards to 68° north lat.), 
eastwards to Manchooria, Mongolia, China, western Asia, Turkestan. According to Hooker, 
occurring in the temperate parts of the Himalayas as well. 

Hosaccae Jiss. 

Spiraea salicifolia L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 7U0; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 393; 
4'urczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 593, no. 384; Maxim. Adnotat. Spiraeac. (Act. Hort. 
Petropol. YI, 1879) p. 209; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 15; ],-i,i,i,i. 'I'.t. A.ti. 11(1903) p. 421. 

Common in swampy grass-field, moist thicket, among mosses, and the like, on river- 
banks, etc., at Ust Sisti-kem, on the Kamsara and the Bei-kem, near the Dora Steppe. 
Held sacred by the natives of the Urjankai country. 

In part done flowering about the middle of August. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe (strayed), Siberia, to 64° north lat., 
northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, North .\mcrica (var.). 

Spiraea trilobata L. Mant. II (1771) p. 244; Maxim. Adnotat. Spiraeac. p. 197: Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. II, p. 214; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 286; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 11; 
Kpw.T. fl>.i. A.IT. II (1903) p. 420. 

274 



Uu dry, sloiiy ilrtlivilios. dry iiioiiiilaiii sides, iiiid llic like, ridlicr eominon in llic 
tracts about the river Abakan. Taken witli flowers in .luiie. 

Disliiliulioii: 'llie AiUii region, I'lirkeslaii. norllicni Ciiina. 

Spiraea media Seliinidl. Oesterr. Allg. IJaunii-. 1 (1702) ]).."):?; Maxim, .\dnotat. 
Si)iniriir j). ls7; i;|,i.i.i, (l).i, A.ii. II (1'.I0.S) p. 41'.>. Spinird ohloiiuifolia \V. et Kit. I'l. Har. 
liuiii;. ill (1.S12) |). 2(11; Ledel). Fl. Moss. 11, j). li'.. Spiidcii hiipcruifolin /i loiu/ifolid 
Ledel). M. All. II. p. 21."). .S'/j/zv/rr/ rlKimiicdnifnlid (iion. L.) Ledeb. Fl. Ro.s.s. II, ]). 11. 

Haliier connnoii on sinniv clitrs on [he mounlain sides aloni^ the liver .Vbakan, and 
between Karatus and Kushabar, near IJst Sisti-kem, and on llic Kamsara. In some places 
there appear inlermediates between Ilie lallcr and llic prcccdini^ one, proba])]v of a 
hybrid nature. Flowering in June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Kurope, Turktslan. the Tliian-Slian. Siberia, to 68K'° 
noilli lal.. norlliciii .Mont^olia. eastern Asia, Sakhalin, norlli-wcslcni .\nierica. 

Spiraea liyperieilolia L. Spec. I'l. ed. II (17()2) p. 701; Lcdeb. Fl. All. 11. p. 211; 
Turczan. Cat. Haical. no. 392; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 287; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1843) p. 592, no. 381 ; l.'pi.i.i 'Im. .\,ri. II (19(13) ]). IKi. 

t'. iijpira Maxim. .\.dnolal. Spiritrdc. p. 178. Spinwd hi] perici folia a (jenuina el fi 
mivrophijlla Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. ]). 12: / brcvifoUd Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. \^. 215. 

The leaves in the .specimens collected are comparatively narrow, to 4 mm. broad, 
and to \% cm. long, 1- or 3-ncrved, entire, glabrous on both sides. Near Ust Abakansk 
on dry, stony hills. Nearly past flowering in the second half of June. Scattered in the 
Urjankai country, e. g. on dry hills between Ust Sisti-kem and the Kamsara. 

Distribution: Middle and south-eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Persia, Siberia, north- 
wards lo about (10 north lat.. norlhcrn Mongolia. Turkestan, central .\.sia. 

Spiraea chaniaedryfolia L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 701: Maxim. Adiiolal. Spimi'ur. 
p. 186; Ledeb. Fl. All. 11. [>. 21:1: Turc/an. Fl. l'>aical.-l)alun. (1843) p. 590. no. 379; l,-|,i,i.i. 
'^.l. .\.iT. II (1903) ]). 418. 

siibspec. uhnifolia Maxim. I. c. Spirdca iilmifolia Scopoli. Fl. Carn. I, p. 379. 

Near Kalna and at I'sl Algiac. on hill-slopes facing south, in the subalpine region 
in the .\ltaian almost up lo the tree limit. Past flowering in July. 

Hy all accounts, sonic of the native tribes are said in preference to use wood oi this 
})lant for making llic drum-slicks availed of by the shamans during their religious cere- 
monies. 

Distribution: .\uslria. Siberia, lo (19 norlli lal.. northern .Mongolia, Manchooria, 
Japan. 

Spiraea alpiiia Pall. Fl. Ross. I, p. 35; Bunge, Enum. .Ml. j). 29; Turczan. Cat. Bai- 
cal. no. .390: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. I. p. 13; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1813) p. .593, no. 383; 
Maxim. Adnotat. Spintcdc. \) ls2; I.'pi.i.i. <I).i. Am. II (1903) p. 118. 

275 



In llie Altaian, near the tree limit, in grass-grown places, and in jjrush-wood. In 
flower at tlie end of July. 

Distribution: Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

Rosa acicularis Lindl. Rosarum Monogr. (1820) p. 44; Regel, Tent. Rosar. Monogr. 
(1877) p. 18; Ki,i.T.i. O.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 413. Rosa GmeliniBunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 
228: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no 236; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 7.5: Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1843) p. 638, no. 435./?oso alpinn var. Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 44. 

Very common on the islets in the rivers Abakan and Yenisei, where it begins flow- 
ering in the middle of June. The species was also found by me near Kushabar and 
scattered in the Urjankai countiy, for instance near Ust Kamsara and Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over northern and middle Europe, Siberia, 
to 70° north lat., northern Mongolia, Manchooria, Sakhalin, China, Japan. (The record 
from North America requires further authentication). 

Rosa ciniiamomea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 703; Regel, Tentam. Rosar. Monogr. 
(1877) p. 39: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 227; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 323; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ros.s. II. p. 76; Turczan. FL Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 637, no. 434; Kp^.i. *.i. A.tt. II 
(1903) p. 413. Rosa Dahiirica Pall. Fl. Ross. p. 61; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 443. 

Rather common on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, where I have collec- 
ted it with buds and full-blown flowers in the second half of June. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, the Caucasus, western Asia, Siberia, 
northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Nortli America. 

Rosa pimpinellifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) ]>. 703; Lindl. Rosarum Monogr. p. 50; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 227; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 324; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, 
p. 73; 4 urczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1857) p. XXI, no. 1419; Regel, Tentam. Rosar. Monogr. 
p. 20; Kpw.i. <l).i. Ajit. II (1903) p. 411. 

On dry hills, in thickets of foliferous trees between Karatus and Kushabar; in ])art 
past flowering about the middle of July. At Ust Kamsara with nearly ripe fruits in the 
middle of August. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia, southern Siberia, noilhern ^longolia, 
Manchooria. 

Rubus Chamaemorus L. Spec. PL ed. 11 (1762) p. 708: Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. 231; 
Turczan. Cat Baical. no. 405; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 71; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) 
p. 603, no. 396; Kpbi.i. $.1. A.rr. II (1903) p. 410. 

On Sphagimm-hop,s near Kalna, between Ust Sisti-kem and Ust Kamsara, and in 
moist, moss-grown places in the forests between the Tara-kem and the Dora Steppe. 
Already past flowering in Julv. 

Distribution: Northern Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, northern ?iIanchooria, 
Sakhalin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

276 



Riibiis iiiTlifUs I.. Spec. PI. cd. II (17(>"J) |). 7(t8: 'ruic/.iii. Ciil, r.;ii(:il. no. I((l; l^cddi. 
l''l. Hoss. 11. |). 70; 'I'tm/aii. I"l. Haiiiil.-Diiliiir. (ISI;;) p. (Ki:;. int. i'.'.if): |,"|,i.i.i. <|i.i. A.ii II 

(1903) p. -m. 

The leaflets me .^eiu'ially eoiiijjiclcly sc'silc. Hie lerniiiial Ical'lcl also included; Hie 
petals aie mostly lallier small and slioit. in part ([iiile oihieulai . i lie stem is finely pubes- 
cent, zigzaggy. slill and ligneous, of a reddisii or yellowish eolour, llic peliolis spreading, 
and with comparatively small stipules. During the flowering the sepals are ascending, 
appressecl to the corolla, while, in Scandinavian specimens, they are recui-ved. (C.omp. 
the records in Blvtt. Norges Flora III (187()) p. 1174; Hartm.w, Haiidi)()k i Si<aiul. 
Fl. (1879) p. 201; Nkiman, Sveriges Fl. (1901) p. 'Ml). On eolleetiiig this phml in the 
Sayansk district. I found Ilic al)ove character to he railicr noliceahlc It appears tiiat also 
TuRCZANiNow,!. c. has noticed tlie veiy same poiuL „Flores rosei, rarius albi. Calyces 
tempore florendi erecti, dein deflexi." In specimens of var. (jniiidi floras Lkdku. from 
Sakhalin, I have previously (H. PiuNTZ.Some Vascular Plants from Sakhalin, 1917), obser- 
ved that the calyx during the flowering was not recurved either, but appressed to the 
corolhi. This character thus seemed to be a strongly marked and pervading trait in the 
species in its eastern area. All of the specimens collected by inc in (he Sayansk tracts, 
however, belong to the typical form. 

Occurring rather abundantly in humid, gras.s- and mos.s-grown places in the sulxil- 
pine wooded tracts about the Upper Amyl, where taken by me in flower and with ripe 
fruits in the middle of .July. The plant is also dispersed over the Urjankai country, where 
1 have collected it at I'-st Algiac and on Hie Upper Sksti-kcm. 

Distribution: Northern Europe, Siberia, northern Mongolia, Manchooria, Sakhalin 
(var. p. p.), Xoilli America (var. j). p.). 

Riibus saxatilis L. Spec. PL ed. 11 (^1702) p. 708; Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. 231: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 403; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 69; Turczan. Fl. Baical-Dahur. (1843) p. 602, no. 
394: Kpi.i.i. <l>.i. A.7T. II (1903) p. 408. 

Pretty common in meadows and in thickets on the islets in the river .\bakan. and 
in brush-wood on the banks, where I have collected it with young flowers in June. .\lso 
rather frequent in the Urjankai country, where taken by me near Ust Algiac. between Ust 
Sisti-kem and the Kamsara, near the Tara-kem, and on the Dora Steppe, at Utinski as 
well as in seveial places along the Bei-kem, where the fruits ripen at Hie end of .Iul\ and 
in August. In the Altaian it ascends to above the tree limit. 

Distribution: Europe, in the southern parts only on the monntains, Siberia, north- 
wards to the .\rclic Circle, noiihern Mongolia, central .\.sia, Manchooria. North .\nierica, 
(ireenland. 

Rubus idaeus L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 706: Ledeb. Fl. .\lt. II. p. 230; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 402; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 294; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. II. p. 6.^: Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 602. no. 393; Kpi.i.i. 'I'.i. A.n, II (1903) p. 407. 



('nnimt)ii on Ihe islels in llic rivers Yenisei and Alnikan. wlioro I have taken il 
w illi flowers in June; very common in llie upper part of the Am\ i \ alley, in open ])rush- 
wood and similar jjlaces in the Urjankai counti-y, at Ust Algiac, on the Upper Sisti-kem, 
at Ust Sisti-kem on theKamsara, the rivers Tara-kem andBei-kem. The fruits ripen in July. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Siberia, northwards to 68° north lat., nortliern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia (var.). North America (var.). 

Rubus humulilolius C. A. Meyer, Fl. Prov. Wjatka p. 57: Kpi.i.i, $j. A.n. II (1903) p. 409. 

In humid thickets near Ust Kamsara, past flowering in August. 

Distribution: Northern and eastern Russia, Siberia, in the Yenisey valley north- 
wards to 69" 25' north lat.. northern Mongolia, the Amoor Province, Manchooria. north- 
ern Corea. 

Agrimoiiia pilosa Ledeb. Ind. Sem. Hort. Dorpat. Suppl. (1823) p. 1; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
11, p. 205; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 438; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 32; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1843) p. 32, no. 429: Kjili.t. <D.t. A.it. II (1903) p. 405. 

ixir. dahurica Asch.et Graebn. Synops. VI, 1 (1902) p. 422. Agrimoniti (laluuica « 
pilosd Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. I, 1 (1844) p. 1842. 

In thicket on the islets in the Y'enisei and near Kushabar. With flowers in June 
and July. In the Urjankai countiy scattered in thickets, on rocky slopes, etc., at Ust 
Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem, on the Kamsara, and at Ust Tara-kem, where I have collected it 
with ripe fruits in the first half of August. 

Distribution; Eastern portions of middle Europe, Finland. Siberia, northwards to 
6U north lat., northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, Japan, western Turkestan, 
Afghanistan, Cashmere. 

AlchemiUa pastoralis Buser, Not. Alchiniil. Cril. Nouv. (1891) p. 18; Lindberg, Nord. 
Alchemilla (1909) p. 57. 

Some specimens of this one occur in my collections from Kushabar. where collected 
in dry, grass-grown places; flowering in Julv. 

Distribution: Tiuoughout Europe, southern Siberia (Kushabar, in the Minusinsk 
district). < 

AlchemiUa minor Hudson, Fl. .\nglica ed. I (1762) p. .59; Lindberg. Nord. Alchcniilld 
(1909) p. 91. 

Some specimens of the latter are to be found in my colleclions from Kushabar, col- 
lected in dry, grass-grown places together with liie preceding one. In full flower in the 
middle of July. 

Distribution: Northern Europe, Greenland (according to Lixdukiui), and in south- 
ern Siljeria (Kushabar, in the Minusinsk district). 

Xoto. I liave, besides, in my diary recordod forms of AhhcttiiUa viilpnrh L. (coll.) from I'sf Algiac, 
Ust Sisti-kem, the Kamsara, and Ust Tara-lioiii. It seemcvd, ac-eonliiiKly, to 1h> ratlior coiiimcn in llio 
Ur,iaiil<ai i-onnlvy. 

278 



Saiif<iii.s()ii)ii ol'I'iciiKilis L. S|)cc. I'l. cd. II (17(112) p. 1(1!); Tiirczan. Cnl. Uniciil. no. 
-IK): l.cd.l). I'"l. Hoss. II, |.. -ll: '\\\\\/:\\\. V\. I!;iir;il.-I);iliui-. (IXl!'.) p. (i:',."). no. i:;!: K|,i,i.i. 
<!>.[. A.M. II (liKK)) p. KM. Siiiuiuisoflnt carnal I'i.stli. ex I. ink. iMiimi. I'laiil. Iloil. Hciol. 1 
(1820) p. HI; Lrdcl). 1"1. All. I. p. 1 II; Karel. v[ Kiril. Kmim. I'l. IL All. no. :52(). 

Vcrv c'onnnon on llic islcLs in llic i ivcr .Khakan, in sonicw lial nioi.sl meadows anti in 
thickets, wlu'ic tlic species bcfiins I'lowciiiij^ al (lie end ol .lunc I have al.so collcrlcd tlie 
species between Karaliis and Kusliai)ar, near I'sl Taia-keni, L'sl Kam.sara, and widi ripe 
fruits about the middle of August, in meadows at l^st Sisli-kem, where il is of exceediufjly 
eonnnon occiu'rence, together with (Irnliana delonsd. SpiKicd sdlici/olid, and ()tlier.s. The 
specimens vary considerably as to Ihc slia[)e ol Hie leaOets and the ienglli of liieir stalks. 
The leaflets are not always opposite, but sometimes alternate. Most of the specimens 
have very considerable auricles at liie base af Uic leaflets (var. iiuriciildid Focki: in 
IlAi.i.iKH-Woni.i'Airrii, Kocn, Synops. (1891) p. 829). 

l)istrii)ulion: Europe, the Caucasus and soulh-weslern Asia lo uorlliern Persia, Sibe- 
ria, northwards to past 71"" north lat., northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan, North 
America. 

Filipendula uhnaria (L.) Maxim. Adnolal. Spiraenc. in Acl. Iloil. I'elropoi. \ I 
(1879) p. 251; Kpi.u. <I).i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 399. .S'. Ulmaria L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 702: 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 217; Turezan. Cat. Baical no. 396; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. 
no. 289; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 18; Turezan. Fl. F.aical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 595, no. 387. 
Ulmaria peniapelala (iilib. F'l. Lithuan. V (1782) p. 236. 

Very conmion in the territory explored, in humid places, in thickels, along brook- 
sides, and the like. All over the islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, and also in moist 
places on the banks, where collected with young flower-buds in June. The species is 
also veiy common in (he Urjankai counlry, v^ here, on the mountains, ascending con- 
siderably higher than the limit of tree vegetation, the Algiac Pass, Ust Algiac, the Upper 
Sisti-kem, Ust Sisti-kem, the Kamsara, the Tara-kem, the Dora Steppe, etc. The species 
begins flowering here at the beginning of July. All of the specimens are more or less 
densely white felted on the under side of the leaves (/'. luiucnlosa Lkdicu. F'I. All. II. p. 
217). At Ust Algiac I have, besides the above form, collected some specimens distinguished 
by having the leaves partly glabrous and green underneath. These specimens are also 
characteristic in having always the peduncles and pedicels completely glabrous as \\A\. 

The dried leaves of this j^lant are sometimes used by the Soyotes — the natives of 
the Ui jankai country — for smoking, instead of tobacco. 

Dislribulion: Europe, except the arctic regions, south-western Asia, Turkestan. Sibe- 
ria, northwards lo (18 north hit., northern Mongolia. Introduced into North America. 

Filipendula liexapetala C.ilib. Fl. Lithuan. V (1872) p. 237; h'ln.i.i. «l>.i. A.n. 11 (1903) 
p. 100. Spiraea Filipcniliila L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 702; Ledeb. Fl. All. II. ]>. 218: 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 200; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. ]>. 10. 

In dry nu^idows and open brush-wood. |M'ellv conmion in llie Iraels ahoiil Ihe rivers 

•279 



Yonisci and Aliakaii. ^v]u■I■(' il l)cgins flowering al llio tnul ot Juno. The species is also 
toninion alioul Karalus and lvuslial)ai'. 

Disliilnition: Europe, south-western Asia, southern Siberia. 

Fragaria vesca L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 709; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 232; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 406; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 63; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 604, 
no. 397; KpbT.i. (D.i. A.aT. II (1903) p. 397. 

Common between Minusinsk and Kushabar and in the Amyl valley, on dry. sunny 
hill-slopes, where I have found it w itii ripe fruits in the middle of ,Iuly. Taken by me in 
the Urjankai country, near Ust Algiac, and near the mouth of the Kamsara. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, to 63° north lat., northern Mongolia, the Caucasus. 
Asia Minor, the Thian-Shan, Afghanistan, North Africa, tlie Canaries, North and South 
America. 

Fragaria viridis Duchesne, Nat. Hist. Fraisiers (1766) p. 135. Fragaria collina Ehrh. 
Beitr. zur Naturk. VH (1792) p. 26; Ledeb. Fl. Ah. II, p. 233; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
407; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 296; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 64; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1843) p. 605, no. 398; Kpbi.i. 'D.i. A.n. II (1903) p. 398. 

This .species I have met with in the tracts about the Lower Abakan. Between Ust 
Abakansk and Minusinsk I have collected it with buds and fully opened flowers at the 
beginning of June. It grows here in thicket ot Caragana arborescens, together witii Iris 
rulhenica. Solidago virgaiirea. Aster alpinns. Stellaria graminea. and others. Most of the 
specimens belong to t. lijpica A.scnKiis. et Gr.\ebn. (Synops. VI (1903) p. 655), and have 
the stems to 15 cm. high, and the young leaves densely silver-hairy. The lateral leaflets 
are wholly sessile, while the terminal leaflet frequently has a stalk 2 — 3 mm. long. The 
shape of the leaflets is somewhat vaning. ovate, or mostly oval, with a broad summit, 
neaz'ly square cut. The whole plant is beset w ith long and rather dense hairs, frequently 
of a slightly yellowish colour. 

Besides the typical form I have also collected specimens with 1 or 2 quite small 
pinnae on the petioles below the ordinary leaflets (f. subpinnata Cel.vk. Prodr. Fl. 
Boehm. (1874) p. 634) and forms with much prolonged runners, (f. flagellifera Schur, 
Enum. PL Transs. (1866) p. 186). Near Lzuik, I have collected it at the end of June, 
with half ripe fruits and much prolonged calyx-lobes, to over 1 cm. long. These speci- 
mens are also distinguished by their extraordinary floweriness. The species also occurs 
scattered in the Urjankai country, where I have observed it at Ust Kamsara and near the 
Dora Steppe. 

Distribution: Europe, the Canaries, south-western Asia to llie Thian-Slum, Siberia, 
northwards to Krasnoyarsk, northern Mongolia. 

Comarum palustre L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 718: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 62; Kpu.T. 
<I>.i. A.iiT. II (1903) p. 39;5. Pulentilla paliislris Scopoli. Fl. Carniolica ed. II (1772) p. 359; 

280 



Lc(lfl). l'"l. All. 11, p. 2:)U; 'liurziui. I'l. liaicaL-Dahur. (hSi;i) j). (i27, no. lliM. I'dlfiililht 
CoiiKdiim Ncsll., TuiTzan. Cat. Haical. no. 130. 

01 rallu'i lommoii (iccunt'iu r in llic Iravorscd regions ol sonlluTii Sihciia and llic, 
I rjankai connliy. in swampy meadows, on llie borders of lakes and swamps, and on tlie 
hanks of slow rivers. On llie rivers Abakan and Yenisei, at Kushabar, Tst Algiac, Usl 
Sisli-kem, the Kanisara, llie Tara-kem, and in llie bogs on the Dora Sleppe. In the speci- 
mens collected llie petals arc comparatively smaller and narrower than usual in Scandi- 
navian ones; they arc also broadest almost at tiic base and gradually tapering and pro- 
longed into a point u|)\\ards. The dow ny stems arc rather densely glandulous above. 

Distribulion: Northern and middle l^uro])e. Caucasia, Trans Caucasia, Armenia, 
Siberia, norllicrn Mongolia. Sakhalin, .lapan. North America, (irecnland. 



Polentilla frulioosa L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 709; Wolf. ISIonogr. Gall. Polenlilln 
in lliblioth. P.olanica If. 71 (1908) p. .").">: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 2:51: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
IKS: Karel. cl Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 297: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. lil; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (IHli)) p. ()2."). no. 121: i;|n,i.i. «l).i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 370. 

Veiy common along the banks of the river Amyl. on cliffs ami in stony places 
which are sometimes inundated. Very common in the Urjankai country, for instance 
at Ust Algiac and Tshernoretska, in grass-grown places at Usl Tara-kem and on the ITu- 
kem, near Bjelosarsk, where it usually does not attain a greater height than 'A — 1 m. The 
species flowers here in July. There seemed to occur all intermediates between van vul- 
garis Wii.i.n. (Herb. e\ Scni.Kcnri). in Mag. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berlin VII (1810) p. 285) and 
the following variety. 

ixir. tenuifolia Lehm. Revis. Pvlenl. (1856) p. 17: Wolf, 1. c. p. .58. 

Rather typically develojied specimens have been collected by me on the river .\ba- 
kan, near Uibat. 

Distribution: The British Isles, southern Sweden. Russia, Siberia, northwards to 
67^ 25' north lat., northern Mongolia, south-western and central .\sia, eastern Asia, Sak- 
halin, Japan, North Anu-rica. 

Potentilla bifurca L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 711: Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. Polenlilln 
p. 62: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 245; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 419; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 303: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. II, p. 43: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1813) ]i. 613. no. 408; 
Kpi.i.i. 'ki. A. 11. 11 (1903) p. 372. 

This .species is rather frequent in the tracts about the river .\bakan. especially on 
the steppes, in dry meadows, on open, grass-grown and dry declivities, where 1 have col- 
lected it flowering and partly past flowering in June. In August with ripe fruits near U-st 
Sisti-kem, Ust Tara-kem, and at Bjelosarsk. The specimens collected exhibit several 
variations, which, however, may be grouped into the following 2 varieties: 

imr. typica Wolf, 1. c. p. 64. P. bifurca « major Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IT, p. 43. 

27 281 



Tliis one is coniparalivclv low. wilh ascending stems, and (he \vliole plant is rather 
densely pnhernlent. The leaves are i'retpienliy 1- to (i-divided. antl the leai'lels, the shape of 
whieh is ovate-lanceolate, twice to four times as long as broad, to 20 mm. long, and 6—7 
mm. broad, opposite or alternate, a character varying even in the very same plant. The 
leaflets are generally entire, more rarely 2-cleft at the summit, both of which shapes may 
sometimes be met with in the very same individual. Some specimens approaching /. gla 
hrala. have the upper sides of the leaves completely glabrous, the veins beneath, and also 
the petioles and .stems only sparingly pubescent. The floweriness is very varying, and 
the colour of the leaves changes between a deep green, with lighter under sides, and 
nearly bluish green. 

var. canescens Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 44; Wolf, 1. c. p. 65. 

This variety, which is distinguished by being densely tomentose-canescent and by 
having leaves with rather numerous, small, broader, approximate pinnae and compa- 
ratively small flowers, I have found on di^ declivities on the steppes between Minusinsk 
and l^st Abakansk. Flowering at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: Eastern, central, and southern Russia, westwards to Roumania, Asia, 
except the extreme south. 

Potentilla niultifida L. Spec. PI. ed. 11(1762) p. 710; Wolf. Monogr. Gatt. Poleniilla 
p. 154; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 245; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 424: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 42; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahnr. (1843) p. 619. no. 414. 

var. oriiithopoda (Tausch) Wolf, 1. c. p. 156. P. miillilkla /i nmjor Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
II, p. 43 p. p.; Kpbi.i. <D.T. A.1T. II (1903) p. 376. 

Common on the Abakan Steppe, on sunny, rocky slopes, in dry meadows, and the 
like, where the species begins flowering in the second half of June. In the Urjankai 
country I have found the species on the steppes about the Ulu-kem, from Bjelosarsk 
westw'ards towards Cha-kid, where the sj^ecimens were past flowering at the end of 
August. 

var. angiistifolia Lehm. Monogr. Polenlill. (1820) p. 64; Wolf, 1. c. p. 156. P. malli- 
fida tc minor Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 43; Kpu.i. <I>.i. A.iiT. II (1903) p. 376. P. lenella Tur- 
czan., Karel. et Kirii. Fnum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. ;S02: Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (XUW) p. 
620, no. 415. 

Scattered on the steppes about the river Abakan, in dry gra.ss-field, on dry rocks, 
and, as it seemed, sometimes in somewhat saliferous soil, for instance near Ust 
Kamuishto. In flower in the middle of June. 

Distribution: In Europe in the western Alps, Lapland, Spitzbergen, northern Russia, 
temperate parts of Asia, in Siberia northwards to 66° north lat.. North America? 

Potentilla sericca L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 710: Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. Potentilla p. 
161; Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 242; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 427; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 41, 
Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 621. no. 417; Kpbi.i. «I>.i. Ajit. II (1903) p. 374. 

282 



ixir. i<t'iniiiia I'l :mlv. luuiiii. 1*1. Soiii;. ( li^liO - (WS) no. '.VM'>; Woll'. I. c. p. 1()2; l."|ii.i.i. 1. c. 

'I'lu' sprriiiHiis tolh'ilod :\rr rs|)Cfi:illy di.stiiiLiuisluMl by haviiif,' liic leaves .'>- to <S- 
piiinalc. wilii nciv a])|)i()\imalc |)iiiiuic. 1 lu' u|)|)(r pinnae are laryesl, and decrease in 
size down Ilic raeiiis. 'I'lic inrisions ol' llic pinnae neaiiy icacli llic vein: llie se^nienis 
are linear, very fine and nai row. (),."> I nun. iiroad, willi dislinclly recurved margins, and 
subobtuse snniniils. Tlie leaves are denseiv w iiite-])nl)e.scenl on l)otli sides. Of common 
occurrence on Ibe dry Devonian sandstone dill's on llie AbaUan Stej)pe. In full flower in 
the second half of .Inne. 

Disli-iliulion: l^aslcrn lUissia ( 1*(M m. Orenhurj^). Sibciia to 'I'l-ans I'.aikal. ccnlral 
Asia, the Caucasus, and .\i uienia? 



Poleiililla sooiigorica Buiujr in Lidei). 1"1. .\lt. 11. p. 211: Karei. el Kiril. I'nuni. IM. 
Fl. .Ml. no. :}01; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 12; Wolf. Monogr. (iatt. PalPiUilUt \^. 1. ■>•.•. l>. 
iniillicdiilisBunge in Mem. Acad. Sc. St. Pelersb. II (18:51) p. il'.l p. p. 1>. sericca /i luiilli- 
ciiiilis Lcinn Hevis. PolcnI. p- 34. 

Scattered on the steppes between Minu.sinsk and U.sl Abakansk. where I have taken 
it in full flower at the beginning of .lune. 

Hesides the typical species, agreeing perfectly with lUxni; s aulhenlic specimens, 1 
have collected, on the steppes on the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk, some specimens diffe- 
ring in various respects, and which 1 enter as: 

V(ir. glandulo.sa nan. ixir. Tab. VII, Fig. i3.1 

Caiide.r crassiis, vcilidns. Ii(/nosiis lesiduis 
foliorum I'cluslnniin ablcclus. ('.(tub's niimerosi. 
Icniies. f/iacilcs. subadsccudenlcs. iniillillori. pilis 
longis, alhis, patenlibus pnrce veslili. Folia radicalid 
brevilcr pcliolabi. ttmbilii oblongc obovala, S-'i juga. 
Foliola oblonge obovata /issa. Uiciniac (wgiuhdae, 
(),r)-'2 mm. - saepissime 1-1..') mm. - bdae.apiccsid'- 
obtiisae vl marginibus dislinrte ii'i'olidi.s. sublii.i 
cdbo-lomenlo.sdc, gl(tndidislhu>is. minulis, inimero.'iis 
pmedilae, supra virides, pilis sparsis vesiitae. Slipu- 
Idcsii/J'iiscdc, mcnd'rdndfcdc. Idiiceoldtdc. apice dcii- 
miinddv in lacinias longas, fdifurmes fissae. Flores 
inimcrosi. /!?-/'/ mm. didiiwlro. Scpala dense lo- 
nienlo.sd el glnndulosd, e.rlernd (luasi spdlubdd 
nel cldvald. apice Idle rotimdidd, interna fere 
tiidngnldrid, deun\intdd, e.vlernis longiora. Pelidit 
jldvd uboiuitd pel eorddld. anlire leviler em(irgin<dd. Sliuuiiid el cnrpelld ul in specie li/pica. 

In the shape of the leaves this variety differs distinctly from the tyi)ical P. soun- 
gorica, especially so in the narrower, linear, rather approximate segments of the leaflets, 
moreover, in having the under sides of Ihe leaves denseiv while-felled and with dislinci- 




l-"iij. '.>i. I'olciililhi .woiH/orica Bcnce 

v;ir. iilamiulosa nov. var (' V. Flower 

seen Iroiii below. 



283 



ly revolute margins, llic stems and Ihc petioles arc furnished with long, white, spreading 
hairs, several mm. long, which all of them are characters recalling, to a certain extent. 
P. scricni. and not to be found in Hi ncie's authentic specimens of P. soongoricd. which 
I had the opportunity to see in the Herbarium of the Imperial Botanical Gardens of Peter 
the Great in Petrograd. The specimens are remarkably flowery, and the diameter of the 
individual flowers, varying between 12 and 14 mm., also considerably exceeds that of 
the typical P. soongoiica Bvkge. The outer sepals are broader, nearly clavate, not linear, 
as in the typical P. soongnrica. A rather rich material of the latter variety has been col- 
lected by me on the steppes on the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk, where in incipient flow- 
ering at the beginning of June. 

Distribution: The species is distributed over Turkestan, Dzungaria, the Altai region, 
Mongolia, northern China. 

Potentilla sibirica Wolf in Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. VI (1904) p. 698; Wolf, 
Monogr. Gatt. Polentilla p. 188. P. pennsglixtnica Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 40; var. genuina 
Wolf, 1. c. p. 189. P. slrigosa Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 237; Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 30; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 617, no. 4i;i. P. pcnnsglvanica var. slrigosa Lehni. 
Monogr. Polenlill. p.fto; KpM.i. il).i. A.n. 11 (tiiU3) p. 880. P. pennsijlvanica a Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. II, p. 40. 

The specimens collected always have the margins of the leaves much revolute. 
Rather common about the river Abakan, in open thickets of foliage trees, in the outskirts 
of forests of foliferous trees, etc. With some young flowers, but as yet chiefly with flower- 
buds in the middle of June. 

Near Ust Kamuishto I have collected some individuals of a ratlicr vigorous form, 
the sepals of which are rather densely beset with yellow, glandular hairs. In the shape of 
the flower and the vegetative shoot for the rest, especially so in the leaves, distinctly 
felted underneath, with markedly revolute margins, the form agrees perfectly with P. sibi- 
ricd. while the glandulous sepals and the markedly spreading, long, white hairs of the 
stem and the petioles, albeit scattered, are indicative of some connection with /'. kuttt- 
celifolia. As the specimens are as yet so young, without fully opened flowers, I have 
not been able to examine the carpels. According to Woi.k, 1. c. p. 316, the bastard be- 
tween the said species did not seem to be unfrequent in Siberia, and the above-mentioned 
specimens seemed to have to be referred to this combination. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, Siberia, to Trans Baikal, Turkestan, Mongolia. 

Potentilla nivea L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 715; Wolf, Monogr. (iatt. Polentilla p. 
233; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 260; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 408; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 314; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 57: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 606, no. 399; 
Kpi.i.i. tl).i. A.TT. 11 (1903) p. 389. 

i'ar. elongata W^olf, 1. c. 

In the Altaian, at an altitude of about 1900 m. above sea-level, in stoiiy and grass- 
grown places. Flowering at the end of July. 

2S4 



/;a/-.vuli<iins Srlilcihl. el C.liam. (s. aiiij)!.) in Liiiiiaca II (1827) p. 21 : Woll". 1. v. \). 'IM',. 

In Ihe lowland lu-ar Minusinsk, in somewhat oj)en pUufs. in foicsl of larch, inter- 
inini^k'd with diviTs i'oliai^e trees. The specimens eollccled heioiiq lo /'. nutjor '\'\m:/.\\. 
Fl. Baieal.-Dahur. (181;)) p. GOG. 

Disliiliulioii: The species is disliihiiU'd over arctic luiiojx' and in llic uKninlain 
regions of middle luiropc, Siberia, northwards to 71 20'. .Mongolia, central .\sia, the Cau- 
casus. Norlh .\nu'rica, (Ircenland. Tlic variety rloiif/ald occuis in middle ,\sia (Turke- 
stan. I'amir. norlhern Mongolia): the variety vnhjiiris in the lower regions of Siberia. 

Potenlilia tanacelifolia Willd. Herb, ex Schlecht. Mag. Nat. Fr. Ikilin, VII (181G) p. 
28G: Ledeb. I'l. lioss. II. p. WW. Wolf. .Monogr. (.all. Pnlmlillti p. 'M 1: lurczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Daliur. (KSl;'.) p. Gl."). no. Ill; 1;|,m,i 'Im. A.m. II ( 1<K);5) p. ;57.S. /'. Filiprndiihi Turczan. 
(.'.at. Haical. no. 422. 

In dry. grass-grown places in thicket of Salix. on an islet in Ihe Yenisei, near Ust 
.\bakansk. Some specimens of this one, as yet flowerless, have been collected bj' me at 
the beginning of .June. It can, however, even in this ])hase of development, J)e distingui.s- 
hed from the following species, very nearly allied to it. and \\hich. for the rest, it re- 
sembles nniili in external habitus. 

Distribution: From the .Vltai region through southern Siberia to the western por- 
tions of the Amoor Province, Mongolia, northern Tibet. 

Polcntilla viscosa Don. Ilortus Canlabrigiensis ed. II (1800) p. 68; Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. 
Pdlrnlilht p. ;U6; Ledeb. Fl. \\l. II. p. 2:j8; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 421; Ledeb. Fl. Ro.s.s. 
II, p. 41; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. GIG. no. 412: Kpi.i.T. <]«.i. A.ir. II (1903) p. 378. 

Only a few specimens have been collected by me in dry, grass-grown meadows on 
islets in the river .\bakan, near Ust Kamuishlo. The specimens have stems 50 to 60 cm. 
high, with very scattered, short hairs, the leaves now and then nearly glabrous, but rather 
much glandulous. The leaflets are rather large, opposite, broad and ovate, 2 to 3 cm. long, 
2 to '2.'^ cm. broad, coarsely and irregularly indented at the margin, which is plane, not 
revolute. The petals, which are of a pale yellow — to judge from dried material — arc 
somewhat shorter than the equally large and glutinous sepals, subacute at the summit. 
4'he whole ])lant is, for the rest, more or less glutinous. Collected flowering in the second 
half of .lune. 1 have also observed the species near Ust Sisti-kem, Ust Tara-kem, and at 
Bjelosarsk. 

Distribution: Through Siberia, from the Ural lo Manchooria. luirthern Corea, Mon- 
golia, northern Tibet. 

Polcntilla supiiia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(.2) p. 711; Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. Polciilillii p. 
389: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. pr247; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 420; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 305; Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. II. p. 35; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 614. no. 409; 
i; 111,1.1. Mm. A.m. II (1903) p. 394. 

285 



In grass-grown places near the river Uibat, on the banks near Ust Abakansk, with 
young flowers at the end of June, and also on the Ulu-kem, between Bjelosarsk and Cha- 
kul, with ripe fruits at the end of August. 

Distribution: All over the hot and temperate regions of the norliiern hemisj)hcre; 
in Europe, northwards to Denmark. 

Potenlilla norvegica L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 715; Wolf. Monogr. Gatt. Polenlilln 
p. 401: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 258; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 412: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 36; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 610, no. 403; Kptu. *.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 394. 

var. genuina \\'olf, 1. c. 

Rather common in meadows near Kushabar, on the Amyl, and also in grass-grown 
places on the Sisti-kem, near Ust Algiac. Flowering in July. 

Distribution: In the temperate and subarctic regions of the old and Ihe new world. 
In Siberia, in the Yenisei valley, it ascends to about 62° north latitude. 

Potentilla chrysantha Trevir. Ind. Sem. Ilort. Wratislav. (1818) p. 5; Wolf. Monogr. 
Gall. Potenlilla p. 458; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 253; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 309; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 49; Kptu. <l)j. A.it. II (1903) p. 38.S. P. olopetala Turczan. Cat. Bai- 
cal. no. 415: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 612, no. 406. 

var. asiatica Wolf, 1. c. p. 462. 

In rather dry meadows and thickets on the .\bakan Steppe, near Askys. Flowering 
and past flowering in the middle of June. On the Lower Sisti-kem, and near Ust Tara-kem, 
on grass-grown cliffs, near the river. Nearly past flowering in the middle of August. 

Distribution: The s])ecies is distributed over south-eastern Europe, Siberia, noiih- 
wards to about 68 'l" north latitude, and eastwards roughly to Trans Baikal, northern 
Mongolia, Turkestan. The variety asiatica is restricted to the Altai region, Turkestan, and 
western Mongolia. 

Potentilhi gelida C. A. Meyer, Ind. PI. in Cauc. et ad Mare Casp. Collect. (1831) p. 
167.; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 410; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 313; Wolf, 
Monogr. Gatt. Potentilla p. 535; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 59; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1843) p. 608, no. 401; Kpbi.i. (ki. A.it. II (190;>) p. 3s7. P. grandifJora Bunge in Ledeb. 
Fl. All. 11, p. 259 (non L.). 

var. gemiina Wolf. 1 c p. 536. 

In the Altaian, in moist places grown with mosses and lichens, at an altitude of 
about 1900 m. above sea-level, near the perennial snow. In full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia, 
south-western and central Asia to Cashmere and western Tibet. 

Potentilla opaciforniis Wolf in Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. VI (1904) p. 802; Wolf, 
Monogr. Gatt. Potentilla p. 573. P. opaca Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 255; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. 
PI. Fl. Alt. no. 311; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 4!i. P. rul)ens Zimmet.. Kin.i.i. «l).i. A.n. II 
(1903) p. 386. 

286 



Near I'sl Ali;ilv;msk. in diy. _t;riis.s-i^ri)\\ ii jjlaics, jiiid on cliffs near I'ibal. Nearly past 
flowiMiiiq in till' mitkllc o! .luiic. 

DistrihiUioiK Soulliciii and casUi ii liiissia, soulli-wcslcni Asia, Siberia, cxct'pl llio 
easleni porlions. 

PoU-iitiila siibacanlis L. Sysl. Nal. vd. X (17:)S) p. IOC).") ct Spec. I'l. cd, II (ITb:'.) p. 
71."): Wolf. Monogr. Gall. Polenlilla ]). (V.V2: Ledeh. I-'l. All. 11. p. 2(11; Tiirc/.aii. Cal. Baical. 
no. Ilo; Kard. el Kiril. Kmiin. PI. Fl. All. no. 315; Turczan. V\. Baical.-Daiiur. (181:5) j). 
l)U), no. 101. P. ciiierea /i Irifoliala Lcdel). 1-"1. Hoss. II, p. 54 ex parte. 

Scattered on dry cliffs, dry hills, elc on llie .steppes belween Minusinsk and I'sl Aba- 
kansk. 'I'lie sjx'ciniens I'olleclcd. taken at liie iie^inninj; of .lune. are. for a i^real pari. 
airea(i\' past llowcring. 1 have also found tlie .species in liu' Irjankai country, at I'sl Sisli- 
i^eni, tiie Kanisara. I'sl Tara-Ueni. and in sexcral |)hHCs on liie sle|)i)es about liie I'lu- 
keni. belween HjelosarsU and Cha-kul. 

Dislribulion: Throui^houl southern Siberia, from the t,o\ ci lunent of lOnrsk to tiic 
eastern parts o\ the Anioor Province, nortiiern .Moui^oiia. nortii-eastern Tibcl, eastwards 
to Manciiooria. 

PolnillHa IrasJarioides L. S])ec. PI. ed. II <17(i2) p. 710: Wolf. Monoiir. (iall. Polrn- 
lilla[h boo: Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. 11. p. 218: 'lurc/.au. Cat. Baical. no. 129: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. II, p. 38; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1813) j). (ilo. no. 410: Kjim.!. <I>.i. .\.rr. II (1903) p. 376. 

var. typica Maxim. Mel. Biol. IX, p. 158; Wolf. 1. c. p. l);57. 

Rather common in meadow s and in Ihickels on the islets in the Yenisei, near I'sl 
Abakansk, where taken by me in full flower at the beginning of June. It was also found 
bv me near Kushabar. and in the rrjankai country, at Ust Tara-kem. 

riie specimens collected have ralhcr low and tender stems, about 10 em. bii;h. and 
are always destitute of runners. The flowers arc small. 9 — 14 mm. in diameter. 4"he 
petals, only slighlly exceeding the calyx in length, differ from Woi.i's description in 
having generally the margin distinctly emarginate. Komauow, in his <l>.i. .Maiii.'i-,i,\ iiiii 
II. 2, p. 494, however, reports in this variety <vpetala integra vel leviter emarginata>. 
Otherwise, the specimens collected agree rather perfectly with Wolf's description. Some 
specimens are considerably coarser, however, with rather vigorous stems, ahout 15 cm. 
high, and larger flowers, reaching up lo 16 — 18 mm. in diameter, and with cordilorm 
petals more indented at the margin, their breadth in all cases exceeding llieir length. 
These villous forms, willi long, while, spreading hairs, recall, in some respects, the 
specimens of var. Spiruiu'limia Maxim, wliicli T have seen from Sakhalin, figured in 
PiUNTZ, Vase. PI. Sakhalin (1916) p. 13, lab. 11, and form distinct transitions to Ihese. The 
last-mentioned variety, the most typical representatives of which are to be found in ea.st- 
ern .\sia (Sakhalin and .lapan), and where it is especially common, grows, according lo 
Krylow. weslwanls lo Omsk. Thus, the above varieties seemed, for the resl. lo pass quite 
imperceptiblv into each oilier. 

287 



Distribution: Throughout southern Siberia, temperate and subarctic regions of east- 
ern Asia. 

Potentilla ternata (Maxim.) Freyn in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. (1902) p. 62 (sep. p. 29). 
P. fragariodes L. var. ternata Maxim. Mel. Biol. IX. p. 159. P. Freyniana Bornmuller, 
Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. Potentilla p. 6n9. forma [Tab. VIII]. 

The specimens found by me, are distinguished by llieir high, vigorous, fur- 
rowed, reddish-brown stems, to 30 cm. high, furnished with long, scattered, spreading, 
partly somewhat curved. N\hite liairs. whereby much recalling Potentilla fragarioides var.- 
tijpica, the hairs of which, however, are by far denser. 

The specimens are exceedingly flowery; tlie pedicels are long, from 3 to 5 cm., fine 
and slender, and are distinguished by being relaxed and curved, whereby the flowers, at 
any rate after falling out, become drooping. In some of the pedicels are to be found small, 
entire, toothed or di^^ded bracteoles. Stolons are wanting, at any rate in the specimens 
collected. The outer lanceolate sepals are only slightly shorter than the inner ones, 
which are more triangular, and acute. The petals are somewhat longer than the calyx, 
ovate, subobtuse, not indented at tire summit. In the diameter of the flowers, being from 12 
to 14 mm., the specimens somewhat exceed the typical species, and approach, to some 
extent, var. 9/o/!d/7?ora Wolf, 1. c, known only from Japan, from which, however, they 
also differ by their great floweriness. The basal leaves are comparatively long-petioled, as 
a rule digitately tri-foliolate. Some of the leaves, however, are characteristic in possessing 
a lower pair of leaflets farther down the petiole, whereby the leaf becomes distinctly pin- 
nate. The lower pair is generally placed some way down the petiole, whereby the distance 
between the 2 pairs of pinnae is generally comparatively great (Tab. VIII). Leaves 
with more than 2 pairs of pinnae have never been observed by me, and tlie second pair of 
pinnae are frequently reduced to mere scales, if an^ihing, which is most usual, and from 
where there is every transition to specimens in which the said lower pair of leaflets are 
lai-ge and well developed. Their shape is, for the rest, much the same as that of the upper 
pair of leaflets, and, like this one, with rather coarse, acute teetli at the margin. From spe- 
cimens in which all of the basal leaves are 3-foliolate, there is to be found every transition 
to forms where at least a great part of the basal leaves are pinnatifid. Thus, from the 
typical P. ternata there are, chiefly on account of the shape of the leaves, and for tlie 
■ rest, also in consequence of the pubescence, distinct transitions to forms most properly to 
1)0 retei'rcd to P. fragarioides. 

Similar specimens, in which some of the basal leaves are furnished witli a rudimen- 
tary pinna about the middle of their petioles, have previously been found by Makino at 
Yokogura yama, on the isle of Shikoku (Japan). Wolf, when mentioning tliese, indica- 
tes that they may be bastards between P. ternata and the eastern variety Sprengeliana of 
P. fragarioides The carpels in the sjiecimens collected by me, seemed, however, to be well 
developed; they are small, somewhat more than 1 mm. long, anything like bean-shaped, 
narrower at one end, yellowish white, slightly rugose on tlie surface, and a little longer 

288 



Ilian llic slylo. These well-developed eai]iel.s, however, cnniKil l>c laken for a])S()luIe 
proofs at;aiiisl a liy])ii(l nature, for llieri' arc instances tliat aulhenlic bastards of 
Polenlillci may jiive well-developed carpels. In my opinion, such specimens as those 
described may as well be explained as an evidence of the near relationship of Polrnlilld 
Icnidlii lo /'. fidf/iirioidrs — as intcrinediales between them — and it would therefore pcs- 
sibly be as right to eiilcr our plant under M wimow kv. s name as Polrnlilld /'KK/arioidrs 
var Irituila. 

Occurring in thickets and meadows on the isiels in tlie Yenisei, between Minusinsk 
and Ust Abakansk. wliere the specimens sae mostly past flowering at the beginning of 
June. 

Dislribulion: I'dlriililhi IrriKild is previously known in the .\nioor Province, eastern 
Manchooria, the Ussuri Province, Japan. 

I'oleiitilia flagellaris Willd. Herb, ex Schlecht. Mag. Ges. Naturf. Fr. Ikrlin, VII 
(1816) p. 291; Wolf, Monogr. Gall. Pnlcnhlhi p. ()()2; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 114; Ledeb. 
FLRoss. II, p. 52;Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1843) p. (ill, no. 40,"): i;|,i,i.i. «1m. .\.n. 11 
(1903) p. 392. />. nrmoidlis Bunge in Ledcl). V\. .\][. II, p. 256 (excl. syn.). 

Pretty common in moist meadows in brush-wood, and the like, on an islet in the 
river Abakan, near Ust Kamuishto, where I have collected it in flower and partly ])asl 
flowering at the end of June. It also occurs in the Urjankai country, in humid grass-fields 
on the banks of the Ulu-kem, at Bjelosarsk, and near Cha-kul. 

Distribution: Temperate portions of Siberia, northern Mongolia, Manchooria. north- 
ern Corea, northern (>hina. 

Polentilla argentea L. Spec. PL ed. II (17(52) p. 712: Wolf, Monogr. Gatt. PoU-nlilln 
p. 256; Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. 252; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 307; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. II, p. 47; KpM.i. <I>.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 385. 

Scattered about Kuslialiar where found be me on diT hills with flowers at the middle 
of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia and south-western Asia, Siberia, eastwards to about 
Lake Baikal, northern Mongolia, North America (introduced). 

Polentilla anserina L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 710: Wolf, Monogr. Gait. Polrnlilld 
p. 669: Ledeb. Fl. All. II. p. 249; Turzan. Cat. Baical. no. 428: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. II: 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 623, no. 418; Kphu. <Ki. A.rr. II (1903) p. 393. 

Very common in the territory explored, where occurring under a great many different 
forms. In the Minusinsk district it is veiy common along banks of rivers, etc., and on 
saliferous soil at Ust Kamuishto. .\mong the material collected the following forms may 
be separated: vulgaris, sericea. incisd. discolor, and lenella. In the \ltaian, near the tree 
limit, I have found specimens of a form much recalling /". graiidis. Collected in full 
i)loom from June to .\ugust. 

289 



Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south. Caucasia and south-western Asia, 
Siberia, noillnvards to 68!:;" noilli latitude and eastwards to Kamtchatka and the Amoor 
Province, Manchooria, northern China, Mongoha, Tibet, tlie Himalayas, Japan, Sakhalin, 
North and South America, Greenland, Australia. 

Sibbaldia procumbens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 307; Ledeb. Fl. All. I. p. 428; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 433; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 317; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
II, p. 32; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 627, no. 424; Kpbi.i. <I'.i. A.tt. 11(1903) p. 363. 

Pretty common in the Altaian, in dry, gravelly places, etc., where I have met with 
it in subalpine wooded tracts (at an altitude of 900 m. above sea-level, on the Upper 
Sisti-kem), together with Betula roliindi/olia. and right up to the perennial snow. Speci- 
mens taken in sulialpine tracts, bearing nearly ripe fruits at the end of July. These last- 
mentioned ones are distinguished by a moi'e luxuriant growth, and generally have com- 
l)aratively long peduncles, overtopping, or, at any rate, equalling the leaves, .\scherson et 
Graebner, Synops. VI. I (1904) p. 662, record the range of this species only to comprise 
Europe, referring the Asiatic one to a nearly allied species S./ja/7'//7o/Y/WH,Ln.Neue Schr. 
Naturf. Fr. Berlin, II (1799) p. 125. My material from northern Mongolia agrees per- 
fectly, at any rate, even in detail, with specimens of the typical S. procumbens from Scan- 
dinavia, and can l)e separated in on respects from these. In Fl. Ross. II, p. 32. Ledebolr 
also refers S. parviflora as a synonym under 5. procumbens, and this species is also 
entered byTrRCZ.\NiNOW in Fl. Baical.-Dahur., the classical work on eastern Siberia. The 
specimens taken by me in more elevated localities, are, in comparison with the above- 
mentioned material from subalpine tracts, as might have been expected, on tlie whole less 
luxuriant, more densely tufted, with smaller and more shoiily petioled leaves, shorter 
peduncles, and sometimes with smaller flowers, which, however, at the highest, only entit- 
les to enter these somewhat reduced specimens as a habitat modification. By minute 
dissections and comparisons I have found that the variations of my Mongolian speci- 
mens at large are within the limits of the Scandinavian material, and that the typical 
Sibbaldia procumbens therefore, no doubt, also occurs in Asia. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine tracts of Europe, arctic Siberia, the Altai and 
Sayansk regions, northern Mongolia, Russian Turkestan, the Himalayas, Tibet, North 
America. 

Sibbaldia adpressa Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. All. I. p. 428; Bunge, Enum. .Ml. p. 17; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 434; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 33; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) 
p. 628, no. 425; Kpbi.i. $.1. A.ir. II (1903) p. 364. 

On dry cliffs on the Abakan Steppe. Nearly past flowering in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia (the eastern Altai, estwards to Trans Baikal^ Mongolia. 

Chamaerhodos erecta Bunge in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 430; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
437; Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 316; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 33; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 630, no. 427; Ki.li.i. «>.t. A.it. II (1903) p. 360. 

290 



Oil (li V, s;iii(l\ liills in oprii piiic-w ooil. ncai- llic sail lake Tagarski oscid al Minu- 
sinsk, w lu'ic of raliici' I'dninion orcuncnrc. and also on llic Ai)ai<an Slc|)|)(', ni-ar I'sl 
Abakansi\. 

In ni\ nialcrial IVoni lliosc ic^ions IIum'c occur si)t'cinii'ns willi one solilarv, lii.^ii. 
C'locl slcni, i< sirirlii I,i;i)i;i!. 1. C, and specimens willi seveial siioilti', decuinijcnl and 
asccndini^ slenis, ,^ (idscniflcus I,Khi;i!. I. (\ In lull llown in llie lirsl iiall oi'.luly. In llic 
Urjankai counlry I have found llu' species scallered on dry sleppes on llie river l)ei-i<eni 
at Tst Kanisara. I'sl 'I"ara-keni and on the riu-kcm, het\\('en I'sl Tap.sa and C.lia-kul, 
where it was pasl lloweriiii^, bearing fruits at tlie end of August and llie Ijcginning of Sep- 
tcmbei-. 

Hisli ibiilion: I'^aslern Ixussia, soiillu'in Siiieria. from llic I ral lo llie Aiiioor Pro- 
vince, noilhern Mongolia, northern China. 

Gcum rivak-L. Spec. IM. ed. II (17(12) p. 717: l.edeb. Fl. All. II. j). 2()5: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. II. 1). 2;;: i;|, 1,1.1. 'Im. .\.n. U (190:5) p. 359. 

Ill slightlv moist, grass-grown jjlaces. in thickets on the banks of the rivers Yenisei 
and Abakan, where I have collected it with ripe fruits in .hiiie. Scallered in the .\myl 
taiga, and in meadows, near Ust Sisli-keni. 11 did not seem to be of very freciuenl occur- 
rence. 

Distribution: luiroiie, except Ihe extreme .south-eastern portions, soulh-weslern Asia, 
Russian Turkestan, Siberia, northwards lo (>2 north lalilude, and eastwards to the pro- 
vice of Yeniseisk. 

Gciim Aleppiciim .Tacquin, Icon. Plant. Rar. I (1781—86) 1. 9;'5 et Collect. Botan. I, p. 
S,s. (i. slricliiin Alton. Ilorl. Kewensis ed. II, 2 (1811) p. 217; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 400; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 292; Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. II, p. 22; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Daliur. (1843) p. 599, no, ;)91: K|>i,i.i. 'I>.i. A.tt. II (1903) p. 357. (i. intermedium Ledeh. 
Fl. Alt. II, p, 2(i5. 

Very common on the islets in the river .\bakan, and on the banks of the river, in 
moist and shady thickets of Sali.r and Popiiliis lanrifolid. where I have collected it with 
young flowers at the end of ,Iuly. Also occurring near Kushabar, and rather common in 
the Urjankai country, about Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kcm. and on the IJei-kem, near Ust 
Kamsara. the Tara-kem, and the Dora Steppe. 

Distribution: Eastern part of middle and southern Europe, south-we.stern .\sia, Sibe- 
ria, northwards to about 65" north latiludt'. Russian Turkestan, northern Mongolia, 
eastern Asia, Sakhalin, North America. 

Coliiria geoidcs R. Br. Flor. Insulae Melville p. 392 (Vermisch. Botan. Schrift. I, 
1825); Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 263; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 21; Kpu.!. *.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 356. 

On the -Vbakan Steppe near Ust Abakan, on slopes, nearly past flowering at the be- 
ginning of ,lune, on the Lower Sisti-kem, on the Tajisa and near Bjelosarsk. 

Disti ibulion: Siberia (llie most southern portions of the governments of Tomsk and 
Yeniseisk), northern Mongolia. 

291 



Dryas octopetala L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(i2) p. 717; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 267; Turczan. 
Cat Baical. no. 399; Karel. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 291: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 20; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 598, no. 390; K],i,i.t. O.t. A.it. II (1903) p. 355. 

Common in the Altaian, in places grown with lichens and mosses, where I have col- 
lected it with ripe fruits at the end of July. All of the specimens collected here are cha- 
racteristic in having the glandular hairs on the calyx and on the upper parts of the scape 
yellow or copper-coloured, never black, as is the case with the Scandinavian specimens 
with which I have compared them. In all of the North-european authors mentioning the 
colour of this glandular hairs, they are recorded to be black (Blytt, Hartman, Xeuman), a 
character which must thus be considered to be distinctive and invariable. The glandular 
hairs to be found right up to the summits of the sepals therefore give those occur- 
ring in my material a lighter yellow or brov.nish colour, not black as in the Scandina- 
vian specimens. They also differ somewhat in shape, tapering gradually upwards from a 
broader base, while the Scandinavian ones are more equally broad throughout their 
length, only tapering towards the summit. The fruits when ripe, are of a deep green, 
like the prolonged styles. Besides, there is a difference which seemed to prevail, being 
also mentioned already by Turczaninow, 1. c, viz. that the veins on the under sides of 
the leaves are always glabrous, not pubescent, whereby appearing much more distinctly 
than in the Scandinavian specimens, where the veins are generally lanate so at to 
merge into the white-canescent under side of the leaf. 

Distribution: Arctic islands, arctic and alpine regions of Europe, the Caucasus, 
arctic Siberia, and on the high mountains to the south, northern Mongolia, North Ame- 
rica, Greenland. 

Crataegus sangiiinea Pall. Fl. Ross. I, p. 25; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 221; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 445; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 327, 328; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 88; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 639, no. 436; KpLu. "D.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 424. 

Common on islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, where the shrubs attain a 
height of 2—3 m. Flowering at the beginning of June. The thorns to 3,5 cm. long, the 
leaves deeply indented; the specimens collected accordingly belong to /. incisa Regel 
(Act. Hort. Pelropol. I (1871) p. 116. Also to be found scattered about Kushabar. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, Siberia, northwards to 61° north latitude, Mongolia, 
Turkestan, eastern Asia, Sakhalin. 

Cotoneasler melanocarpa (L.) Loddiges, The Botan. Cabinet XVI (1828) t. 1531; 
Colonensler vulgaris /S melanocarpa Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 219; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
446; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 329; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 89; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1843) p. 641, no. 437; Kpti-i. <D.i. A.tt. II (1903) p. 425. 

Common in the tracts about the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, frequently on sunny 
hills, here and there accompanying Caragana arborescens. The species begins flowering 
at the beginning of June. In the Urjankai country I have found it between Tshebertash 

292 



;iiul L'sl Sisli-kein. on red J)e'vt)iiian saiulslone. ncai' llic Kanisara, and on llie Tara-keni. 
■\vilh rijic fruits in Auijusl. 

DisliiUulion: Noilhcin and middle luirope, Sil)eria. noitliwards lo aboul 6(i north 
latitude, noiliicin Mongolia, soutli-weslcrn and ((iilral Asia. 

Sorbiis ancuparia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1702) j). tiS:;; I,>i,i.i. <l'.i. A.n. II (19(«) p. 427. 
Pyrus mu-itpana (L.) Gaeiin. Dc P^-uct. et Scm. Plant. II (17!)1) p. 87; Lcdeb. Fl. Alt. II, 
p. 223; Tuiczan. Cat. Baical. no. 150; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. 100: Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (l.Si:5)p. 644, no. 441. 

Pretty common in llie laiqa teriifoiy of .southern Siberia and the Urjankai country. 
In subal])ine wooded tracts between Kushabar and list Algiac, scattered on the rivers 
Sisti-keni and Kamsara, near the Tara-kem, and in several places on the Bei-kem. be- 
tween the Dora Steppe and the Sebi, and also in the wooded region north of Kemchik to 
Minusinsk. Ripe fruits in September. When ripe the berries are eaten fresh, and are 
much appreciated by the natives. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Siberia, northwards to towards 70° north lati- 
tude, northern Mongolia, Turkestan, the Thian-Shan. central Asia. Sakhalin. .Taj)an (var.). 
North America (introduced). 

Primus Padus L. Spec. PL ed. II (17G2) p. 077; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 212: Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. II, p. 8; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1843) p. 588. no. 377: I.'pi.i.i. <l>.i. A.n. II (I'JOB) 
p. 352. (atusiis Padiis Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 387. 

Of veiT common occurrence on the islets and along the banks of the rivers Yenisei 
and Abakan, where flowering in the second half of May and the first half of June. The 
petals frequently apjiear to be remarkably deep and argute serrulate at the margin. The 
last year's branches are generally glabrous; at this time, however, may be found, here and 
tliere, smaller hairy parts. The leaves are glabrous beneath, only in the angles between 
the veins with a tuft of rust-coloured or white hairs. Thus, the specimens agree perfectly 
with the European form. The branches of the trees are not unfrequently somewhat pen- 
ilenl /■ penduln Du'HEL (Handb. Laubholzk. 1 (1906) p. 640). In the Urjankai country the 
species is also of very common occurrence on the banks of the rivers Sisti-kem, Tara- 
kem, Kamsara, Bei-kem. and I'lu-kem. The fruits ripen in August. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, the Caucasus. Siberia. Mongolia, Ru.s- 
sian Turkestan, the Himalavas. eastern Asia. 



L «> s. u in i II s a c .ll'ss. 

Thcrmopsis lanceolata R. Br. in Alton, Hort. Kewensis ed. II (1811) p. 3: Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. II, p. 112; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 293; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. L p. 510; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 717, no. 282: Kpw.i. <[\x. A.rr. 11 (1903) p. 213. Sophora Inpinoides Pallas. 
Spec. Astray. (1800-1802) p. 119. 

293 



Very conmion on saudv slrpjjcs Ix'lwecii AIiiuusin.sk and I'sl Al)akansk, and also here 
and Ihnc on rocks on llie Al)akan SUp])c. Tlic species begins flowciing hvvv al llie begin- 
ning of June. Also observed past flowering on dry southern slopes, near Ust Kamsara, 
and on the steppes about the Ulu-kem al the end of August. The plants nearly always 
beset with one or several specimens of the Spanish (ly (Lylla caraganac Pall.). 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, Russian Turkestan, southern Siberia to Trans 
Baikal, northern Mongolia, northern China. 

Medicago platycarpa (L.) Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 523; Kptu. <l).i. A.n. II (1903) p. 216. 
Trigonella plalijcarpos L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1093; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 252; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Raical. no. 297; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 721. no. 286. 

By the I'oad between Kushabar and Karatus. near the banks of the river Amyl, in 
the transition zone between the steppes and the wooded region. Collected in slightly 
moist. gras.s-grown thicket, with flowei-s and young fruits in the middle of July. Taken 
with ripe fruits near Ust Sisti-kem and on wood-steppes at Ust Ta):a-kem in the middle 
of August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, eastwards to the government of Irkutsk, Russian 
Turkestan, northern Mongolia. 

Medicago falcata L. Spec. PL ed. II (1763) p. 1096; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 250; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 294; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. no. 204; Ledeb. FL Ross. I, 
p. 524; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 719, no. 284; Kpi.u. <Dji. A.it. II (1903) p. 217. 

The material collected shows considerable variations as to shape and size of the 
leaflets, pubescence of the plants, floweriness, etc. The shape of the leaflets varies from 
nearly ovate to very oblong, about 6 times as long as broad. The subulate, mucronulate 
stipules are partly entire, jjartly serrulate at the margin. The raceme rather flowery, ge- 
nerally containing 8—14 flowers. Length of the fully developed flowers 10—12 nnn. Of 
very common occurrence on the Abakan Steppe and on the islets in the lower part of 
the river, in open, sunny places, on stony declivities, in dry, sandy and stony grass- 
field, etc., where I have collected it with young flowers and flower-buds in the first 
half of June. It is also scattered on the road between Karatus and Kushaliar, at Ust Sisti- 
kem, and on the steppes al^out the Ulu-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north, the Caucasus, Siberia, northwards 
to about 60" north lat., and eastwards to Trans Baikal, Mongolia, northern Cliina, 
south-western Asia to Afghanistan and Turkestan, the East Indies. 

Medicago lupulina L. Spec. PL ed. II (1763) p. 1097; Ledeb. Fl. AU. Ill, p. 251; Tur- 
czan. Cat Baical. no. 295; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. AU. no. 205; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 
527; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 719, no. 283; Kpi.1.1. <I).t. A.it. II (1903) p. 218. 

In meadows on islets in the river Abakan, near Ust Alxikansk. Collected with 
young floAver-buds at the end of June. In the Urjankai country I have collected the species 
on dry hills near Tapsa. 

294 



I )isli il)nli()ii: l''.iii()|)c. s(iii(li-\\ cslorii Asia lo Tuikcslan and AI'L;liaiii.slaii. llif liasl 
liulii's, soulluin Siliciia. Moiij^olia. luii IIkth C.liiiia, Xoilli Aniciira ( iiilrocliicecl). 

IMclilotus (lenlaliis (Wallsl. el Kit.) Pcrsooii. Syiiops. IMaiil. II (1807) ]>. ,'581: Lcdcl). 
Vl All. 111. p. 25;i: Lc'dol). Fl. I'.(),s.s. 1. p. ^^^^:r, Scluilz, Moiioyr. .l/c/Z/o/i/i- in Englei's .laliri). 
B. 2<J. H. 5 (1901) p. (187: Kpi.i.i. -Im. A.m. II (1903) p. 219. 

Oil the stepix's on llic riu-lu'iii, hclwceu Hjelo.saisU ami C.lia-lail. Willi ripe pod.s al 
Mic l)ci;iiininL; of Aunusl. llu' Icavi's ol' lliis species resemble slrildiii^ Ihose of Trifoliiun 
lupiiuislrr. 

Distrihulion: Soulli-eastern and middle luiiope. iioilliw aids lo soullieiii Sweden, 
southern Siberia, eastwards to Trans Baikal, Turkestan. 

Meliiolus suaveolens Ledeb. Ind. Sem. Hort. Dorj)at. (1824) p. 5; Turczan. Cat. Bai- 

cal. no. 299: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. ."liU): Seluilz, Monoi^r. Meliiolus no. 'r. Turczan. I"l. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1812) p. 722, no. 288; K|,i,i.i. 'I'.i A.n. 11 (1903) p. 220. 

On the banks of Ihe river .Abakan, between Ust Kamuishto and list Abakansk. 
l'h)\\c'iiniii 'iiid with young pods at Ihe end of .lune. 

Dislriljiilion: Turkestan, Siberia, northwards to about (18 noilh lal.. iiorllurii Mon- 
golia, eastern Asia, the East Indies, Sakhalin, .lapan. 

Meliiolus albiis Medicus. York Churpf. Pliys. Ok. Ges. II (1787) ]). 382; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 536; Schulz, Monogr. Meliiolus no. 4; ]i"|ii,i.i. <1).t. A.it. II (1903) p, 221. .1/. inil- 
garis Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. II (1809) p. 790; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. p. 255; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 298; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 722, no. 287. 

Scattered on sandy river-banks, on islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, and 
near U.st Kamuishto. The specimens collected are large and Nigorous, about 1 m. high, with 
hollow stems, and large leaflets, to 30 mm. long and 14 mm. broad, the margins of w Inch 
are shaiply and irregularly serrate. The peduncle is, during the flowering, lo 11 cm. long, 
of about the same length as the raceme itself, and the flowers 5— G mm. long. Thus, 
tiiesc specimens seemed most properly lo have to be referred to f. nrgutus (Reiciikxr.) 
ScHiLZ, 1. c. p. 096; Meliiolus aigulus Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Exc. II (1830—1832). The 
species flowers in the second half of .lune. In the Urjankai country I have collected the 
species past flowering and w ilh pods at the beginning of September, near Cha-kul. on the 
banks of llie river Ulu-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia to India, Siberia, northwards to 68° north 
lal., and eastwards to about the government of Irkutsk; further to the ea.st the plant is 
very rare, and probably introduced, Tibet, Mongolia, China (only near Peking), intro- 
fluced into North America and .\ustralia. 

Trifoliuni prafense L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1082; Ledeb. Fl. All. III. p. 2.56: Tur- 
czan. Cat. Raical. no. ilOl; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 547; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
724, no. 290; Kpi,i.i. tl>.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 224. 

1295 



Coininon in Ihc tcrritorv explored, in thickets and in meadows about the rivers 
Yenisei and Abakan, on llic islets in the said rivers, along the road between Kushabar 
and Minusinsk, in the Amyl valley, at Ust Algiac and Ust Sisti-kem. Most of the speci- 
mens collected have vigorous stems, 2—3 dm. high, and are sparsely clothed with appres- 
sed hairs, especially so under the heads. The stipules are glabrous, or sparingly beset with 
some few long, spreading hairs. The calyx is pubescent with appressed hairs. Near 
Kushabar I have collected some specimens of a form with vigorous, ascending stems 
densely beset with horizontally spreading or sometimes slightly retrorse hairs. The 
leaves are also rather much puberulent. especially so underneath, the petioles with 
dense, spreading hairs. The stipules nearly glabrous, save for the projected points, which 
are long-haired. As for the rest, like the preceding one. This foi-m seemed, most pro- 
perly, to have to be referred to /. pilosiim Heuffel (Abh. Z. B. G. Wien VIII (1858) p. 
88; AscHERS. et Graebn. F1. Nordostd. Flachl. p. 436). Taken flowering in June and 
July. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western Asia to Cashmere, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley 
northwards to 68" north lat. 

Trifoliuni medium L. Fauna Succ. ed. II, App. (1761) p. 558; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 300; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 547; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 724, no. 289; 
KpM.r.. $.1. A.1T. II (1903) p. 223. 

On dry hills in thickets of foliage trees near Kushabar; flowering at the middle of 
July. The species is rare in eastern Siberia. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia and eastwards to Persia. Siberia, eastwards about to 
the government of Irkutsk, Kamtchatka. 

Trifolium lupinaster L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1079; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 258; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 304; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 551; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
727, no. 293; Kpw.i. <I).i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 225. 

A'ery common on islets in the rivers Y'enisei and Abakan, especially in grass-grown 
meadows and in thickets, at Kushabar and in the subalpine taiga territory on the Amyl. 
Begins flowering in the second half of June. In the Urjankai countiy this species seemed 
to be widel}' distributed. In the Altaian I have found it right up to the tree limit, near 
Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem, on the Kamsara, at Ust Tara-kem, Sebi, Buluk, Tapsa, and also 
on the Ulu-kem. 

Distribution: From the eastern part of middle Europe throughout Siberia, eastwards 
to the Pacific Ocean, northwards to about 70" north lat., northern Mongolia. Turkestan. 

Trifolium repens L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1080; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 256; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 302; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1, p. 553; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
725, no. 291; Iiptu. (Dj. A.n. II (1903) p. 226. 

296 



r.oinnion in llic Irncls iilxuil llic rivers Yenisei and Ai);\l<;ui, al Kiishabni-, in llir Ainyl 
\aliey. I si Alyiat. I sl Sisli-kcni. iu lieiils and wasle grounds, wlieie 1 have lai<en il in 
I'lowoi- in June Auqusl. All of tlie specimens collected belong lo /'. Ii]})iviiin Aschems. el 
C.itAr.HN. SyiH.ps. VI. 2 (1907) p. 198. 

Disliiliulion: l'",iii'()})e. soiUli-wcslei n Asia lo Afgluniistan and Uaioochistan, the 
Himalayas. Ceylon, Siberia, iioiliiwards lodS'- iioilli lal., noilheni Mongolia. .Japan, 
North Ameriea. 

Lotus coniiciilalus L. Spec. 1>1. ed. 11 (ITlili) p. 1092: Ledeb. I'l. Ail. Ill, p. 259; 
Karel. et Kiril. iMiiini. I'l. 1"1. All. no. 211: Ledei). b'l. Ross. I, ]). .")(>(l: l.-pi.i.i, -Im. A,n. II 
{V.KYA) p. 228. 

liatber frequent on dry hills about Kushabar, and in the Amyl valley; scattered in 
tlie UrjanUai country, at Tapsa, and on tlie banks of the riu-keni, between Bjelosarsk 
and Cha-kul. 

Distiibution: The species is dislril)uli(l over luno])e, and through south-western Asia 
lo India, Afghanistan, the llinialayas, Til)el, sonlli-\M'slein Siberia, northern Mongolia, 
Jajian, Norlli Africa. America. .Australia. 

Caragaiia pygmaca (L.) DC,. Prodrom. 11 (182:"j) p. 2(j8: Ledeb. ¥\. \\[. 111. j). 2l)5; 
Turezan. Cat. Baical. no. 307; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. AH. no. 219; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
1. p. .'')70: Tmczan Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 731. no. 297; K|,i,i.i. <l>.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 
232; KoJKi|iiii!i,, Mniinip;i(()iii I'liia (jintiiann in .Act llorl. Pelropol. T. WIX, l-'ase. 11 (1909) 
p. 210. 

Connnon al)out Minusinsk and on the Abakan Steppe, in steppe meadows, on stony, 
hot slopes, and the like, moreover on dry southern slopes about Ust Sisti-kem, and also 
on the steppes about the Ulu-kem. The species begins flowering in tlie first half of June. 
The material collected varies considerably, especially in the pubescence, floweriness. and 
breadth and length of the leaves. The leaves may be completely glabrous or rather den- 
sely hairy, with all transitions, the calyx also alternating between glabrous and densely 
pubescent. Sometimes the calyx may be only ciliate, glabrous for the rest. The pedicels 
vary from twice to three times the calyx in length. .All intermediate forms seemed lo 
occur here between the varieties I'alhtsidnd Komm!. I. c, luridissiiud KoM.xii I. c, 
and nngiislissimct C K. Scunkid. (/.'. inctiiut P>rNGK, C. pijcjiniwd /i (ucnniitt Lkuki;. Fl. 
Ross. I p. 571). The latter is of especially common occurrence about Ust Kamuishto, 
partly with leaves to 2 cm. long (a longifniia Kom.vr. 1. c), partly with shorter leaves, 
only to 1 cm. long (/? brevifoUa Kom.xh 1. c.J. On the steppes about the Ulu-kem, between 
Ruluk and Cha-kul. this species is also very frequent. Besides var. (inguslissinid C. K. 
ScHNHU). Iliere also occur, near Bjelosarsic. j)rel[y typical specimens of var. (ilUiicd 

KOMAH. 1. C. 

Distiibution: Southern .Sil)eria. from liie .\ilai ret^ion lo Trans I'aikal. n')ilh- 
eastern Mongolia, western China. 

•28 297 



Caragana frutcx K. Kocli. Dcmlroloiiio I (1869) p. 18: li'iiMnp. MdiimiJ. Catiu/dna p. 
■_'24. Caragana jrulescens DC. Prodroiii. II (1825) p. 268: LliIcI). 1"1. All. 111. p. 2(ir>: Karcl. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 218: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 569: Kpi.u. $.i. A.it. II (1903) 
p. 231. 

var. latifolia C. K. Schneid., KoMii]). 1. c. p. 226. 

In drv, grass-grown places on Ihe Abakan Steppe, belNveen Askys and Usl Kamui- 
shto. In full flower about the middle of June. 

Distribution: Russia, south-western Siberia to the government of Yeniseisk, western 
Mongolia, Dzungaria, Russian Turkestan, Manchooria. northern China, Japan ('?). 

Caragana spinosa DC. Prodrom. II (1825) p. 269; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 266: Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 308; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1, p. 571; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
732. no. 298: Kpbi.i. 5'.i. A.w. II (1903) p. 233; Kome]). Mdndrp. Caragana p. 260. 

On drv, hot steppes near the Tapsa. and on the Ulu-kem Ste])pe. Past flowering 
at the end of August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia and nortliern Mongolia: from Dzungaria to Trans 
Baikal. 

Caragana jubata (Pall.) Poir. in Lamarck. Encyclop. Method. Supplem. II (1811) 
p. 89; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 309; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 572: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 732, no. 299; KoJiaji. Munurii. Caragana p. 2S7. 

This very characteristic plant has not been collected by myself, but at Ust Tapsa I 
got some rather small specimens from a Russian lady, mrs. Safianow by name. 
According to her statement, it occurs about 100 wersts south of Ust Tapsa, on river- 
banks, where attaining the height of a man. The specimens belong to /'. crccla (.Regel) 

KOMAR. 

Distribution: North-eastern Siberia, from the Ai-ctic Ocean (at the mouth of the 
Lena) and the Sea of Okhotsk, westwards to Lake Baikal, the Sayansk mountains. Mon- 
golia, China, ribet, Turkestan. 

Caragana Biingei Ledeb. Icon. etc. (1829) tab. 464: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 264: Bunge, 
Enum. Alt. p. 63; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 569; Kpbu. <^j. A.tt. II (1903) p. 231; KuMap. 
MoHorp. Caragana p. 317. 

Pretty common on dry, rocky steppes about the I'lu-kem. from tlie 4'apsa west- 
wards to Cha-kul. Specimens collected at the end of August, are i)ast flowering. This 
species constitutes, togetlier with some few others, such as Potentilla frulicnsa. Cam. 
gana spinosa. etc., the shrub-steppes, a plant society characteristic of the interior of Asia, 
where the shrubs, about 1 m. high, are scattered at regular intervals. The undergrowth 
chiefly consists of .species of Slipa and other xeropile grasses (fig. 69, p. 98). 

Distribution: The Altai, north-western Mongolia. 

Caragana arborescens (.\.mm.) Lamarck, Encyclop. Method. I (1783) p. 615; Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 263; Bunge. Enum. Alt. p. 63; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 569: Turczan. Fl. Rai- 

298 



c-al.-l);ilnu-. (IXI'J) p. TI'.O. no. 'i'.Xi; i;|„,i.i. Mm, Aji. H Cinn:^.) |i. ZUI; |;,,m;,|, M ,,, (ji- 

KUjdiia p. ."iL'I /(iniut. 

i'oliold. ciiliicrs el prdiiiiciili mollilcr jiHosi. 

Tilt' Icaxcs ;uc i! — I piiiiKilc, llir Icailcis clliijlic oi' ohovalc. to 2.2 cm. loii}^. and 1.1 
nil. liroad. Tlic llowcis aic ahoul 2 cm. loiij^. llic peduncles. diiiiiiL; llie flowering, about 
twice as loiii,'. ailieiilale immedialely lielow llie llowcis. The younii pods slightly 
])ubesc(Mil. 

Scallcrccl about Minusinsk and llie ii\( r .Abakan, on hills elc. here and there accom- 
panying Rosn ^]). and with an nndeiLiiowili ol' I'^nu/tuia niridis. Iris riilhcnicd. Aster (ilpi- 
niis. S()li(l(i(/(i Viriiiiiiri'd. Slfllarid (//vn/i/nca. and otiieis. The species flowers lieic in the 
second half of May and llie I'iisl hall of .lune. S|)eciinens collected al the beginning of 
June, bear already pods, about 3 cm. long. I'he species is also scatleicd in the Urjankai 
country, especially in open thickets of foliage trees, intermingled with larch, and the like, 
between Ust Sisti-kem and tlie Kanisara, near tlie Dora Stei)pe, on the Tapsa, and near the 
riu-kcm, above C.ha-kul. 

Distribulion: Southern Siberia, northwards to aboul (iO noiili lal.. from the Altai 
region to Trans l?aikal. northern Mongolia, southwards to about KS north lal. It does 
not occur in China, .lapan. and in Ihe Okhotsk region. 

Glycyrrhiza nralen.sis F'ischer in DC. Prodrom. II. p. 248; Ledebl Fl. Ross. I, p. 566; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 728, no. 294;Kpi.i.i. ^a. A.it. II (1903) p. 234. G.glan- 
(Inliferd Lcdel). Fl. All. 111. [>. 2(11. (,. iihtndulifi'ra Waldsl. el Kil. /i (jniiKlillord Lcdeb. 
Fl. Ross. I, p. .")()b. 

Pretty common on the Abakan Steppe, between I'st Kamuishto and Fsl Abakansk. 
Specimens collected liere, at the end of .June, are young, and as yet flowerle.ss. Is abso 
scattered between Minusinsk and Kushabar, and at Bjeloarsk, near the Ulu-kcm, wliere I 
have collected it with pods at the end of .\ugusl. 

Distribulion: The north of llu- Caucasus (on the river Kunia). Turkestan, through 
southern Siberia and noithern Mongolia, eastwards to the Khingan mounlains, and south- 
wards towards Peking. 

Giildeiistiidlia nionophylia Fischer in Mem. Soc. Imi)cr. Natural. Moscou T. VI (1823) 
p. 171: Ledeb. Fl. All. III. p. 260: Bunge, Enuin. .\ll. ]). 63: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. 1. p. 564; 
l.'pi.M. 'I'.i. A.IT. II (1U03) )). 235. 

Only few specimens of this very rare jilant have been collected by me, on sunny, 
dry rocks facing south, near the northern bank of the Ulu-keni, about tiO— 80 wersts 
east of Kemshik bom. Of the plants, taken September 1st, only the leaves and empty 
pods have been left. 

Distribulion: The jilanl has prcviou.sly been found near Ihe junclion of Ihe rivers 
Argut and Katun (GkbleuX at Korkctschu. near the Kalun. between Ihe rivers Fleghen 
and Tschuja (I.kdkb.), and in Mongolia (Maximowicz). 

299 



Oxytropis "hibra DC. Aslragalo^ia (1802) no. 31: Tiuczan. Cal. Baical. no. 343; 
lUmgc. S])CH-. (hijlinpis (Mem. Acad. Impcr. Sc. St. I'clor.sl)oury Scr. VII. T. XXll, no. 1 
(1874) p. 40; Turczan. Fl. liaical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 758, no. 328: Kpi.i.i. il'.i. Ajit. II (11103) p. 
240. Oxytropis ili/fimi Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 281; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 
224; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 585. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Kanun-slito, in moist, saliferous soil, and in the 
Urjankai country, near the Ulu-kem. With young flowers in the middle of June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia and adjoining parts of Asia to Turkestan, south- 
ern Sibei-ia, except the most eastern parts, northern Mongolia. 

Oxytropis pilosa (L.) DC. Astragalogia (1802) no. 27; Bunge, Spec. Oxytropis (1«74) 
p. 58; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 280; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 223; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 584: Kptu. «I>.i. Ajit. II (1903) p. 251. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Ust Abakansk. on dry, open steppe, and on dry, sunny 
rocks. Partly done flowering at the end of June. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to southern Sweden, southern Siberia, eastwards 
to the government of Irkutsk. 

Oxytropis uralensis (L.) DC. Astragalogia (1802) p. 55; Bunge. Spec. Uxyliopis 
(1874) p. 104 p. p.; Ledeb. Fl. Ah. Ill, p. 280; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 317; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. I, p. 593; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 738, no. 304; KptM. (5.1. A.it. II (IDUS) 
p. 262. Astragalus uralensis L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1763) p. 1071; Pall. Spec. Astragal. (1800) 
p. 53. 

On cliffs on the Abakan Stepj)e, near Ust Kamuishlo. Flowering in the second half 
of June. 

Distribution: Siberia, eastwards to Lake Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

Oxytropis tragacanthoidcs Fischer in DC. Prodrom. II, p. 280; Bunge, Spec. Uxijiropis 
(1874) p. 131: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 278; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 583; Kpwji. <^a. A.n. II 
(1903) p. 271. 

This very characteristic species occm-s on stony declivities near Minusinsk. Flower- 
ing and past flowering in the early days of July. 

Distribution: The Altai region, northern Mongolia. 

Oxytropis aciphylla Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 279; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 584; Bunge, 
Spec. Oxytropis (1874) p. 134; KpM.i. (tji. Ajit. II (.1903) p. 272. 

On dry, sandy places on the Ulu-kem Steppe, between Bjelosarsk and Cha-kul. 
Distribution: Altai and Sayansk districts, Mongolia. 

Oxytropis miiricata (Pall.) DC. Astragalogia (1802) p. 69: Bunge, Spec. Oxytropis 
(1874) p. 153; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 340; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 580; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1842) p. 755, no. 324; Ki.bi.i. 'P.t. A.tt. II (1903) p. 276. Astragalus muricata 
Pall. Spec. Astragal. (1800) p. 89. 

300 



Oil llii' AInikiui SU'ppc, on rocks, mid in sandy places near llic lower ])arl of the 
river. Pailly done flower! nj,' al llie cud of June. 

Disliiliiilioii: I'roiu llie eastern [)arl ol' llie All.ii llirou^li sonlliein Siberia to 'I'laiis 
Baikal. 

? Oxylropis aiiunopliila rurczan. in liullel. Soc. Xaluial. .Moscou (1810) ]>. (id; 
Ledel). Fl. Ross. I. ]). :)<»,"■). 

On Ihe Al)ai<an Sleppe 1 lia\c tollecUd a lallier rieli nialt'iial of a species of 
Ort/ltopix. which — nol willinnl havin^^ my doubts, however — 1 have referred to (). 
(inunopluhi. the specimens being loo young for a rehable decision. This plant is veiy 
coniinoii on tlie steppes between Minusinsk and Ust Al)akansk. where being a characteri- 
stii' plant in di y, ^andy places, together with Thcnnopsis lancculala, Onnsnui cchididi-s, 
etc. Collected willi flower-buds and young flowers in the first half of .\ugust. During a 
stay in Petrograd. I'rof. Dr. V>. pKorscnHNKo, the noted sliuiciit of Leguminous j)lanls, 
declared my detei ininalion to l)e very probable. 

Distribution: .Soutliein Sil)eria (the government of Yeniseisk). 

Oxytropis stenophylla Bunge, Enum. Alt. (1836) p. 65; Bunge, Spec. Oxiilvopis (l>i74) 
1). 122: Lcdcb. Fl. Ross. 1. p. 58:5: Ji'i.i.i.i. <I>.i. A.n. II (1903) p. 266. 0. pumiUi Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. 111. p. 275. 

.v«/)5/>cr. caule.scens suhspcc. unv. [Tab. XIII. Fig. 2]. 

Radix cnissd. nolida. lif/iiosii. l')-W cm. lonqa. Folia (>-9 cm. Iniupi. 3-'> jiiga : foliola 
liiicdiia. l-"! mm. lain, V2-''2.') mm. longa. fere aequilala, saepe Icuiler ciinxitci, compliccdii. 
apice acuminata, niimpiam miicronala. supra parce albi-pilosa. nonnuiupuun fere omnino 
glabra, .^ubtus .semper omnino ghduii. mnrgine dislincte revolula. pilis albis. rigidis dense 
ciliala. Slipulae pnrvae. membranaceae. connalae. supra parlim liberac oblusae. mar- 
ginibus pilosae. Scapus 6-9 cm. longus, foliis fere aequilongus. teres, crassior et validior, 
pilis albis. longis. (ulpres.sis sparse iieslitus. uni - trijlorus. Bracleiw herbaceae. longe 
obonalae vel ouato-lanceohilae. /-Hmm. longae. plus minus dense cilicUae, ceterum omnino 
vel fere omnino glabrae. Flores cum ceteris comparati magni. (kdg.x- lumens. I'i-ij mm. 
longus. membruiuu-i'us. (dhidi-fulnus. lanugine alba, molli. palula I'eslitus. pilis brei'is. nigris, 
adpressis inlerspersis. Ve.rillum (das superans, '26-:i<l mm. longum. lamina ovaia. apice 
leni.s.sime emargintda. iuupus VI-Vi mm. longus. 2 /;(//(. bdus. aeipubdus. Alae anlice 
lidissimae el in lacinias inaapiales leviter /issue, postice pindalim angusliores el supra 
uiuiuem lacinia parva. rotundala praedilae. Carina curnala, 20 mm. longa, apice mucrone 
lenui. :i mm. longa. projeclo. Legumen calgcem rumpens. oboixdum. 1.')-1H mm. longum, 
pilis densis. iongis. idbis vel pidlide ferrugineis. apice villo nigio ueslilum. Semina 10-1') 

« 

;'/) singulis leguminibus. reniformia. glabra, fusco-nigra. 2-2. .3 mm. longa. 

In point of external habitus our plant differs rather much from the typical species, 
chiefly owing to the long, vigorous scape, while in Bingk's authentic specimens, which 
1 have seen in the herbarium of the Imperial Botanical dardens in Petrograd, however, 

301 



there eau generally be pointed out a very short scape, only one or a couple of mm. 
long. Moreover, this subspecies is characteristic in having the leaves long and rather 
vigorous, of about the same length as the scape, viz. 6—9 cm. The leaves are generally 
3- or 4- rarely 5-pinnate. The petiole, which is slightly channelled, is — like the scape — 
more os less distinctly erect, not curved as is frequent in the typical species. The pinnae 
are generally not opposite, but mostly alternate down the rachis. The leaflets are attach- 
ed bv a distinct, narrow node, which is very fragile, at any rate when dried, and is 
apt to break, so that the leaflets fall off. In preserved material of this one, as also of the 
typical species, all, or nearly all, of the pinnae will generally have fallen off, tlie rachis 
only being left. Thus in Bunge's authentic specimens nearly all of the leaflets had fallen 
off. The juncture of the leaflets, however, are, distinctly visible in the small, inflated 
knots. The leaflets themselves are rather fleshy, linear, straight, or slightly curved, 
about 2 mm. in-oad, and 12—25 mm. long, nearly equally narrow throughout their 
length, tapering towards the base and summit, gradually pointed and acute, but never mu- 
cronate . The margin of the leaflets is distinctly revolute, frequently so much as to make 
the margins touch each other, whereby the under side of the leaf is at times complety 
shut in. It is to be supposed that this more or less strongly marked recurvation of the 
margins is dependent on the turgor, and that this plant, growing on very hot, dry, sunny 
Devonian sandstone cliffs in a marked steppe climate, has through this, a means of re- 
gulating the transpiration. The upper side of tlie leaflets is sparingly pubescent, some- 
times completely glabrous; the margin is always much and distinctly ciliate, tlie under 
side always completely glabrous, whereby the subspecies caiileticens is also distinct 
from the typical species, recorded to be hairy beneath. The stipules are small, membra- 
nous, adnate to the petiole, the subobtuse apex only being free, and distinctly ciliate. 
The scape is of about the same length as tlie leaves, 6 — 9 cm. long, villous-pubescent, 
with white, appressed hairs, occurring much more sparingly than in the typical spe- 
cies, the very short scapes of which are always rather densely haii-y. The bracts 
are 7 — 8 mm. long, mostly of a green colour, sometimes more pallid and membranous, 
always nerveless, oblong-ovate to broadly lanceolate, glabrous, only ciliate. Only vei-y 
rarely there are to be found on the bracts some few white hairs, while, in the 
typical species, they are always densely and distinctly pubescent. The calyx is membra- 
nous, of a light yellowish brown, inflated, 12—15 mm. long, with equally large, very 
narrow, mucronate teeth, the length of which is 4—5 mm. The calyx is rather densely 
pubescent, with long, white hairs, intermixed with finer, shorter, curv-^ed, nearly black 
hairs. Similar short, black hairs are also to be found here and there on the scape, but 
are here of very rare occurrence, and nearly exclusively near the upper end. The pedi- 
cels are very short, 2—4 mm. long, so that the flowers, to be found in a number of 1—3, 
become densely congested. The pedicels are rather densely pubescent, like the calyx. 
The flowers are comparatively large. As all of the .specimens collected were already past 
flowering, I cannot express any opinion on their colour. Owing to the ripening of the 
fruit, however, the corolla is broken off by the pod gradually growing out, and remains 

302 



loi' a long liiiir as w iLlRTiiif; iiiiiains near llic .suiniuil ol llic lallcr. Tlic slandard is 
loiifjer than the wings, 26—30 mm. long; the claw equally broad, about 2 mm. in breadth, 
and 12-11 nnn. in lenylli, the jilale ovale and emarginale al liic ajjcx. 'I'lie wings 
are about 20 mm. lung: tlieir claws are very narrow, only about 0,3 mm. broad, 11 — 13 
nun. long, llic |)lales l)roadesl near the apex, where slightly incised into 2 unequal- 
ly iaryc K)l)cs: iiindmost, where pa.ssing into the claw, they are provided with a round- 
ed lolu". The keel is about 20 mm. long, at the apex furnished with a protruding beai<, 
2 — 3 mm. long. The pods, bursting the calyx rallicr early during their develop- 
mcnl. arc ovoid. \3 — 18 nnn. long, densely i)ubcsccnl. willi Ioul;. while, of li.nlil lusly 
blown hairs, near the sunnnil. al Ihe i)ase of Ihe ])crsislcul style, wilii a lull of i)iack 
hairs. The seeds are lo \)v found in a number of 10 — 15 in eacii luxl; they are reniforn), 
glai)rous, dull, of a brownish i)lack colour, 2 — 2..'i mm. long, and, accordingly, nearly 
twice as large as in Ihe lypical species. 

Colh'ctcd by me on liie .\bakan Steppe, near .\skys, on dry Devonian sandstone 
cliffs facing south. The specimens taken in the middle of .hine arc i)ast flowering, wilii 
ripe and partly ripe j)ods. 

Distributior.: The main species is very rare and is previously known only from 2 
places, viz. on the river Tsharysh, and near the mouth ol the river Kan in southern 
Siberia (Bunge). 

Astragalus aipinus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17(j;5) p. 1070; Pallas, Spec. Aslrag. (1800— 
02) p. 11, I. 32: Bunge, Gener. A.slicu/. II (Mem. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Petersb. Ser. VII, T. 
XV, 1870) p. 26; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 345; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 237; 
Ledeb. F'l. Ross. 1. p. 601 ex parte: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 761, no. 332; 
KjiM.i. 'i'.i. .\.n, II (ino;')) ]). 298. Phacd aslrafidlina DC. Aslragalogia p. 52; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. Ill, p. 270. 

On the banks of the Iici-kcm, between Sebi and I'linski porog. in shady places, 
among blocks of stone. Partly done flowering in the second half of Augu.st. 

Distribution: .\rclic and al]iinc regions of Europe. Novaya Zemlya. Siberia, Turke- 
stan, northern Mongolia, western Tibet, arctic America. 



Astragalus frigidus Bunge, Gener. As{ro<]. ]). 2S; h'pi.i.i. <l\i. .\.rr. II (1903) p. 299. 
Pluicn frigida L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1759) p. 1173; Ledeb. Fl. All. III. p. 2()8; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 311; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. I, p. 575; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 735, 
no. 301. 

In the .Mlaian. on Ihe r|)per Sisti-kem. in alpine meadows and on mountain slopes, 
and in the Bei-kem \alley. near I linski porog. 

Distribution; Arctic and alpine tracts of Europe, arctic Siberia, the Altai and 
Savansk momitain.s. the Mimalavas, North .Vmcrica. 



303 



Astragalus hypoi»lottis L. Mant. p. 264; Tuiczan. Cat. Baical. no. 347; Karel. et 
Kiril. p:num. PI. Fl. All. no. 233; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 602; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 763, no. 334; Bunge, Gener. Astrag. p. S3; KphLT. flu. A.it. II (1903) p. 304. 

var. dasyglottis Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 293; Ledeb. 1. c. p. 603; Kpi.i.i. 1. c. p. 305. 
^4. dasyf/lotlis Fisch., Bunge, Enuni. Alt. no. 268; Karel. et Kiril. 1. c. no. 234; Bunge, 
Gener. Asirag. p. S4. 

On the Ulu-kem Steppe, between Bjelosarsk and Clia-kul. 

Distribution: Tlie above variety is distributed over soulhern Siberia, eastwards to 
llie government of Irkutsk. 

Astragalus Alopecurus Pallas, Spec. Asirag. p. 11; Bunge, Gener. Asirag. p. '.i(>; 
K|.i,i.i. (I).i. A.iT. II (1903) p. 300. Astragalus alopeciiroidcs Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 318; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 633. 

In dry meadows near Ibe Yenisei, above Minusinsk. In flo\\er in llie first balf of 
July. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, southern Siberia, eastwards to about the govern- 
ment of Yeniseisk. 

Astragalus uliginosus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1066: Pallas. Spec. Asirag. p. 31; 
Bunge, Gener. i4s//«9. p. 168; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 317 (excl. synon. Marsch.-Bieb.); Tm-- 
czan. Cat. BaicaL no. 358; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 604; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
772, no. 347; Kjibi.t. <I>..i. A.it. II (1903) p. 306. 

In moist meadows on islets in the .Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk. Young flowers in the 
early days of July. 

Distribution: Siberia, northern China, and Corea. 

Astragalus testiculatus Pallas, Spec. Asirag. p. 82; Bunge, Gener. Asirag. p. 197; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 362; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 655; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 775, no. 351: Kpu.i. (D.r. A.it. II (1903) p. 316. Astragahis laclifloras Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt III, p. 333 ex parte. Aslragalus aingg(laligerhes.s\ng, Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 657. 

Scattered on the steppes belw ecu Minusinsk and Ust Abakansk. In flower and partly 
done flowering in the first half of June. The colour of the flowers varies between yellow 
and light red, with all transitions. 

Distribution: Southern Russia, Caucasia, Trans Caucasia, Turkestan, through south- 
ern Siberia, eastwards to the government of Irkutsk. 

Astragalus fruticosus Pallas, Spec. Astrag. p. 21; Bunge, Gener. Asirag. p. 216: Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 303; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 357; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 632; Turczan. FL 
P.aical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 770, no. 345; KptLi. (p.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 318. Astragalus inmi- 
nalis Pallas, Bunge, 1. c. p. 217. 

Near Ust Abakansk, on stony declivities on the steppes; past flowering at the begin- 
ning of June. In the Urjankai country, on dry declivities at Ust Kamsara. 

Distribution: Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

304 



A.s|i':)<>alus slciioi-i'ras C^. A. Mtyri in lionyiinl v[ AU'vcr, Siii)i)l('m. I'"l. All. p. 21; 
15iiiii;i". C'uMUT. .I.s7/Y(7. p. 221: Ledch. Fl. Uoss. I, p. 029: Turczaii. V\. Haic"il.-I);iluii-. (1SI2) 

J). 771. no. illC); |,'|ii.i.i. i|>.i. A.ii. 11 (I'.li.';) \) :\2. AsIku/iiIus suhiihiliis /J Pallas. Spec. 
.I.s7/ar/ p. -Jo. Aalidfidliis rcrdhiidcs Bim^c ic r(Hi\j)rslns I.i(Kl) l-"!. .\ll 111, p. .';(i(i 

Oil the sl('])pes belwoeu Minusinsk and Ust Ahakansk, in sandy places, and on llic 
.\l)akan Steppe, near Askys, on stony declivities: in flower and ])ailly done floweiinf^ in 
llie first iiaif o\ .lune. 

Distribution: South-eastern lUissia (Oreniiurt;), llussian I'm keslan, southern parts 
of Siberia, eastwards to the government of Yeniseisk. 

Aslragalns nielilotoides Fallas, Spec. Aslidi/. p. M: lUnige. (lener. Aslnu/. p. L'l; 
Ledel). l"l. ML 111. ]). 208: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. :m: Ledeb. Fl. Hoss. I. p. 017; Tur- 
ezan. Fl. Baieal.-Dahnr. (1,SI2) p. 7(kS. no. :;il; I.'im.i.i. -1m. A.ii. 11 (lUO!'.) p. 289. 

In sandy, grass-grown places near the Tapsa, and on tlie stcjjpes on the I'lu-kem, 
at Ujelosarsk. Past flowering at the end of August. 

I)istiil)ution: From the eastern part of the governnienl of Tomsk through Siijciia to 
Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia, northern China. 

Astragalus siilcalus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1703) p. 1003; Ikuige, Gencr. Aslnii/. p. 1'3; 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 302: Karel. et Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 242; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, 
p. 619: Kjii.i.i. <1'.7. A.rr. 11 (1903) p. 293. Aslraridlus Icploshtcluis Pallas. Spec. Asliacf p. 
50: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 709, no. 343. 

siibspec. Turczaninowi suhspec. nov. [Tab. IX]. 

Ah forma lijpica dilJ'cii rniilihiis hiimilihiis. Icinlnm "2»-''2r) cm - rnro ad 30 ini. - 
(dtis. ad basin lignosis, siilfrulicosis, adscendenlibiDi, infcrne b'lnler supcnie allins 
stilcalis, <il(d^ris vcl leviier pilosis. Folia sessilia. impari-pinncda, .)-(S' jiiga: foliola inferio- 
niin laliora ovala vel fere rotiiiulala, :>-') in in. bda, 3-S mm. longa. foliola supcrionim 
angiisliora. (iiudrr-dccics longioribus (piam bdis. Racrmi axillarcs trncnimi el gracillimi, 
rigidi. crccli. ')-ll) cm. longi, foliis duplo loiigiorcs. sparsijloii. pamijloii, nulgo 7-10 jlori. 
Strnclitra jlovum praccipiir distinctus (dts lationbus aulicr bdissimis el dislinclc cmargimdis. 
Tola planla laele inridis. 

The specimens of Astragalus sidadus L. collected by me on the .Vbakan Steppe, near Ust 
Kanniisiilo. differ in some respects so nuich from the typical plant that I have found it 
necessary to enter it as a new subspecies. Already in 1842, Turczaninow, 1. c. called at- 
tention to the fact that specimens of this one from Baikal differ from material from the 
Altai by frequently having the wings indented. .,Planta nostra ab Altaica parum recedit 
alls plerumque emarginatis, sed in eodem individuo etiam integrae inveniuntur". To 
judge from niv material, however, the w ings also differ consideral)l\' in the shape — \\ hieh 
will appear from the amiexed figure — being broader thou in the typical species, and al- 
ways emarginate at the apex. There are also other differences, w hich will appear from the 
following description: The stems arc several, ascending at the base, frequently ligneous, 
low, only 20—25 cm. high, as a rare exception to 30 cm. high, which is only about half 

305 



llie Icnglli t)f Ihc slcins in tlie lypical plant. The stems are slightly furrowed at the hase, 
higher uj) more deeply striate, sparingly pubescent, or sometimes nearly gla])rous, witli 
rather approximate leaves. The leaves are sessile, 4—5 cm. long, generally 7-pinnate, 
only rarely to 11-pinnate. There is a marked difference between the leaves in the lower 
and upper parts of the plant. Thus, the leaflets in the lowest leaves are broader, ovate or 
oval, 3—5 mm. broad, one and a half to twice as long, slightly emarginate or subobtusc at 
the apex. In Ihc upper leaves, the leaflets become gradually narrower, only 1—2 nmi. 

broad, 4 — 10 times as long. The greatest 
length of the leaflets does not exced 15 mm. 
Their shape is linear to broadly linear, rather 
cquall}' broad throughout their length, obtu- 
sely rounded at the apex, truncate, or rarely 
slightly emarginate. The leaflets have short 
stalks, 0,5 — 1 mm. long. The upper side of 
the leaves is generally glabrous or only very 
slightly hairy, the under side always slightly 
hairy, especially so along the midvein. The 
stipules are small, 2 — 3 mm. long, triangular, 
glabrous or slightly ciliate, quite detached, 
by no means adnate to the petiole. The 
raceme is very long-pcduncled, rigid and 
straight, but thin and tender, 5 — 10 cm. long, 
about twice exceeding the axillary leaf, loose- 
ly flowered, generally 7- to 10-flowered, only 
rarely with to 14 — 15 flowers, especially the 
lower ones, rather distant. The bracts are 
small, 1 — 2 mm. long, of about the same 
length as the pedicels, membranous, or of a 
pale green, subulate and ticutish, sparing- 
ly pubescent and ciliate, frequently with a 
lull of black or white hairs at the apex. The 
pedicels 1 — 2 mm. long, sparingly pubescent. 
The calyx is about % of the length of the 
corolla, beset with scattered black and white 
hairs, divided above into 5 narrow, equal 
teeth. The corolla is 8 — 10 mm. long, of a 
light violet or lilac. The standard is nearly 
ovate, 8 — 10 mm. long, slightly emarginate. 
Fig. 9,5. a. Petals of Aslragalus sulcalns L. sub N>'ith at short and broad claw. The wings 
spec Tnrczaninowi nov. subspec. from the Minu- ..re 0-7 mm. long, broader than m the typi- 
sinsk district. — b. Petals of the typical Astra- 
ualus sulcalns L. from the middle Europe. (5/i). ^^^ form, especially at the apex, where 




306 



iiuU'iileHl. SDUU'limcs very sli^lilly. hul always so disliiu'llv Dial - wlica coiisideriiij^ 
Ihis c'liaraclcr — I liavc iioviT toll a doubt whrtlicr even an isolated flower jjeiongcd to 
llic typical plaiil or to the subspecies 'iiuTziiniiiouu. 'I'lu' kci'l is about 3 — 5,5 mm. loiif}. 
aud biu(lnu)sl. w lu'i i' passing into Ibc claw . tiuiuslicd with an incision, so as to foi m a 
very cluuacterisLic appendage, not obscivi'd by nic in specimens of tiie Ivpical plant. Sec 
fig. 95. '{"lie whole i)lanl is of a fresh green colour. Having taken only flowering speci- 
mens. 1 do not know whether the pods and seeds differ from the lyi)ical .species. 

'ihis plant has bein found by me on the .\bakan Steppe, near I'sl Kamuishlo. In 
lull [iowir at the end of .lune. The typical A. siilcaliis does not (jccui' in ni\' collections. 

Distribution .1. siilfiiliis is distributed fioin Ilic soulb-caslcrn part of middle t^urope 
(.\ustro-Hungary), southern Russia ('?), throughout southern Siberia, eastwards to Trans 
Iknkal. Subspec. Ttirczaninoiin is jirobably confined to the eastern geografical range of 
the species. 

A.slragiihis niiillicaulis Ledcb. IL Alt. Ill, p. 295; Bunge, Gener. Aslrcu/. |). 22; lur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 3.50; Ledeb. I-l. Ross. I. p. ()06; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
765, no. 3.'57; K'pi.i.i. 'Im. A.it. II (190:)) p. 201. Aslifujitlus hilidus Turczan. PI. Exs; Runge, 
1. c. p. 22. 

The specimens are cliaraclerislic in having the stems numerous, commonly 4 — 8, 
rather short, generally only about 20 cm. long, prostrate, .sometimes slightly zigzaggy at 
the nodes, rigid, ramifieil. with numerous, more or less spreading branches, of a yel- 
lowish w liite colour below, w here frequently more or less ligneous, higher up of a greyish 
green or dark green, sometimes nearly bluish colour. Their lower parts are rather densely 
puberulent, with, short, stiff, white, appressod hairs; in the upper parts the stems become 
more sparingly puberulent, and gradually shot with black hairs increasing in number, 
so that the upper parts of the plants, as peduncles, pedicels and calyces, especially the last- 
mentioned ones, are nearly exclusively beset w itii. black hairs. Some of the marccscent 
stems from the year before are remaining, and give, together with the spreading branches 
and the slightly crooked stems, this plant a bushy appearance. The shape of the pinnae 
is subjected to great variation.s. In my material, all taken within a comparatively con- 
fined area, may be distinctly dkstinguished between a form with broad leaflets and 
another with narrow ones. Most of the specimens belong either to one or the other of 
these types, intermediate forms also occur. Init being comparatively few in number. In 
the broadly leaved form, which I separate under the name of /'./rt/('/'o//a, the leaflets arc 
narrowly elleptic, 2 — 4 mm. broad, and 3 — 4 — 5 times as long, broadest in the middle, 
tapering towards both ends, subobtuse or truncate at the apex. The margin of tine 
leaflets is generally flat, only rarely slightly revolute. 

In the narrowly leaved form — which I refer as /' anfiiislifolia — the leaflets arc 
linear to subulate, distinctly acuminate at the summit, and frequently produced into a 
fine mucro, sometimes to several mm. long. The margin of the leaflets is generally very 
distinctly recurvate, or the whole leaflets sometimes involute, hi both forms the leaflets 

307 



are sliorlly stalked, the stalks scarcely exceeding 1 mm. in length; the leaflets are 
fm-nished with a prominent niidvcin, without distinct lateral veins, glabrous, or scattered 
pubescent along the veins beneath. The stipules are generally rather large; the lower 
ones are wholly united or nearly so, sometimes almost amplexicaul, only wiUi 
2 small, free lobes at the margin; the upper stipules are less united, generally only at the 
base, and are free above, forming pointed, triangular, membranous, yellowish white lobes, 
2 to 3,5 nnn. long, without distinct veins; they are glabrous or sligthly ciliate. The 
raceme is long, 5—10 cm. in length, twice to three times exceeding the axillary leaf, cur- 
ved, not straight and rigid, rather densely flowered, and flowery. The number of tlie flow- 
ers in each raceme is generally 20 — 25, more rarely to 30, shortly pedicelled, the length 
of the pedicels being about 1 mm. The bracts are 3—4 times as long as the pedicels them- 
selves, of a narrow, nearly subulate shape, slightly membranous, and in their lower parts 
with an indistinct vein. The calyx is 3 — 4 mm. long, di\'ided above into 5 free, linear 
lobes of equal breadth, and of about the. same length as the calyx-tube itself. The calyx 
as well as Uie pedicel are beset with black, scattered hairs. The flowers, which are about 
10 mm. long, are of a light azure colour. The standard is about 10 mm. long, and 5—6 
mm. broad, 2-cleft at the apex. The wings are 2 — 3 mm. shorter, and the apex di- 
stincdv and deeplv emarginate. The keel is only about 5 — 5,5 nmi. long, furnished with a 
short claw, which is only Va of the length of the keel itself. The standard and the wings 
are of one colour; the keel has on either side, near the apex, a small blotch, about 1 mm.- 
large, of a darker blue, giving the whole raceme a characteristic, variegated appearance. 

This species has not been noticed by me with ripe fruits; tlie unripe pods are of a dull 
brown colour, slightly acuminate at tlie summit, with 4 — 7 seeds. The whole plant is of 
a characteristic, greyish green colour. 

Occurring on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, on dry, hot Devonian sandstone rocks 
facing south, where taken by me in flower, and in part done flowering in the middle of 
June. 

Distribution: From the Thian-Shan and the Altai, through eastern Siberia to the 
Sea of Okhotsk. 

Vicia sepium L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1038; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 351; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 379; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 277; Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. I. p. 669; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 792, no. 368; KpM.i. <I).i. A.it. II (1903) p. 330. 

Very common in meadows and tliickets of foliage trees on islets in the rivers Yenisei 
and Abakan, where it begins flowering in the first half of June. The species is also ratlier 
frequently to be met with between Minusinsk and Kushabar. The specimens have, for the 
greater part, small, ovate or oval leaflets, to 3,5 cm. long, and 1,4 cm. broad, with truncate 
or even slightly emarginate apex, furnished with a fine point. The calyx is beset with 
short, spreading hairs, and has the teeth remarkably small. Specimens with compara- 
tively long and small, nearly lanceolate leaflets, and rather large, toothed stipules are also 
to be found in the material brought home. 

308 



Dish ihiilion: l''urn|)c. Silx-ria. noilliwards lo ;il)(>iil llic Aiclic (■.irclc. ;iii(l cnsl- 
waid.s roiinlitly lo l.akr l>aikal. soulli-w i'sUtii Asia, ('.asliiiicic. 

Vicia amoena Fisclu-r in \)('.. i'lodiom. II (1825) ]). 355; Lcdcb. Fl. All. III. p. .11:5: 
'rurcv.an. Cat. Haical. no. 'M2: l.riici). I'l I'.oss. 1, p. ()72: Tinrzan. I"l. liaical.-Daliui-. 
(1812) p. 788, no. :^(i2: Ki.r.i.i. 'I'.i An. 11 ilUO;}) p. ;};}(). 

Il a])))i'ars from llic rallici- rich inalcrial collected Dial lliis species is subjected to 
i^rcal \ai'ialions in lu'arly every resjieel. Koiisuinsky (.\cla llorl. l'clroi)ol. Ml. p. 
1523) separates 3 forms ol lliis one from eastern Asia. viz. /'. hipicaWvAw.i.. f. ohloiu/ifolid 
Ki:c.i:i„ and /". y/a/'/v/ KoKsii. (without diagnosis). The same forms also occur in my 
material, but as all transitions and coml)inalions are to be found between them, il is (piile 
impossible to .sei)arale di.stinct forms with well defined characters, and the decision 
w lure Ihe lines Ijetween them sliould be drawn, llms Ijecomes a mere matter of judge- 
inenl. I-"irslly, as to the hairiness there arc to l)e found all transitions between specimens 
with dense hairs and nearly quite glabrous ones. The leaves are 5 — 10 pinnate, and llie 
leaflets vary in shape from broadly ovate through all transitions to very lengthened, up to 
6 times as long as broad. Some leaflets are of about equal breadth throughout their 
lenght, others are broadest in the middle, and tapering to the ends, or they are nearly 
lanceolate and acuminate, tapering upwards fiom a broader base. The apices of the leaf- 
lets are generally broadly rounded, or they may be nearly truncate, or even slightly emar- 
ginatc; others are more or less acuminate and mucronate. For the rest, the leaflets vary 
very considerably in shape and size, even in the very same plant. In my material the 
maximal length of the leaflets is 3,3 cm., and the corresponding breadth 1,5 cm. Leaves 
w ilh broad leaflets have, as a general rule, few pairs, and leaves with narrower leaflets 
more pairs. The pubescence of the leaflets is, like that of the stem, much van'ing. The 
stipules are larger or smaller, with Ihe margin entire or toothed. It is, moreover, a rather 
characteristic fact that the leaflets frecpiently are not opposite, but often alternate. The 
flowers, which are to be found in a number of 10—15 in each raceme, are 15—18 mm. 
long. The raceme is about twice as long as the axillary leaf. The length of the pedicels 
is 2 — 3 nnn., and the bracts, wliicli, ))y the way. are deciduous early in season, vary from 
being small, fine, filiform to attaining a length of over 10 mm.. Iluis by far overtopping the 
pedicel itself. The species is of very common occurrence on islets in the rivers Yenisei 
and Abakan, especially in meadows and in thickets, where I have collected it in full 
flower in .lune. Besides, 1 have found the species to be rather common in the Urjankai 
country, about Ust Sisti-kem, at Ust Kamsara, and Ust Tara-kem. 

Distribulion: Soulhern and south-eastern Siberia, northwards lo al)oul (il '4° north 
lal.. norlhcrn Mongolia. China, Manchooria, Corea, Sakiialin. .Japan. 

Vicia mcgalotropis Ledeb. Fi. All. Ill, p. 344; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fi. .Ml. no. 
271; Ledel). Fi. Ross. I, p. ()71: Kpi.i.i. <Im. .V.n. II (1903) p. 331. 

var. fypica Traulv. Catal. Viricdi: P.oss. in Act. Hort. Petropol. Ill (1871) I. p. .50; 

h'|il''-'- 1- I'- 

309 



Ill shady lliickris near llic hanks ot Ihc Lower Sisli-kem. and al UsI Tara-keni. Y\w 
spechnt'us arc ])aill\' ])asl llow t'lini; hi Auyiisl. 

var. multicaulis (Ledel).) Tiaulv. 1. c. K|ii,ij. 1. c. V. /n;////Vr/;;//'.v Lcdel). FL All. Ill, 
p. 345; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 378; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 272: Lcdel). FL 
Ross. I, p. ()78: Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 789. no. 365. 

In opcMi woods of birch and other foliage trees near the river Abakan. Young flowers 
in Ihe middle of June. Varies considerably as to the pubescence. 
' Distribution: The species is distribuled in eastern Russia. Russian Turkestan, south- 

ern Siberia, northern Mongola. 

Vicia cracca L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1035; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 349; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 376; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 275; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 674; Tur- 
czan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 790, no. 366; K])u.i. <D.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 333. 

Common in thickets and meadows in the tracts about the rivers Yenisei and 
Abakan, at Karatus and Kushabar, in subalpine wooded tracts along the Amyl, at Ust 
Algiac, near Ust Sisli-kem, and al L^st Tara-kem. 

The specimens collected vary considerably as lo the pubescence and the floweriness. 
The specimens are generally rather flowery, the raceme is sometimes considerably longer 
than the axillary leaf, and the number of the flowers varying between 12 and 35, as a rule 
20 — 25. The corolla is 11 — 12 mm. long. The number of the leaflets is 16 — 20. As to the 
pubescence there seemed to occur all transitions between /. geniiina Trautv. 1. c. and/". 
canescens Trautv. 1. c. which both of them are only lo be considered as modifications 
in consequence of the habitats. The latter form seemed to be the most frequent one in 
the steppe region about the river Abakan, upon tlie whole in dry places, the former in 
the wooded tracts and in more himiid haljitats. In thickets on the banks of the Y'cnisei. 
near Minusinsk I have collected specimens of f. lilacina (Ledeb.) Trautv. 1. c. (\'. lilacina 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 348: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. (375;Kpbi.i. 1. c), and between Karatus and 
Kushabar specimens of a white flowered form. /'. albijlora Trautv. 1. c; Kpi.i.T. 1 c. In 
subalpine wooded tracts about the lipper Amyl I have collected a slender and fine form 
with comparatively few pinnae, and each specimen only with one raceme, containing 6 — 8 
flowers, the corollas of which are comparatively smaller, only 9 — 10 mm. long. Seemed 
to agree well with /. depaupemla Domin in Fkdde, Repert. I (1906) p. 13. The species 
has been found in flower from June to August. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Turkestan, Siberia, northern Mon- 
golia, norlhern Cliina, Corea, Sakhalin. Japan, North Africa. North America, Greenland. 

Vicia costata Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 346; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, ji. 677: Kpi.i.i. <l'.i. A.ti. 
II (1903) p. 335. 

On ojK'n. rocky .slopes on the river Ulu-kem: with partly empty pods at the end 
of August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia and northern Mongolia, about from Semipalatinsk 
to towards Lake Raikal. 

310 



Vici:i silvalica I.. Spec. IM. cd. il (17C.:'.) ]). lo:'..'); T.cdd). Vl All. III. p. Ml; Tiirczan. 

i:;il. r.au:il. no. i'.T.'): Kaicl. el Kiiil. Ijiuin. i'l. IL .Ml. no. 27:'.: I.cdcl). I'l. U«j.s.s. 1. j). G7(j; 
i'uivzan. Fl. Haicai.-Daliiu-. (1.S12) p. 787. no. iilil ( iiii.spiiiil Xlll ); li'pi.i.i. '\>.i. A.it. II (liXJiJ) 
p. 331. 

Ill woods of foliage trees near Kiisliahar. and also on llic rivcT Aiiiyl, neai" Pelropaw- 
low.sk. The .spccinion.s arc cliaiafU'iislic in lia\inn Ilic Icallcls coniparalively small and 
broadly ovate, 4 — 13 niui. in Icnglh, and 3 — mm. in Lreadlh. Tlic' raceme is vigorous, 
considerably longer than the axillary leaf, flowery, commonly willi 20 — 30 flowers. Tbe 
apex vi [hv keel is of a deep \iolcl colour. In fidl flower in Ilic middle of .luh'. 

Distribulion: Tlie greater part of luuope, Siberia, eastwards lo Trans Baikal, and 
norlli-wards lo Om' north lal. 

Vicia telra.spernia (L.j Moencli, .Melliud. PI. (17U1) p. 118; J»'i,i.i.i. 'Im A.ii. II (1S)U:5) 
p. 33(i. Hrimm letraspcrnuim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1039; Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 352; 
Karcl. ct Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 278: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. I, p. 663. 

Pretty connnon in Ihe tracts along the river Abakan, on Ilic islcls. in Ibickets and 
meadows, where I have collected it in flower and with young pods in the second half of 
.lune. All of the specimens are nearly completely glabrous; the pods are glabrate, with 1, 
rarely 3, seeds, /'. Icicjcfiipum (Ikkn. u. Godh. Fl. France (1848) p. 474. The stem is slender 
and relaxed: the flower comparatively small. onl\ ."> nun. long, single. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north, southern Siberia, eastwards lo Ihe 
govcrnmcnl of Yeniseisk, the Caucasus and south-western Asia lo Ilic norlli-weslcrn Ili- 
malaxas. C'.orca, .hipan. Norlh Africa. 

Vicia iiiiijuga A. Br. Ind. Sem. Ilorl. Bcrol. 18,^)3, App. 12. ()ri)bns litthijwidvs L. 
Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1027; Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 356; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 383; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 688; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 795. no. 373: l.'pi.i.i, <|).i. A.n. 
II (1903) p. 311. 

In dry places in meadows and thickets on the Lower Abakan, and in woods of coni- 
ferous and foliferous trees near Tagarski osero, south of Minusinsk, ("ollecled in full 
flower at the beginning of .hily. 

Distribulion: Through south-easLcrn Siberia, from the easlein jiart of Ihe .\llai, 
norlhwards lo about 58 north lat, Manchooria. Corea, China, norlhern ,lapan, Sakhalin. 

Vicia saliva L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1037: Ledeb. Fl. P.oss. I. p. Ii65. 
As a weed in fields by the road between Minusinsk and Kushabar. 
Distribulion: luiropc. soulh-weslern Asia, Siberia, North Africa, Norlh .\merica. 

Pisum sativum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1026: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 660. 

As a weed scattered in the cultivated districts between Minusinsk and Kushabar. 

Dislribulion: Europe, soulh-we.stern Asia. Siberia, the Himalayas, Norlh .\frica. 

311 



Lalhynis hiimilis Fischer in DC. Prodioiii. II, j). aTs (siil) <(Oiobiis)>) : '\i\rc/.i\n. Cal. 
r.aital. no. ;kS2: Tuirzan. Fl. Ikiical.-Dalinr. (1812) p. 79:). no. 371; U'l.i.u. <I'.i. \.u. II 
(1903) p. 337. Lalhijnis nlluicus Lcdeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 355; Karel. cl Kiril. Enum. PI. FI. 
.\1(. no. 282. /.. allaicLis /i hiunilis Ledeh. Fl. Ross. I, p. 682. 

In shady woods of foliferous trees on the Upper Sisli-kcni. In part done flowering at 
the end of July. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, southern Siberia, northwards to about 62K>° north 
lat., northern Mongolia, Manchooria. the western Himalayas? 



'o^ 



Lathyrus tiiberosus L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1033; Ledeb. FI. Alt. III. p. 353; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 281; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 682: Kpi.u. <I>.i. .V.rr. II (lii03) 
p. 338. 

Rather common on islets in the Lower Abakan, especially in meadows and open 
luush-woods, etc. Collected flowering at the end of June. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to southern Scandinavia (introduced), south- 
wards to middle Italy, south-western Asia, soutliern Siberia, eastwards to the government 
of Yeniseisk, North Africa. 

Lathyrus prateiisis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1033; Ledeb. FI. Alt. Ill, p. 353; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 380; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 279; Ledeb. FI. Ross. I, p. 
683; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 792, no. 369; Kpi.i.i. <I).i. A.it. II (1903) p. 338. 

The material collected shows that the species is subjected to great variations. The 
leaflets are generally narrowly lanceolate, broadest in the middle, and tapering to^^ ards 
the ends. 3 — 4 times as long as broad. The stipules are generally somewhat shorter than 
the petiole, to only one half of its length. The petals are sometimes of a greenish tinge. Scat- 
tered on hills and in meadows on islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, at Kushabar, 
in the taiga territory on the Amyl, near Ust .\Igiac, Ust Sisti-kem, the Kamsara, and at 
Tapsa. The species begins flowering about the middle of June. 

■ Distribution: Europe, Caucasia and south-western Asia to the Himalayas and Cash- 
mere, Siberia, northwards to the Arctic Circle, and eastwards to Trans Baical, northern 
Mongolia, Japan? 

Lathyrus pisiformis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 10.34: Ledeb. FI. Alt. III. p. 354; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. L p. 685; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 791, no. 372; Kpi.i.i. 'I'.i. A.Tr. 
II (1903) p. 339. 

In mixed woods of foliferous and coniferous trees about Ust Sisti-kem, and on the 
Dora Steppe. Flowering and in i)art done flowering in the first half of August. 

Distribution: Eastern portions of middle Europe, south-western Asia, Siberia, north- 
wards to about 61'-j° north lat., and eastwards roughly to the government ' of Irkutsk, 
northern Mongolia. 

312 



I.alliyrus palustiis L. Spi-c. PI. c-d. II (170;}) p. UHl: Ia-cU-I). M. All. III. p. 355; 
Tuivzaii. Cat. IJaical. no. ;i81; Karcl. fl Kiiil. luuim. PI. PI. All. no. 280; Lcdflx Fl. Ho.ss. I, 
p. ()8G; Turczan. Fl. Raioal.-Daluir. (1812) p. 793, no. 370; Kpi.i.i. <l).i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 340. 

Tiu' sj)('ci(>s is MM V c'oiiuiioii in uioisl meadows and in lliickcls about llie river.s 
Yenisei and .\l)akan. and also on llu' islets, and begins flowering here about Ibe middle 
of .Tnne. It also ocems in Ibe I'l jankai eountiy. near Ust Sisti-Uem, and I'st 'I'aia-kem. in 
sliadv tbickets. 

In eontradistinelion iiom A.sciikhson et (in.\i;uNi:ii (Synops. VI, 2 (1910) p. lOiU), 
maintaining that Ibis spceies is rather little variable, it seemed — at any rate to judge 
from my Asiatic material — to vary rather eonsiderai)iy. Thus, liie ricii material of this 
species collected by me in soutluin Siberia and tiie L'rjankai countiy. varies consider- 
ably, especially in the number, length and breadth of the leaflets, and also in the density 
of the pubescence. All of the .specimens collected are more or less puberulent; comple- 
tely glabrate specimens do not occur in my -collections. Even in specimens which at 
first sight seemed to be quite glabrous, the sliort stalks of tiie leaflets, Ibe main veins 
beneath, and Irequently also the youngest pails of the plants, at least, proved to be pu- 
bescent. The calyx-teeth are likewise always distinctly ciliate, while the calyx, for the rest, 
may be frequently completely glabrous. The most common form seemed to have the 
stem, the peduncles and the under sides of the leaves bain, the upper sides of the leaves 
being glabrous or onlj^ pubescent along the main veins. There are to be found all tran- 
sitions between nearly completely glabrate forms and specimens \\hieb are densely pu- 
bescent. Such a form, especially much puberulent all over the phnil. in which the 
calyx is also much and distinctly puberulent, has been collected by me at Ust Kamuishto. 
A much hain' form of this kind has been described by LEOEnoiR.Fl. Ross. I, p. 68(5, under 
the name of f. pilosiis, to which the said specimens must probably be referred. Any dif- 
ference in the size of these specimens or in the size of the stipules, as described bj' 
Li-:i)i:i5orii in /'. pilosus. I have not been able to point out in my material. The stipules 
seemed, as a rule, in their size and shape, to be dependent on the leaflets; specimens with 
large leaflets have mostly large slij)ules too, and vice-versa, specimens with broad leaflets 
have broad stipules, while the small-leaved specimens are characteristic in having nar- 
row, small, and acuminate stipules. 

In thickets near Askys I have collected a form with very broad leaflets, to 11 nun. 
broad, and 3 — 4 times as long. The leaves are 2 — 3 pinnate, with broad stipules, f. 
Idlifoliiis Lamhertye, Cat. PI. Marne (1846) p. 53. Is likely only to be considered as a 
modification due to the habitat, viz. a shade-loving form. On the islets in the Yenisei, 
between Minusinsk and P^st Abakansk, there occur specimens with very narrow and 
long leaflets. The breadth of the leaflets varies between 2 and 4 mm. and the length is 
15—20 times the breadth. The leaves, whieii have long, narrow, mucronulate stipules, 
arc 4—5 pinnate, /'. linnnifoliiis Si.n. in DC. Prodom. II (1825) p. 371. The specimens 
of the latter, mentioned by Komahow from eastern A.sia (flM. JlaiibtrA-yiiiii 2. II (1904) p. 
628). where it is verv common, have only 1—3 pinnate leaves, by which character they 

29 313 



diller clistinclly Ironi my spcfiiiu'n.s. II seciued upon llir whole, in Ihis spoc-ics, as in 
the genus Vicia. Ilial I'oinis witli Ijioad leaflets mostly have less pinnae than leaves cha- 
racterized by narrow pinnae. 

Distribution: Europe, southwards to middle Italy, the Caucasus, Siberia, northern 
Mongolia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin. .Japan. North America. 

Lathyrus Gmelini Fritsch in Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math.— Nalurw. CI. CIV 
(1895) p. 479. Orobiis lulciis L., Ledcb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 361; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 283. Orobiis lulciis /i oricnialis Fisch. et Mey., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 690; Kpw.i. 
<1).T. A.IT. II (1903) p. 343. 

In subalpine wooded tracts about the Upper Amyl, and in the Altaian, on the Upper 
Sisti-kem, in mixed wood of coniferous and foliferous trees. In part done flowering and 
with nearly ripe fruits at the end of July. 

Distribution: Siberia, from the Ural to Trans Baikal, and northwards to about 58'' 
north lat., northern Mongolia, Turkestan, the western Himalayas. 

Orobus alpestris Waldsl. et Kit. PI. Par. Hungar. (1803-12) II, p. 133; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ah. Ill, p. 358; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 689; l^pw.i. Oa. A.rr. II (1903) p. 342. 

On slopes on the Upper Sisti-kem. Past flowering in the second half of July. 
Distribution: Southern Siberia (the Altai and Sayansk districts), northern Mongolia. 

Hedysaruni obscurum L. Syst. Nat. ed. X (1759) p. 1171;<l»(',i,qeiii;(i, (>rw()[)i, PuAa //e(/_(/- 
sar.49in Act. Hort. Petropol. XIX, p. 231; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. p. .311; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 
706; Rasiner, Monogr. Hcdijsar. no. 5; Kpi.i.i. <I>.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 347. H. con sang iiineiim 
Runge, Enum. AH. p. 73. H. inundnlum Tuiczan. Cat. Raical. no. 366; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1842) p. 781, no. 356. 

var. lasiocarpum (Ledeb.) Fedlsch. 1. c. 

In the Altaian, on the banks of the Upper Sisli-kem. in alpine meadows. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Caucasia, Trans Caucasia, Rus- 
sian Turkestan, Siberia, northern Mongolia. Sakhalin, North America. 

Hedysariim polyniorphuni Ledeb. Fl. All. III. p. 338; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 701; 
Basiner, Monogr. Hedijsar. no 20; Kiiuji. <I>.i. A.ix. II (1903) p. 346. 

On dry, open steppe, and on rocky slopes at Ust Tara-kem; almost past flowering in 
the second half of august. 

Distribution; South-eastern Russia, Russian Turkestan, soulhern Siberia, north- 
wards to about 56 north lat., and eastwards to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

Onobrychis viciaefolia Scopoli, Fl. Carniolica ed. II, 2 (1772) p. 76. 0. saliva Lam. 
Fl. France II (1778) p. 652; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 708; Turczan. Fl. Raical.-Dahur. ( 1842) 
p. 783, no. 358; KpM.T. <lM. A.rr. II (1903) p. 349. O. arenaria Ledeb. Fl. Ah. Ill, p. 342. 
0. carpatica Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 369. 

314 



Wry coinmoii in meadows and in ()])('ii lirusii-wood on islets in llic Lower Aba- 
kan, on llie liei-keni. neat llie Dora SU'ppe, and on fioo(l-|)lains near I si Tara-iieni. In 
lull llower al llie end of June, pasl llowering and willi lipc pods in llie second liall of 
Augusl. 

Distrihulion: Middle and .southern I'.urope, soulli-w cstern Asia, soulliern Siheria, 
northwards to ahoul .")(> north lat.. and eastwards roughly to Trans Haikal, noilliein 
Mongolia, North Afriea. 

<i e r ii II i 11 <• e ae SI. IIILAIKi:. 

Geranium sil)irieiiiii L. Sjiee. I'l. ed. 11 (lyii;)) |). \)7)~: Kiuilli, (irntiiidcciic in 1-iigl. 
IMlan/enr. 11. y.\ (IV. 11i'.», 1912) p. 195; l.edeh. V\. Alt. 111. p. ^liT: Ture/an. Cat. liaicai. no. 
27(1: Ledeb. Fl. Hos.s. 1, p. 4.59: Tnrczaii. Fl. l'>aieal.-l )aliiir. (1812) p. (12 I. no. 2(1."): Kpi.i.i. 
||M, A.iT. I (1901) p. 19:5. 

1^'ound in flower in llie seeoiid iialf of June, in inoisl. grass-grown jilaees on islels in 
the river Abakan, near I'st Kamuishto. Near Kushai)ai . at Hie beginning of July, I have 
collecled sonu' speeiinens of this one, with very low, deeuiiibenl, or trailing sleins, only 
3 — 8 cm. long, with spreading l)raiulies and petioles, and smalU'i', sometimes only o-parl- 
ed leaves. For tfie rest, Ihey agree perfectly with the typical j)lanl, and I consider them 
only to be reduced starved form.s. The species also occurs in meadows, near Ust Kam- 
sara, where collected by me in fruit in the middle of .August. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Russia (occurring also strayed in middle Euro- 
pe), the Caucasus, Turkestan, Tibet, the Himalayas, Siberia, Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan, 
Noitli America (introduced). 

Geranium albiflorum Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 230; Knuth, Geraniaceae in Engl. Pflau- 
zenr. H. 53 (IV, 129, 1912) p. 124; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 282: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. 
Fl. Alt. no. 194; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 463; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) ji. ()30. no. 
271; Kptu. *ji. A.Tr. I (1901) p. 194. 

In open coniferous forest in the Amyl taiga, and on slopes, etc., near Ust Algic. With 
flowers in the second half of July. 

Distribution: Eastwards from the Tliiaii-Shan. through Siberia and northern Mon- 
golia, roiighlv to Trans l^aikal. 

Geranium pratcnse L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 954; Knuth, (ieraniaceae in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. II. .53 (IV, 129, 1912) p. 127; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 229; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
279; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 191; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 466: Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1812) p. 627. no. 268; Kpi.u. (I).:. A.it. I (1901) p. 19.5. 

Scattered in meadows and in thickets on islets in the Lower Abakan, and on slopes 
about Ust Sisti-kem. where collected in flower and with half ripe fruits in June— .Vugust. 
The stems are rather densely pube.scent. with spreading or retrorse, rather coarse hairs, 
their upper parts and also the peduncles and sepals, glandulous. with dense purple- or 
violet-tipped glandular hairs. 

315 



Dislribulion: Europe, Turkestan, eashvards to Tibet and the Himalayas, Siberia and 
Mongolia, eastwards to the Khingan mountains, Kamlchatka, China, Corea, Japan, North 
America (introduced). 

Geranium sihaticimi L. Spec. PL ed. II (1763) p. 954: Knuth, Geraniaceae in Enjil. 
Pflanzenr. H. .53 (VI. 12i), 1912) p. 119; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 465: Kptu. ilu. A.it. I (1901) 
p. 194. 

Scattered in the taiga territory about the rivers Amyl and Sisti-kem, flowering in 
July. Besides the typical plant I have here also met with .specimens the petals of which 
scarcely exceed the sepals. /. parviflonun A. Bl. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, eastwards to about the Yenisei (the Baikal 
distiict?), introduced into Norlli America. 

Geranium pseudosibiricum I. Meyer in Bohm. Abhandl. (1786) p. 238; Knuth, Gera- 
niaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 53 (IV, 129, 1912) p. 124; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 469; Kpbi.i. 
<t)ji. Aax. I (1901) p. 196. G. laetiim Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 228: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. 
Fl. Alt. no. 190. G. bifoliiim Petr. apud Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 62; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1842) p. 628. no. 269. G. cocntleiini Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 281. 

Pretty common in the territory traversed, especially in the subalpine wooded tracts 
about the Upper Amyl and the Sisti-kem, where I have collected it flowering and with 
incipient fruit formation in the middle of July. At Kalna I have collected a form witli 
veiy small petals, only about 3,5 — 4 mm. long, scarcely exceeding the sepals. For 
the rest, it agrees with the typical form. About Ust Tara-kem the species occurs on flood- 
plains, in woods of larch intermingled with various foliage trees. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, through the greater part of Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

Geranium Robertianum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 955; Knuth, Geraniaceae in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 53 (IV, 129. 1912) p. 64: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 233; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 473: 
KpH.i. 4>j. A.1T. I (1901) p. 198. 

In cracks and crevices on sloping cliffs, near Ust Algiac, in full flower in July. 

Distribution: Europe, temperate Asia. North Africa, North and South America. 

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Herit. ex Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. I. 2 (1789) p. 414; Knuth, 
Geraniaceae in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 53 (IV, 129, 1912) p. 274: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 476; 
Kpti.i. $jr. A.iT. I (1901) p. 199. 

At Kushabar, along road-sides, and in dry, grass-grown places near the village, taken 
by me with flowers and fruits in the middle of Julv. All of the specimens are rather 
densely glandular-haii-y above. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, south-western Asia to Tibet and the Himalayas, 
India, scattered through Siberia to Kandchatka. North Africa. Abyssinia, America, 
Australia. 

310 



Krodiiiin Sfcphaiiiiuuim W'illd. Spec. PI. Ill (1800) p. ^25; Knulli, Ceraniaccap in 
Ew^i I'llaii/cnr. 11. .Y; (IV, 12'.). 1'J12) p. 272; I.cdd). Fl. All. Ill, p. 221; Turczan. Cat. Hai- 
cal. no. 283: Karcl. el Kiril. Imuihi. PI. ¥\. All. no. 19(1; Ledcb. Fl. Hoss. I, p. 47.'); Tiirc/.aii. 

I"i. I'.aieal.-D.iluii-. (1812) p. (iiU, no. 272: 1;|m,i.i. iIm. A.m. 1 ( I'.MII ) |). 199. 

Prelly eoiiimon on islcis in llic Lower Aliakaii, and ncai- lialiiialionb al I'sl Si.sli- 
ki'ni. ("ollccli'd wilh flowers and ripe fruits in ,)unc— Au^usl. 

Dishihulion: The ('auca.su.s, sonthern Siberia, eastwards lo the .\nioor region. D/.nn- 
garia, Tibet, norlhern Mongolia, Manehooria, Corea, China. 



15 !i 1 s 11 III i II ii (• e ii (' S. F. (JIMV. 

Iiiipaliens noli tani»ere L. Spee. PI. ed. II (17();5) ]). i;529: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1. j). 265; 
Inrczan. Cat. Baieal. no. 284; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. LSI: Ture/an. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1812) 
p. 632, no. 273: K|,m.i. -Im. A.ir. I (1901) p. 200. 

In thickets on a brooklet near Kushabar, and connnon along brook-.sides and in moi.st 
shady places in the Amyl taiga, at Ust -Mgiac. Fst Sisli-kem, and at Ust Tara^keni. Flower- 
ing and with ripe fruits in .luly and al liie ix'ginning of .Vugusl. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, liirougli Siberia rigjil up lo (he Sea 
of Okhotsk, nortiiern Mongolia, eastern .\sia. Sakhalin, ,Iapan. 



x a ii (1 a c e a e LiNDL. 

Oxalis Acetosella L. Spec. PI. ed. U (1762) p. 620; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 188; Turczan. 
Cat. Baieal. no. 284; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 482: Turczan. F"l. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 633, 
no. 274: 1;],m.i. 'I'.t. A.rr. I (1901) p. 201. 

Only rather rare in llie subalpine coniferous forests about the Upper .\mvl. Flower- 
ing and past flowering in Ihe middle of July. 

Dislribution: Europe, Caucasia, the Himalayas, Siberia, eastern Asia, Sakhalin, 
.Japan, North Africa, North America. 



Z .V a: (» p h y I 1 a c e a e LlXDL. 

Tribiilus lerrestris L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 544; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 107; Turczan. 
Cat. Baieal. no. 286: Ledeb. Fl. Ro.s.s. I, p. 486 et 786; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
635, no. 275; Kpu.i. *.i. A.n. 1 (1901) p. 204. 

In dry, sandy places near Ust Tapsa, where it is of very common occurrence near 
habitations. Collected willi ripe fruits al the end of .\ugust. 

Distribution: Southein Europe. Caucasia, and soulli-weslcrn .\sia to Tibet and 
India. Ceylon, south-western Siberia, nortiiern China, Mongolia. .lapan. Aral)ia, North 
and South Africa. Australia, America, atlventive from Europe. 

317 



Linaci'ae DlMOHT. 

Linuni pcrcnne L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 397; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 426. L. sibiri- 
ciim DC. Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 440; Turczan. Cal. Baical. no. 272; Kai el. el Kiril. Eniim, PI. 
Fl. Alt. no. 180: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 617. no. 261; Kpi.i.T. <I).i. A.rr. I 
(1901) p. 182. 

Scattered in the steppe area about the river Abakan, and between Minusinsk and 
Kushabar. where chiefly occurring in drj' meadows, on rocks, etc. The species varies 
considerably according to the nature of the habitat. On dry, sandy steppes, and on dry, 
sunny rocks, as for instance on the Abakan Steppe, it is of a lower growth, on an average 
15 — 20 cm. high, rarelv uji to 30 cm. high, simple or only slightly ramified in the upper 
part, w illi numerous, dense, appressed-ascending, filiform, one-nerved leaves, the margins 
of ^^■hich are distinctly revolute, or even nearly inrolled. The pedicels are comparative- 
ly short, the sepals equal, siibobtuse. or only with a minute point at the summit, without 
distinct ribs. The whole plant is completeh' glabrous, of a dull, glaucous colour. This 
form seemed to be nearly allied to f. bavaricum (Schultz) Aschers. et Graebn. Synops. 
Vll ( 1914) p. 203. 

In moister places, on the contrary, it attains a greater height, and is more flowery; the 
leaves are more distant and broader, and often considerably longer, to 2 cm. long, nearlv 
lanceolate, generally 3-nerved: the sepals, at least in their lower parts, with 3 or 5 distinct 
ribs, and frequently distinctly acuminate at the apex, /. lalifolinm 11. Beyer, Verb. B. 
V. Brandenb. XCIV (1899). 

All intermediate forms, however, are to be found between these, according to the 
conditions of the soil. The species begins flowering in the second half of June. Withering 
remains of this species have also been found by me on the steppes on the Ulu-kem. at the 
beginning of September. 

Distribution: Southern Europe, the Caucasus and south-western Asia to Tibet and 
the Himalayas, India, Siberia (also in the arctic parts), northern Mongolia, Japan. The 
species has also been reported from North America, which, however, is probably due to a 
mistake of identity with the nearly allied L. Lewisii PrRSCH. 

P o 1 y g a 1 a (* t a c e a e Jl'SS. 

Polygala sibiricuni L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 987; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. p. 248: Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 211: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 269; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
312, no. 199; Regel, PL Radd. (1861) p. 517; Chodat, Monogr. Polijqala in Mem. Soc. Phys. 
Geneve XXXL 2 (1893) p. 347; Kpbiji. $.i. Ajt. 1 (1901) p. 130. 

Of rather common occurrence in the tracts about the Lower Abakan, especially in 
dry meadows, on rocks, etc., where it begins flowering in the middle of June. The speci- 
mens collected belong to /. latifolia Ledeb. 

Distribution: Siebenbin-gen, middle and southern Russia, the Caucasus, 'Afghanistan, 
the Himalayas, southern Siberia, northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, Japan. 

318 



I'oly.Hala fumosmu S. liUulii. Hoi. liaiidl). 11 (\t\)(>) p. Sli: Lwkb. 11. All. Ill, p. 217: 
Karri, il Kiiil. Kiumi. PI. l"l. .\il. no. liil; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1X12; p. 'MA. no. 
201; Lt'dc'b. I'M. Ross. I, p. 271. /', i>iil(}(tris sui)sp('i-. cDinosd ('.iiodal, Moiio^r. I'olfifiiilii 
(18<)3) p. 45:5. P. milgaris /i conwsn Wcnk'v. PI Radd. (18(11) j). 514; Kpr.r.i. <l>.i. .\.it. I 
(inoi) ]). i:!l. />. hijhndn Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 212. jTah. X, Fig. 1]. 

This t'xci'odini^ly polyniorphou.s specios is abundani in llic Minnsin.sk dishict. 
will re I iiavo collcclod a raliui- lith nialt-rial. w liicii did not seem to i)c (juitc indcn- 
lical with any of Ilic nnnicroiis I'oinis and xariclics described IVoni I'.urojje. My male- 
rial. orit;inalin;4 I'orni \arious localilies in sonllu'iii .Siberia, however, seemed to lie 
(piile lionu>i;ene()Us. 

The specimens brought home seemed, in various respects, to constitute di.stinct inter- 
mediates to P. Xic(U'cnse Risso. The stems are numerous, high and vigorous, to 3.'') cm. 
high, ascending at the base, frequently a little lignified. finely puberulent. generally sim])le 
or emitting small biamhes al)o\c. each of them lerminatiuL; in a lew-flowered raceme. 
The lower leaves are comiJiiiatix el v short and bioad, ovale-sj^atnlate. the upper ones lan- 
ceolate, 2 — 4 cm. long, and 2 — 4 mm. broad, glabrate or slightly eiliate. 1 lie stems are 
leaved right up to the flower cluster. The raceme is flowery, densely flow ered and pyra- 
midical when young, later on somewhat prolonged and more loosely flowered, during the 
flowering commonly 5—7 cm. long, later on increasing to 10 — 12 cm. in length, and con- 
taining, on an average, 30 — 35 flowers. The pedicels are short, 1,.")— 2 mm. long, slightly 
wing-angled. The middle bracteole is 3,5—4 mm. long, bluish, about twice as long as the 
pedicel, broadly lanceolate, later on clapped togettier in a boat's shape. The 2 lateral brac- 
teoles are .shorter, of about the same length as the pedicel, colourless, membranous. The 
i)racteoles are caducous early in season. The flowers are very large, considerably larger 
than in the typical plant. The 3 outer sepals are 3—4 mm. long, ^i — 'A of the length of the 
wings, broadly lanceolate, of a bluish green colour, and sparingly eiliate. The wings are 
finely eiliate. large, 7—9 nun. long, and about 5 mm. broad, ovale, obtuse or subaculish at 
the apex, and furnished wilh 1 greenish, rather coarse, generally unbranched middle 
vein, and 2 fainter lateral veins, the ramihcations of which are not reticularly connected, 
or only slightly so. The wings are of a bluish-violet, gradually fading to greenish yellow. 
The corolla, of a much darker colour than the wings, generally i)rotrudes a httle beyond 
the latter. The fruit is very shortly .stalked, cunealely tapering below, and cordately in- 
cised above, narrowly winged at the margin. The present plant seemed in vanous respects 
to constitute transition between Poljif/dla comosum and l^olijqula Nirncrnse. The rich, 
rather densely flowered raceme, distinctly tufted when young, recalls the former, while 
the large flowers and the shape of the wings are most suggestive of Polijqala Xicaeense. 
The above form is of rather common occurrence in the tracts about the Lower Aba- 
kan, wheic I have collected it in several places on the steppes between Minusinsk and 
Ust Abakansk, in dry. grass-grown localilies, in thicket of Caraijana (uborescens, together 
with |)lanls such as Solidacjo yinjaiirea. Fraqnria viridis. Iris ritlhenica, Stelldria giami- 
nea, and the like. Flowering and with fruits in the first half of June. 

319 



Distribution: Middle Europe, southwards to northern Italy and the north of the Bal- 
kan Peninsula, northwards in Finland and Sweden, the Caucasus, Siberia, eastwards to 
Trans Baikal. 

E u i» h o r li i a c e a e St. HlLVlHE. 

Euphorbia altaica C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 190; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 5G5; 
Kl.i.i.i. a>.i. A.Ti. V (1909) p. 1189. 

In the Altaian, on the Upper Sisti-kem, in alpine meadows about the limit of tree 
vegetation, where rather common. Collected with young fruits at the end of July. 

Distribution: Russian Turkestan, the Altai and Sayansk districts. 

Euphorbia alpina C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Ait. IV, p. 186: Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 81; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 1003; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 561: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1854) p. 357, no. 1005; Regel, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 353, no. 113; Kpi.i.i. *.!. A.it. V (1909) 
p. 1187. 

On stony, grass-grown slopes in tlie subalpine taiga territory about the Upper Amyl 
and the Upper Algiac, near the limit of tree vegetation. In full flower about the middle 
of July. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, from the government of Tomsk eastwards to about 
Irkutsk and Trans Baikal, where occurring rather sparingly. 

Euphorbia lutescens C. A. Meyer in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 194; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. 
PL Fl. Alt. no. 814; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 568; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 354, no. 116 et 
468; KpM.i. «D.i. A.it. V (1909) p. 1190. 

On the Bei-kem, near Ust Sisti-Kem, and at Utinski porog. in moist meadows and 
thickets; in the Altaian, on the Upper Sisti-kem. it ascends riglit up to above the tree 
limit, where found by me in abundance, with ripe fruits in July. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia (southern parts of the governments of Tomsk and 
Yeniseisk, northw ards to 61° north lat), northern Mongolia. 

Euphorbia Esula L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 660; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 181; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 1005; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL FL Alt. no. 807; Ledeb. FL Ross. 
III. p. 575; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1854) p. 359, no. 1007; Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 
354, no. 118 et p. 367, 468; Kpbu. <I)ji. A.it. V (1909) p. 1192. 

Very common on the Abakan Steppe, in dry, grass-grown places, in gravelly and 
sandy localities, near cultivated fields, etc., where I have collected it with flowers in the 
middle of June. The specimens collected partly belong to /. genuinn Boiss. (in D(>. 
Prodrom XV, p. 160), partly to /. cyparissioides Borss. (L c. j). 161. E. caesin Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PL Fl. Alt. p. 743. E. Ciiparissias ^ pubescens Ledeb. FL Alt. IV, p. 180. E. 
Cyparissias L. Turczan. 1. c. p. 359, no. 1008; Herder, PL Radd. (1892) p. 359, no. 122). I 
have also found the species near habitations at Ust Kamsara, with fruits in August. 

320 



Dish il)iili()n: Ciicalci- piirl of Europe, the Caucasus and soulh-wcsteni A,si;i, soulli- 
ern Siberia (in llic Yenisei valley nortliwaids to (12 iioilli lal.. in eastern Siberia noilli- 
wards iiL;ht up lo TO'/ norlb lal.). noillicin Nb)nf.;()lia, eastern Asia, .Ia|)an. 

4 II I I i 1 I- i (' li iic e a e IJMM.. 

Callilrielu- veriia L. Spec. IM. id. II {\H:2) p. (1; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dabui. (1814) 
p. 230, no. 15(); Ilei^ehnaier, Monoj^r. in N'ci li.. Hoi. Vcr. ISrandenburg IX (1867) p. 1; ibid. 
X (18ChS) p. KM). C ucrnalis Kiilz. in I'.ciciienb. le. Cril. p. 175; Ledeh. I'l. P.oss. TT. p. 121. 
C. vernn L. /i di'IikiUs Kiit/.., K"i)i>i.i. <i>.i. A.ir. 11 (1903) p. 111. 

Conimon in small ponds etc., on islets in llie Yenisei, nt'ai- I'st Abakansk, in pools 
and slai^nanl water between Minusinsk and Kusiiabar. on liir Tara-kem, near Kokus, and 
in swamps on liu' Doia Sli'p])('. CollccU'd willi young fruits al llic ])eginning of .lune. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, noilheni Mongolia, Turkestan, the Ivist Indies, China, 
Japan. North Africa. North America. Greenland. Australia. 

K III |i e t r a c e a e IJMH,. 

Empetium iiigiuni L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1450; Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. IV, p. 292: Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 762: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 555; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18.54) 
p. 354. no. 1003: Herder. PI. Radd. (1892) p. 349, no. Ill et p. 36(): K|,i,i.i. 'D.i, A.rr. V(1909) 
p. 1182. 

Common in the taiga territory on the Upper Amyl and in llie .Vllaian. right uj) lo the 
jjerennial snow, in places grown with messes and lichens. Sjiecimens collected al the 
end of .Inly, are past flowering, bearing half ripe fruits. 

Distribution: Europe, in the southern parts only on the mountains, the Caucasus, 
Asia Minor, Siberia, northwards to 71^ 20' in the Y'enisei valley, norlhern Mongolia. Kamt- 
chatka, Sakhalin, .lapan, Greenland, North America. 

Malvaceae Xeck. 

Malva horealis Wallmann in Liljebl. Sv. Fl. ed. 3: Ledeb. Fl. All. Ill, p. 234; Karel. ct 
Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 181; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 436; Kpbi.i. «l'.i. A.tt. I (1901) p. 186. 

Pretty common in waste places, along road-sides, and as a weed about Karalus and 
Kushabai", where 1 have found it in flower and with ripe fruits in the firsl half of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, eastwards lo about the Yenisei, Turkestan, 
llie Himalayas, India. 

1{ li a III II a (■ e a e DrMOHT. 

Rhamnus Frangiila L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 280; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 252; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. I, p. 503; Kpbi.i. <l).r. A.ir. I (1901) p. 207. 

Scattered in the Amyl taiga, where especially occurring in thickets and in slightly 
moist places. 

Distribution: Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and south-western Asia, Siberia, 
eastwards roughly lo the Y'enisei. 

321 



H J peri c a c c a o LlMH,. 

Hypericum Ascyron L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1763) p. 1102; Maxim, in Mel. Biol. XI, p. 
162; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. Ill, p. 363; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 274; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 446; 
Turczau. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 621, no. 263; Kj.i.i.t. <&.!. A.n. I (1901) p. 188. 

The specimens collected belong to the typical plant, with long petals, 3—3,5 cm. 
long, and with short sepals, only about 1 cm. long. The plants are generally 3-flowered. 
Number of styles generally 5, rarely only 4. 

Scattered near Kushabar, in open copse wood of foliage ti-ees, mostly in slightly 
humid places. Specimens collected about the middle of July in flower, and in part done 
flowering. 

Distribution: Siberia, from the governments of Tomsk and Semipalatinsk to Kamt- 
chatka. Manchooria, Corea. northern China, south-eastern Mongolia, Japan. North 
America. 

Hypericum perforatum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1104; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. p. 364; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 185; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 447; Kphi.T. 'l).i. A.rr. I 
(1901) p. 189. 

In dry thickets, on hills and slopes near Karatus and Kushabar. In flower and partly 
done flowering in the first half of July. Collected with fruits in the middle of Augusl, on 
dry hills near Ust Sisti-kem, and at Ust Kamsara. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, western and middle parts of Siberia, south-western 
Asia to the western Himalayas, northern Mongolia, western China, North Africa, North 
America (introduced). 

Hypericum hirsutum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1105; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. p. 365; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 186; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 449; Kpbi.i. <l\i. A.it. 1 
(1901) p. 189. 

J open brush-wood, on declivities, and the like, in the wooded steppe region about 
Karatus and Kushabar, scattered on suimy, dry, southern slopes in the Amyl taiga, at Ust 
Sisti-kem and Ust Kamsara. In full flower in July, partly with fruits in August. 

Disti'ibution: Europe, the Caucasus, Siberia, eastwards to aljout the Yenisei, Rus- 
sian Turkestan, north-western Mongolia. 



Hypericum elegans Stephan apud Willd. Spec. PI. Ill, p. 1469; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. III. 
p. 368; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 450; KpLu. <I)j. A.it. I (1901) p. 190. 

On stony declivities and in groves south of Minusinsk. In full flower in the early 
days of July. 

Distribution: Middle and south-eastern Europe sou.th-western Siberia, -eastwards 
roughly to the Yenisei. 

822 



T a III a r i i- a <- r a c LlMM.. 

Myricaria daviirica Mliixiil). in Liimaca II, j). 278; Lrdolj. Fl. All. 111. ]>. 221: Biiiifjc, 
Eniini. Alt. j). .5',): Turc/an. (",al. Uaical. no. 1()5; Lcdch. V\. Ro.ss. II. p. i:i2: Turczan. V\. 
Baical.-Dahur. (181 1) p. 2:57. no. 456; Kpi.i.i. <I'.i, A.n. II (1903) p. 440. 

On sandy and slonv ii\ ('i-i)anks on llic Yrnisci. near U.st Abakansk. where forming 
shrub.s of about a man's hciyiit. ('.oilericd l)\' me in full flower at the beginning of .Inne. 
On the I'lu-kem. near Hjelo.sarsk, done flowering at the end of .\ugust. 

Distribution: 'liuough southern Siberia from tlie 'rhian-Slum. through the .\ltai and 
Sayansk regions to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

Viol a (• f a <> IK". 

Viola Komarovii Becker. Violae Asiat. et Austral, in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. XXXIV II. 
2 (1916) J). 2;)7. V. silvcslris Ledeb. Fl. Boss. I, p. 253 j). p. (quoad pi. altaic, baical. el 
kamtschat.). V. cnnina ^ siiheslris Regel, PI. Badd. (1861) p. 490, no. 261 p. p.' 

Large and well-grown specimens have been collected by me in the subal|)ine regions 
al>oul the Upper Amy! and al Ust Algiac. The heighl of the specimens is about 20 cm. The 
leaves are always cordalely incised al the base, their breadtli from 2 to 3,5 cm., their length 
from 2,5 to 4 cm., the apex rather obtuse, the margin slightly crenale. The stipules arc 
comparatively large, to 18 mm. long, and 8 mm. broad, the margin always rather deeply 
and argute serrate. The plant is completely glabrous, or tlie stipules and the leaves may 
be finely ciliale. Taken with ripe fruits in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Siljeria. from about the Upper Ob to Kamtchatka and the Amoor 
Province, the Sayansk distiict. Sakhalin, .Japan. 

Viola mirabilis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1326; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 259; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 199; Ledeb. Fl. Boss. I p. 250; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 303, 
no. 188: Regel, PI. Badd. (1861) p. 481, no. 260, excl. var. Langsdorffii: Kphu. <I).i. A.rr. I 
(1901) p. 1-J3: JM-i.-i.-epb, •I>in.ii;iini.ia wb <I>e;;>ieiiKo, <I>.i. A;(iaT. Poeciii S (1915) p. 2S. 

var. subglabra Ledeb. Fl. Boss. I, p. 251; IjeKKepi, I. c. 

In rather dry thickets of foliferous trees, near Karalus. Past flowering in the first half 
of Jiilv. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Eurojic. Caucasia, through Siberia, northwards 
to about 55 north lat., Manchooria. .Ia])an. 

Viola rupestris Schmidt. Neue Ablull). I'xihm. Gesellsch. I (1791) p. (iO. 

var. arenaria (DC.) Beck, Fl. Nied.-Oest. (1890) p. 519; BeKKejiT., fI>ia.iKOBLTa bt. <I>eA>ienKO, 
fki. A;iiar. P.icciii S (1915) p. 35. V. arenaria DC I-l. France IV (1805) p. 806; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. I, p. 260; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 201; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 127; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 304, no. 189; Kphu. tki. Ajt. I (1901) p. 125. V. canina 
d rupeslris Begel, PI. Badd. (1861) p. 495. 

323 



In dry, sunny places in tho Amyl taiga, and in dry, sandy woods of larch and pine at 
Ust Sisti-kem. In flower and partly done flowering in July and August. 

Dislril)ution: Europe, Caucasia and south-westem Asia to the Himalayas, through- 
out Siberia, northwards to about 63° north lat., and eastwards to Kamtchatka and the 
Amoor Province. In North America the nearly allied species V. adiinca Sm. and V. odon- 
tophora Rydb. 

Viola canina L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1324; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 260; Turczan.' Cat. 
Baical. no. 200; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 252, excl. var. neglecla; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1842) p. 304, no. 190; Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 489, no. 261, excl. var. sijlvestris: KpH.:. <I>.i. 
A.1T. I (I'.tOl) p. 1'25 (var. « ct 0); BenKepi, fl'ia.iKOBuu b1) <I>e,5,'ienK0, 'IM. Asiax. Pocciii 8 
(19t5) p 45; Becker, Violae Asiat. et Austral. (I9l7) p. 3S4. V. Riippii Ledeb. 1. c. p. 491. 

Between Minusinsk and Karatus, and near Kushabar, on di-y hills overgrown with 
open copse wood. Flowering and in part done flowering in the first half of July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the southern parts, Caucasia, Siberia, except the ai'ctic 
regions, northwards to about 60'' north lat, eastwards to Kamtchatka, eastern Asia, Sak- 
halin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

Viola pumila Chaix in Vill. Hist. Dauph. I (1786) p. 339, II (1787) p. 666; BenKcp-h. 
$i:i.Ti,iii!i,iJi Bi, $e,T,>ieHi;o, O.i. Aaiar. Pdcciii 8 (1915) p. 63; Becker, Violae Asiat. et Austral. 
(1917) p. 389. V'. moniana Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 261; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 202; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 128. V. persicifolia Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 
305, no. 191. V. pmtensis Fries, Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 251; h>i,i.i. <I).i. A.it. I (1901) p. 124. 
V. montana var. pmtensis Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 497, no. 262. 

The Asiatic specimens are distinguished by a comparatively long spur, and by Iheir 
broader and shorter leaves, frequently truncate at the l)ase. In the material collected the 
leaves are 2K times as long as broad. Of rather common occurrence on islets in the 
Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk, especially in sonicA\ hat humid, grass-grown places, and in 
moist, open copse wood at Kushabar, near the river. The species begins flowering already 
at the end of May and the beginning of June. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, northwards to Sweden, and southwards to Serbia and 
Bulgaria, Turkestan, Siberia, eastwards to aijout Lake Baikal. 

Viola epipsila Ledeb. Ind. Sem. Hort. Dorpat. (1820) p. 5; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 
195; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 247, excl. syn; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. 302, no. 186; 
Regel, PL Radd. (1861) p. 478, no. 257; Kpu.i. O.i. Ajt. I (1901) p. 122; Bei;i;ppi>, (I)ia.ii<OBi.i!i 
BT, (I>e,T,'ieni;(i, fI>.T. Asiar. PoccinS (1915) p. 57; Becker, Violae Asiat. et Austral. (1917) p. 405: 

sabspec. repens (Turczan.) Becker, 1. c. (1915) p. 58. V. repens Turczan. in Bull. 
Soc. Nat. Moscou (1838) p. 88. 

In moist and boggy places, rather frequent in the subalpine wood regions- about the 
Upper Amyl and about the Upper Sisti-kem. Flowering and past flowering in July. 

324 



Distril)uli()ii: I'lic siilispccics ii'i>cns is disli iljiih'd lliioiiuli Siljcria, oashvai-ds lo 
Kainl(li;ill.;i. and iiuitliwai'ds to ('i7 noilli lat., Maiiiliooiia, Saklialiii, N()rlliAmenca(Silka 
Island). 

Viola l^ali-iiiii DC. I'rodroni. I (KSlii) p. 2',);;: Turi/an. Cat. jiaical. no. l'.)2; Lcdoi). 
11. Hoss. I, p. 245: Turczan. Fl. liaical.-Daliiir. (1812) p. 2'.)'.). no. 181; Hegel. I'l. I'.add. 
(liSCil ) p. 17."). no. 2r)l: |',cia,-<>|ri., <l>ia.ii,ui!i,iii in. '|ic,i,'iciii;(i, 'i>.i. .Auiar. l'i)ccill 8 (1".II5) |). (W. 

Scattered in llie lai_i;a Icniloiv. in lunnid. grass-grown meadows; nearly past flower- 
ing and with fruits in the middle of .Inly. 

Distribution: Kastern Siberia, from about tin- Yenisei lo the Ainoor Piovinee be- 
tween 44° and 51) north lat., Manehooria, the Himalayas, China, .Japan. 

Viola biflora L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1326: Ledcb. V\. Ait. I, p. 261: Turczan. 
Cat. Baieal. no. 203;Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I. p. 2.51: Turczan. Fl. Baieal.-Dahur. (1842) p. 306, 
no. 192; Kpi.i.i. <I),t. A.it. I (1901) p. 12t): r>eia;eiri>, <l)ia.ii;oiii,iii i!i. <l>e;vieiii;(i, <I>.i. Ai^iar. Pucciii 
s (1915) p. s;i. V. hilhra u li/pica Uegel. PI. Radd. (1861) p. 498, no. 263. 

Rather common in the su])alpine wood rci^ious on the Upper Amyl. especiallv in 
.somewhat moist places, and in the Altaian, at altitudes of about 2000 m. above sea-level, 
in moist, shady places, near the perennial snow. In full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Cauea.sia. Turkestan, the Thian- 
Shan, Siberia, eastwards to Kamtchatka, and northwards to about 70 north lat., Mongolia, 
northern China, Manchooria, the Himalayas, Tibet, Sakhalin, Japan, Noiih America. 

Viohi uiiiflora L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1327; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1. p. 262; Turczan. 
Cat. Baieal. no. 204:Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 255: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1812) p. 307, 
no. 193: Regel, PI. Radd. (1861) p. 499, no. 264 (quoad pi. baieal. ct sibir.): i;pi,,.,. <l..i. 
A.iT. I (1901) p. 126: BeKKepr,, <I)ia.ii;(»i!Liii m, <I)e;i,'ienKO, ^.i. A:iitir, I'ncciii s (191.')) p. 92. 

I have only a single specimen in my collection, taken near Kalna. on the Upper Amyl, 
in somewhat moist, shady places, in brush-wood. With ripe fruits in the middle of July. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia lo Kamtchatka. northern Mongolia. Manchooria, 
Corea, Japan. 

Viola altaica Ker.-Gawl. in Edwards Dot. Regist. (181.5) p. 54; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 263; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. I, p. 255; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1842) p. .308. no. 194: Wittrock, 
V;o/a -studier I, p. 104 (Act. Hort. Berg. II, 1897): KpLi.i. cpj. a.it. 1 (1901) p. 127: r,eia;epf,, 
<I>ituKnni,m iri. 'PcaueiiKo, <l>.i. .\aiaT. Poceiii 8 (1915) p. 98. 

Verv common in the Altaian, on the Upper Sisti-kem, among mosses and lichens, at 
altitudes of about 2100 m. above sea-level where it is one of the most characteristic plants, 
growing together with Genliana olgidct and (icniiana allaicd. PhijUodove coernlea. Sti.ri- 
fnK/d slfllaris var. cowosa. and others. Collected in full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: The Crimea, the Caucasus and south-we.stern .\sia, the Thian-Shan. 
the Altai and Sayansk districts, Baikal and Trans Baikal. 

32.5 



T h y 111 1 a a (• e a «■ Hi:i( ni:M$. 

Daphne Mezereuiii L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 3UU; Lcdcb. Fl. All. 11, p. 71; Tuiczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 993; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IIL p. 546; Turczan. FL Baical.-Dahur. (1852) p. 
466, no. 996; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 345, no. 107: Kpi.i.i. <I).i. A.rr. V (1909) p. 1178. 

Shady places in the taiga, along the river .\myl. in woods of coniferous and 
foUferous trees, on the Sisti-kem, near Ust Algiac and at Tshehertash. Past flowering 
and with paiily ripe fruits in July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most southern and the arctic parts, Caucasia, 
Asia Minor and south-western Asia, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to aljout 
60° north lat., and eastwards to the government of Irkutsk, northern Mongolia. Is 
replaced in eastern Asia by the nearly allied species: D. kdiiuzdULd Maxim.. /). Psciulo- 
Mezereiim Asa Gray, and D. jezoensis Maxim. 

K 1 a (' a isr II a c e a e LiNUL. 

Hippophae rhamnoides L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 1452; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IV, p. 
293; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 996; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 552; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1852) p. 467. no. 997; Herder, PI. Radd. (1892) p. 346, no. 109; Eyuu. ^.i. A.ix. 
V (1909) p. 1180. 

On the banks of the river Kemchik, near the junction with the Yenisei. With 
fruits at the beginning of September. 

Distnbution: Europe, except the arctic and most southern parts, Caucasia, Asia 
Minor, south-western Asia to the Himalayas and Tibet, southern Siberia, eastwards to 
Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. 



11 a g r a c e a e LiNDL. 

Epilobium angiistifoliiim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 493; Haussknecht, Monogr. 
Gatt. Epilobium (1884) p. 37; Ledeb. Fl. All. II, p. («; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 451; 
Karel. el Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 331; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 105; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 222, no. 442; Kpi.i.i. du. A.tt. II (1903) p. 429. 

This plant is one of the very most frequent and characteristic ones in the Urjan- 
kai country and in the frontier regions of Siberia. It is especially frequent over tracts 
previously ravaged by forest fires, where it is one of the very first plants immi- 
grating, constituting within a short time a nearly impenetrable growth, to over a man's 
height. Thus it may be seen to cover, nearly sole prevailing, large stretches to seve- 
ral square miles wide, giNing the scenery in the flowering season, in July and August, a 
purple appearance. Besides the common form with red flower.s, I have also collected 
specimens with white petals, /. albiflorum. 

Distribution: Throughout Europe and Asia, southwards to llie East Indies, Sakhalin, 
rare in eastern Asia, North America, southwards roughly to California. 

326 



K|)il<.l)iiim liilil'oliiini I.. Spcr. I'l. cl. II (17(12) p. I'M: LcmIcI.. V\. All, II. p. (iX: 
'riii(/.;iii. ('.;il. H;iic-;il. no. lU'J; Lcdcii. I"l. Hoss. II. |). KKi; riir(/;m. i'l. l>;ii(;il.-l );iliiii . 
(1844) p. 22:5. no. 1 1;5: Haiisskiicclil. Moiio^r, C.iill EpilDbinin (l.SXI) p. I'.M); i;|,i,i.i. -lu. 
A.ri. II (I'KKl) p. 4:50. 

I'rc'Uy common in IIr- Si.sli-Ui-m valley, on .snncly rivfi-himU.s, wlicit; tolleclcd by 
nil' in llowri- and in [)arl done flowering al the bef<inning of Auj^usl. 

Dislrihulion: .\ivtie i.slaiids, airlie Hnssia, noillu in I'lal, aietie and alpine Inicl.s 
ol' Siberia, ea.slwai'ds lo liic .\moor I'rovinee. liie riiiau-Siian. Turkestan, northern Mon- 
golia, western Himalayas, Norlli .\meiiea. and (iiceidand. 

Kpilobiuni inoiitaniini L. Spee. IM. ed. II (17()2) p. 4il4: Ilaussknecht, Monogr. (iall. 
Epilobiiim (1881) p. 71; Karei. et Kiril. Knum. I'l. l"l. .Ml. no. 3:54; h'in.i.i. 'I>.i. .\.ii. II 
(1903) p. 432. 

Rather abundant in the suljalpine taiga territory about the .\myl and on the Sisli- 
kem, especially in waste places, thickets, and the like, b'lowcring in .July and August. 

Distribution: Throughout Europe, Caucasia, .south-western and central Asia, south- 
ern Siberia, eastwards to about the Baikal district. 

Epilobiiim palusire L. Spec. PL ed. II(17()2) p. 49."); Ilaussknecht. Monogi. (iatt. 
Epilobium (1884) p. 128; Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. II. p. 70; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Ail. no. 
336; Ledeb. FL Ross. II. p. W.): Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1811) p. 224, no. 444 p. ji. 
(/: «;,- Kpbiji. <l>.i. Am\ 11 (U)03) p. 433. 

Vei-y common in humid, grass-grown places, on the borders of swamps, on river- 
banks, etc., throughout the territory traversed, .\bout Minusinsk, al Kushabar, in the 
Amyl valley, Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem, at Ust Kamsara, near the Tara-kem, and in several 
places along the river Bei-kem. Collected in flower and with fruits in ,Iuly and .Vugusl. 
The specimens collected exhibit considerable variations in size, ramification, shape of 
leaves, pubescence, etc. 

Distribution: Europe, Novaya Zemlya, Siberia, eastwards to the Sea of Okhotsk, 
Turkestan, northern Persia, Asia Minor, northern Mongolia, northern China, Sakhalin, 
Tibet, India, North America, Greenland. 

Epilobiiim anagallidifolium Lamarck, Encycl. II (178()) p. ;57(1: Ilaussknecht. Monogr. 
Gatt. Epilobiiim (1884) p. 152; Kpbu. <I>.t. A.n-. II (1903) p. 4:54. E. alpiniim L. Spec. 
PI. ed. II (17ti2) p. 495; Ledeb. Fl. .\lt. II, p. 70; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 453; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 335; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II. p. Ill: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1844) p. 225, no. 445. 

Scattered in the .\ltaian, from about the limit of tree vegetation, especially in humid 
places, along mountain brooklets, and the like. With fruits at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine tracts of Europe, arctic islands, the Cauca.sus, 
arctic and alpine tracts of Siberia, eastwards to the Tshuktsher Peninsula, llie Altai and 
Sayansk districts, Russian Turkestan, North .\inerica. 

327 



Epilohiuin davuricum Fischer in Honn'in. Hort. Hafn. Supplem. p. 44: Hauss- 
knecht, Monogr. (iatt. Epilobium (1884) p. 145; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 454. E. pa/us/rc 
L. ;- albescens Wahlcnb., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 109. E. palnslre /? l\uczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1844) p. 224, no. 444. 

In moist, grass-grown places, scattered in tiie Ann! Laiga. Near Ust Algiac, in 
swampy places. I have collected some specimens of a thin and slender form, recalling, 
in many characters, Epilobium pctluslre. The stem, wanting stolons and distinct leaf 
rosettes at the jjase, is very slender and fine, only about 0,5 mm. thick, w^eak, and 
more or less winding, 15 — 20 cm. high, I'eddish below, gi'een above, round, or slightly 
quadrangular, finely bilaterally pubescent, always simple and one-flowered. The leaves 
are always opposite, sessile, with a plane margin, only with a single vein, linear, 1 — 5 
mm. broad, and 15 mm. long, the lower ones comparatively broader, the upper ones 
mostly narrower, the margin entire or only very finely and indistinctly serrulate and 
ciliate, subobtuse at the apex. The flower small, 4 — 5 mm. long, nodding. The caly.v 
glabrate or pubescent, its lobes about twice as long as broad, obtuse or slightly acutish 
at tlie summit The petals 4 — 5 mm. long, white. The capsule sparingly pubescent.. 

In point of external habitus the present plant resembles Epilobium davuricum. but 
the absence of leaf rosettes, the more or less bilateral hairiness of the stem, the opposite 
leaves, and the sparingly hairy capsules are characters recalling Epilobium palustrc. It 
is possibly to be regarded as tlie bastard between the.se 2 species. The specimens are 
also very suggestive of specimens of the haslard Epilobium dainiricumy(palusire, v^hich 
I have seen in the herbarium of the University at Christiania. My material, however, 
is to scarce for a quite sure decision. 

Distrii)uti()n : Epilobium davuricum is distributed in northern Europe, northern 
Asia, southwards to northern Mongolia, North America. 

Circaea lutetiana L. Spec. PI. eck II (1762) p. 12: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 113: Kpuj.. 
•ki. A.IT. II (190S) p. 435. 

Near Kusliabar, in shady thicket of foliage trees, in moist places. Collected with 
flower-buds in the middle of July. The leaves are rather narrow. 6—8 cm. long, and 
2 — 3 cm. broad when full-grown, rounded at the base. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to southern Scandinavia, the Caucasus and 
south-western Asia, Siberia, eastwards to the Amoor Province, the Himalayas, Japan, 
North Africa, North America. 

Circaea alpina L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 12; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 42; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 455; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 114; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dnhur. (1844) p. 
226, no. 446;KpLi.i. «I).i. A.it. II (1903) p. 436. 

Among mosses in shady, moist coniferous woods at Ust Sisti-kem, near the banks 
of the Bei-kem, and near the Dora Steppe, on decayed, moss-grown stumps of trees. 
Nearly past flowering, and with partly ripe fruits in the first half of August. 

328 



nislriliuliim: Xoiilicrn ;iii(l iiiiddlc I'.uropc. Asiu. soulliwiiids Id Asi;i Minor iind 
llif Iliiiialaviis. Cliiiia. Maiuliodi ia. Saklialiii, Noilli Ainciica. 



H a I o r r li a a i <l a c r a v K. Itlt. 

Ilippiiris viilj<ari.s L. Spvc. VI. vd. II (17()2) p. (i: l.i'di'h. Fl. All. I, p. 7; liirczan. Cal. 
Baical. no. Kil: Lcdeb. Fl. Ros.s. II. j). 119;Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 232. 
no. l.")2: Kpi.i.i. <^a. A.n, II (190:5) p. 439. 

Pretty coninion in slow .streams and slill creeks of the rivers Aliakan and Ka- 
muislito, in the Aniyl, near Kusliabar. al Usl Sisti-keni. in the I'ara-keni, and in s\vainp.s 
near the Dora Steppe. Specinien.s eolh\-ted aboni the middle of .hme bearing.; already 
ripe fruits of a black colour. 

Besides the typical species, w ilh leaves aboul 1 nnn. broad. I have collected, in the 
river Kamuishlo. near its moulh, sj)ecimens ol /. rlidi-ticd Zsciiokkk, distinguished by 
filiform and comparatively shod leaves, hardly 0,5 nun. broad. 

Distribution: Nearly throughout Europe and Asia, in the Yenisei valley northwards lo 
towards 72 north lat., and southwards lo Persia, the Ilimalaya.s, Tibet. Mongolia, (Lhina 
(about Peking), North and South America, Greenland. 



T' m b e 11 i f r a e Jiss. 

Cicuta virosa L. Spec. PI. ed. II (17G2) p. 368; Ledeb. F"l. vVlt. I, p. 339; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 505; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, j). 211: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur (1841) p. 709, no. 
495; Kpu.i. tki. A.rr. II (1903) p. 493. 

Common in the tracts about the river Abakan, on borders of still creeks, in grass- 
grown and inundated places on the islets, etc., and also in swampy places near the Tara- 
kem. At the end of June only the characteristic leaves and quite young flower-buds 
were to be found on the islets in the Abakan. 

Distribution: Europe, throughout Siberia from the Fral to the Sea of Okhotsk, 
in the Yenisei vallev northwards to 71° north lat., Russian Turkestan, northern Mongolia. 
China, Cashmere, Sakhalin. Japan, North America. 

Aegopodium alpestre Ledeb. V\. Alt. I, p. 354; Turczan. Cat. Haieal. no. ;")()8: Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross, n, p. 248; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 711. no. 498: Kpi.u. <Im. .Vrr. II 
(1903) p. 496. 

Near Kushabar. and pretty common in the Amyl valley, as for instance al Pelropaw- 
lowsk, at Kalna. and in several places in the subalpine wooded tracts of the Sayansk 
mountains, in meadows in woods, and near habitations. In the Urjankai country I have 
found it near Ust Algiac, and on the l)anks of the river Sisti-kem. I-'lowering in July and 
August. 

30 329 



Dislril)ution: Siberia, rouglily from Ihe government of Tomsk and eashvards 
lliroiigli Ihe Altai and Sayansk regions to the Amoor Province and Mancliooria, Russian 
Turlcestan, nortliern MongoUa, Salvlialin. 

Canim Carvi L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 378: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 353; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 509; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 248; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1844) p. 712, no. 
499; Kphi-i. $.7. Ajt. 11 (1903) p. 497. 

Pretty common in the Minusinsk district, especially in dry meadows and on hills, 
where it begins flowering in the early days of June. It occurs in my collections from the 
Abakan Steppe, near Askys, from Ust Abakansk, and from Kushabar; it also occurs scat- 
tered in the Amyl valley and at Ust Sisti-kem. Near Ust Kamuishto I have collected 
specimens of f. alrorubens Lange, Haandbog (1864) p. 219. 

Distribution: Europe, Siberia, nortliwards to about 6U north lat., and eastwards 
roughly to Lake Baikal, south-western Asia, northern Mongolia, the Himalayas, North 
America (introduced from Europe). 

Schullzia crinita Spreng. Spec. Uinbellif (1818) p. 102: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 506; 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 373; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 258; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
bahur. (1844) p. 710, no. 496; Kptu. <l)ji. A.it. II (1903) p. 499. Atliamonta crinita Ledeb. 
Fl. Alt. I, p. 326. 

In the Altaian, in grass- and moss-grown places above the limit of tree vegetation, 
near the Upper Sisti-kem. In full flower at the end of July. 

Distiibution: The Thian-Shan, the Altai and Sayansk regions, eastwards to the south- 
ern part of the government of Irkutsk, northern Mongolia. 

Shim cicutaefolium Gmel. System. NaL II (1791) p. 482; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 260. 
Siiim lancifoliiim /i Ledeb. Fl. .\.lt. I. p. 352; Kpbu. $.i. A.rr. II (1903) p. 501. Crilamus 
(laiiricus Hoffm. Umbellif. (1814) p. 184; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 717, no. 503. 

In swampy places near the mouth of the river Uibat, and here and there in 
swampy, grassy places on islets in tlie river Abakan. At the end of June there were as 
yet to be found here only flowerless specimens. The plant, however, is very readily di- 
stinguished by its characteristic leaves. 

Distribution: South-eastern Siberia, northern China, Manchooria, Corea, Nortli 
America. 

IJupleurum longifolium L. (emend. Wolff) var. aureum (Fisch.) Wolff, Uiubelti/. 
etc. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 43 (IV, 228, 1910) p. 52; Ko3i)4IojiincKifi, 3(uithmiii.ih m, 'K-AieHKO, 
4>.T. Asiax. Pocciii 10(1915)p. 36; Koso-Poljanski, EpiLBupleiirum Rossiae (Act Hort. Petro- 
pol. XXX (1914) p. 245). B. aureum Fisch. apud Hoffm. Gen. Umbellif. ed. 11 (1816) p. 
115; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 348; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 514; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. 379; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 263: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 718, no. 504; 

330 



K|ii.ii 'I'l All II (l!to;5) |). .")():?, luijiliDrhifi iirrfoUdla Scliciilz. I'l. Vn.sc. .Iciiis. in \\\i\. Sv. 
\(l. Alv:i(l. IhiiRiliiit^. Wll (I.SXS) |). 158 her. .iMii.uiinin.. \\wu\um\,. {VMS) p. 'Mb. 

C'-oininoii ill llic I'ljanUai counliy niul in llic Iracls liavorsed hordcrinf^ upon Sibe- 
ria, especially iu open copse wood of birch and oilier foliage trees, where il is a cliarac- 
leristic plant: alon^^ the river Algiae, at I'sl Algiac, in the Altaian, near the tree limit, at Ust 
Sisli-kem, and on llic Kaiiisara. (".oilic lid in Ihiwci in llic second half of July and in 
llic first half of August. 

All of liic specimens collected are distinguished hy iiaving the bracts of the invo- 
hicels small, roundish, broadly cordiform. 17 mm. in diameter. The involucre consists of 
3 — 4 bracllets of a much varying size and shape, 0,3 — 1,4 cm. long, from nearly circular 
to narrowly ovate, with slightly pointed apices. The stem, sometimes rather much 
twisted, is 30 — 50 cm. high: llic lower leaves coniiiioiiiy 7 — X cm. long (rarely to V'> cm. 
long), and about 2 cm. broad, broadly lanceolate, clasping the stem, or also rather sud- 
denly narrowed into a shorter or longer petiole, llic apex slightly .subobtusc or sub- 
acute, frequently furnisiied with a fine prickle. The upper leaves are sessile, shorter, to 
nearly cordiform. with a broad, cordiform base clasping the stem. The plant is of a 
rather strongly marked yellow, especially so the upper parts. 

Distribution: The variety (tiircnui occurs in south-eastern Russia, Turkestan, Dzun- 
garia, southern and eastern Siberia (in the Yenisei valley to about 58° noi-tli lat), through 
the Altai and Sayansk regions, eastwards throughout Trans Baikal and northern China 
to the Amoor Province, nortliern Mongolia. 

Bupleuruni triradiatum (Hoffm.) Adams, Nouv. Mem. Sec. Natur. Moscou IX (1834) 
p. 235; Tuiczan. Cat. Baical. no. 510; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 264; Tuiczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1844) p. 719, no. 50b;KpLi.i. (tj. A-rr. II (H)03) p. ,504; Ko30-Ilu.iiiiicKift, SoiiTmnbia b-b 
<I>eA<JenKO, $.1. A:uaT. IVicciu 10 (I'Jlo) p. 14. B. laniinculoides var. Iriradialum (,\dams) 
Regel, Wolf, Umbellif. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 43 (IV, 228, 1910) p. 117; Koso-Poljanski, 
Epit. fhiplennnn Ro.ssiae (l'.n4) p. 198. B. rnminndoides /J oblongifoUuui I.cileb Fl. 
Alt. I, p. 348. 

Stems 15—20 cm. high, generally unramified. The basal leaves few, narrowly ovate- 
lanceolate. Bracts of the involucre 3, mostly of unequal size, to 1 cm. long, ovate, witii a 
cordiform base, more or less subobtuse at the apex. Umbels 3- to 4-rayed. Involucels 
of 5 — 8 small bractlets, G — 7 mm. long, obtuse at the top, and sometimes furnished with 
a fine point. Each umbellet consisting of 20 — 25 flowers. In the .\ltaian. in grass-grown 
places above the tree limit, not unfrequently accompanying Bcliiln roluiuiifolKt. in places 
grown with lichens and mosses. Collected in full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Turkestan, southern Siberia, through the .\ltai and Sayansk regions, 
northern Mongolia, Trans Baikal, eastwards to Kamtciiatka and the .\inoor Province, Sak- 
halin, Japan. North .\merica. 

Bupleuruni mullinervc DC. in Mem. Soc. Pliys. el Hist. Nat. Geneve IV (1828) p. 500; 
Wolir. I'mbcllif. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. !3 (IV. 228. 1<I10) p. 110: Tuiczan. Cat. Baical. 



no. 517: Kaiel. ct Kiril. Emim. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 378; Lcdeb. Fl. Ross. IT, p. 261: Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 720, no. 507: K|.h.ii. (ki. Ajt. II (1903) p. 505. B. numnciiloides 
Pall, (non L.), Ledeb. Fl. Alt. L p. 347 (excl. var. /J). B. ranunciiloides L. var. mullinerve 
(DC.) Koso-Poljanski, Epit. Bupleurum Rossiae (1914) p. 191; Ko;iu-Ilu.iiiucKii1, 3oHTuqHbm 
Bi. OeA'ieiiKO, <I>.:i. Aaiar. Poci-iii 10 (liilo"! p. 14. 

Pretty common in steppe meadows, on dry hills, and the like, about the river Aba- 
kan, at list Sisti-kem, on the Kamsara, and near the Dora Steppe. The species begins 
flowering in the middle of June. 

Distribution: Eastern Russia, tlirough southern Siberia, in the Yenisei valley to 57° 
north lat., Manchooria, northern Tibet, north-western Mongolia, Japan. 

Bupleui-um falcatum L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 341, sensu latissinio. emend. Wolff, 
Umbellif. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 43 (IV, 228, 1910) p. 127: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 349: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 517; Karel. et Kiril. Enuni. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 378; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 266: 
Kpwji. 4>ji. Ajit. II (1903) p. 58; Ko30-II(i.iflHCKii1, 3oHTnqHtm bti OcAieHKO, <I>.i. xVaiax. Poeciii 
10 (1915) p. 23 

siibspec. bicaulc (Helm.) Koso-Poljanski, Epit. Bupleurum Rossiae (1914) p. 217 et 
1. c. (1915) p. 25. B. baldense Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 350, ex parte. B. exaltatum Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. II, p. 266, ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur (1841) ji. 722. no. 510. B. falcalum 
subspec. exaltahim var. bicaule Wolff, 1. c. (1910) p. 140. 

var. angustifolium (Ledeb.) Koso-Poljanski. 1. c. (1914) p. 217 et 1. c. (1915) p. 26. 
B. angustifolium Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 265. 

In dr}' steppe meadows at Ust Kamuishto, where associated with plants as Iris 
ensata and the like. Most of the specimens collected bearing only young flower-buds, 
only few with opened flowers at the end of June. Collected nearly past flowering at Sebi, 
at the end of August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, from the .Vllai through the Sayansk region to Trans 
Baikal and northern Mongolia. 

subspec. eufalcatiini Wolff, 1. c. (1910) p. 129 var. scorzonerifoliuni (Willd.) Wolff, 
I. c. (1910) p. 132. B. falcatum in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 349, ex parte. B. scorzoneriaefolium 
Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. I (1809) p. 300; Turczan Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 721, no. 509. 
B. falcatum var. scorzonerifolium (Willd.) Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 267: Koso-Poljanski, 
Epit. Bupleurum Rossiae (1914) p. 219 et in (teA-ieiiud, <]>.i. Asiax. Pocciii 10 (1915) p. 27. 

In dry thickets and meadows on the islets in the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk. With 
young flower-buds in the first half of June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, from the Altai to the Amoor Province, northei-n 
China, Corea, Manchooria, Japan. 

Aethusa Cynapium L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 367; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 270. 
This species, which seemed to be vei-y rare in Siberia, I have met with in waste 
places near habitations in the Amyl taiga: in full flower in the middle of July. 
Distribution: Europe, Siberia, North America (adventive from Europe). 

332 



I.ihaiiolis nionlaiiii All. l"l. I'cdtMnoiil. II, p. 'M. 

(Ujr.sihiricit (I..) Kivlow. <|>.i. A.ii II (100:5) j). .')!.'). /.. sihirira C A. Mi-yrr, liid. Caiic. 
p. 121: Kaiel. el Kiiil. iMumi. PI. Fl. .\il. no. :'hS."i. iml. L. hiirlilormensis no. 384; Lcdeb. 
Kl. Ho.ss. II, J). 27U. Scsfli ulhuiiianluidrs l.cdcl). I-'I. Alt. 1, p. 342. 

Scattered in dry meadows and in open In usii-wood on islets in the river AhaUan, and 
in grass-j.!r()\\ II places on the steppes al)i}ul liie liver. Willi yoimg flowers at the end 
of Jnne. 

Distribution: Middle and eastern liussia. Caucasia, south-western Asia. Siberia, ca.sl- 
wards to about Yakutsk. 

('cnolophium Fischeri Koch, VmbclUf. p. 103; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 524: Karel. 
el Kirii. Enuni. IM. Fl. Alt. no. 387: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 282: Turc/an. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1844) p. 730, no. ,518. Silaus longifoliiis nar. fi Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. I. p. 321: l.'jn.i.i. 'Im. A.n. II 
(liK)3) p. 516. 

Pretty common in moist and inundated grass-field on an islet in llie liver .Mjakan, 
near Ust Kamuishto. Specimens taken at the end of .Tune, were as yet flowerless, and only 
the characteristic leaves were to be found. The segments of the leaves in the .specimens 
collected are linear, about 1,5 — 2,5 mm. broad, and 2 — 2,5 cm. long, mucronale at the 
apex. The specimens belong to fi divaricnlum (Besseh) Ledkh. Fl. Ros.s. II, p. 282. In the 
Urjankai country I have found the species at Ust Tara-kem, nearly past flowering and 
with fruits at the end of August, and at Bjelosarsk. 

Distribution: Eastern parts of Euro|)e, from Prussia, Siberia to towaids Trans Bai- 
kal, Russian Turkestan, northern Mongolia. 

I Cnidiiim vcnosiim Koch. Vmbellif. j). lO'.i; Ledeb. FL Alt. L p. 329: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
II, p. 283 (excl. syn. Cn. saliniim Turczan.); Kptu. <l>ji. A.it. II (1903) p. 517. 

Scattered in slightly moist meadows on an islet in the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk. 
Only young, as yet not flowering specimens at the end of ,Iune. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, northwards to Denmark, Russia, Siberia, eastwards to 
Lake Baikal, and southwards to Semipalatinsk. 

Coniosclinum Fischeri Wimmer et Grabowski, Fl. Silesiac I (1827) p. 266; Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 388; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 290: K|m,i.i. <t>.i. A.n: II (1903) p. 
519. Seliniim Gmelini Bray in Denkschi'. Bot. Ges. Regensb. II. ]). 36; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. 
]). 318. C. tatariciim Fisch. in Hoffm. Vmbdlif. ed. II (1816) p. 185. C. nnwitiaium Tur- 
czan. Gat. Baical. no. ,531; Turczan. Fl. Baical. Dahur. (1844) p. 735. no. 524. 

. In subalpine thickets of foliage trees, in slightly moist places on the banks of the 
Arayl, near Semiretska, and on the Sisti-kem, near Ust .Vlgiac. Young flower-buds in 
the middle of .luly. 

Distribution: East of Europe, from eastern Germany and Hungary, Siberia, east- 
wards roughly to Lake Rail^al. in the Yenisei valley norlhwards to 7U north lat., northerri 
Mongolia. 

333 



Angelica silvestris L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 361; Ledcb. Fl. Alt.I, p. 318; Turczau. 
Cat Baical. no. 535; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 296; Turczan. FI. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 
737, no. 527; I^im.i.i, 't>.i. A.rr. 11 (1903) p. 521. 

In marshy places near streams, and the like, about Kushabar, in the Amyl taiga, on 
the Upper Algiac. and in several places about the Sisti-kem. The species flo^Yers here in 
.July and August. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to about 
62° 45' noiUi lat., eastwards to Trans Baikal and the Tshuktsher Peninsula, northern Mon- 
golia. 

Archangelica decurrens Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 316: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 537; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. II, p. 297; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 739, no. 528; KpLi.i. <I>.i. A.it. II 
(1903) p. 522. 

Pretty common in brush-wood and in slightly moist, grass-grown places on islets in 
the river Abakan, near Kushabar. in the Amyl taiga, and. moreover, rather frequent in 
the Urjankai country, about Ust Algiac, and on the Kamsara. The species begins flower- 
ing about the middle of July. In the taiga territon' this species is frequently to be found 
associated with Delphinium elaluiu. and sometimes Verainim (ilbiim. forming in places 
a dense, nearly impenetrable growth, 2 — 3 m. tail. 

Distribution: Siberia, in the Yenisei valley noiUiw^ards to 71° north lat., and east- 
wards roughly to the governments of Yakutsk and Irkutsk, Turkestan, northern Mongolia. 

Peucedanum vaginatum Ledeb. FI. Alt. I, p. 312; Turczan. Cat Baical. no. 541 (incl. 
P. sesetoV/es Turczan. 1. c. no. 542 et P. puberuliim Turczan. 1. c. no. 543); Ledeb. FL 
Ross. II, p. 312: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 744, no. 533 (incl. P. seseloides 
Turczan. 1. c); Kpi.i.i. «I'.i. A.it. II (1903) p. 529. 

Pretty common in di-y, sandy meadows on an islet in the river Abakan, near Ust 
Kamuishto, where collected by me with young flowers at the end of June, moreover at 
Ust Tara-kem and on the Dora Steppe, nearly past flowering in tlie first half of August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, roughly from the government of Tomsk, eastwards 
to the Amoor Pro^■ince, northern Mongoha. 

Peucedanum salininn Pall, in Willd. Herb. no. 5743; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 313: 
Kpw.i. <I>.T. A.IT. II (1903) p. 530. P. humile Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 544; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1844) p. 745, no. 534. 

On the Lower Sisti-kem, at Ust Kamsara. and on the Tara-kem, in swampy meadows 
and marshes in brush-wood. With flowers about tlie middle of August 

Distribution: Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to about 70° north lat, east- 
wards to the Sea of Okhotsk, noilhern Mongolia. 

Peucedanum baicalense Koch, Umhellif. p. 94; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 538; Karel. 
et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt no. 394; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. H, p. 313; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 

334 



(1844) p. 71('). no. rai: i;,, 1,1.1 «T>.i. A.n II (VMY.)) \>. y.]]. P. p.AiiphiiUiim Lcdel). V\. All. I, 
p. 31 1. 

On dry (Icclivitics and rocky .slopes ;d I si Kaiusara and list Tara-kcni; in flower 
and partly done llowcriiii; al llic end oi .\ui;usl. 

Distribution: Souliurn Silicria from ahoulSeniipalinsk lothegovenimenloflrkul.sk, 
noiHicrn Moni^'olia. 

Heradeum dis-scclum Ledeh. I'l. All. I, [). 'M\: i'lUT/an. Cat. Baical. no. .^48; Ledel). 
Fl. Ross. II, p. 323; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (ISII) p. 7I.S. no. 5:57; Kpi.i.i. <Im. A.it. II 
(1903) p. 533. 

In 'ki. Maiii.<r,i,ypiii III (1907), the excellent work on the vef,'elalion of eastern Asia, 
KoM.xnow identifies this species with the American H. larxiliiin Mk.iix. (I'M. Hor. .\mer. 
18();i, p. !()()), agreeing with M.wimowicz, who has examined this group of Hcniclciim in 
point of nionography. Moreover, he refers as synonyms of this species: //. harbnliiin 
Li;i)KH., H. (hilve Fiscuku. and H. MocllriKhiffii II.wci;. However, as I waid suffieieni 
material for enabling me to form any opinion whellier tins be right. I have chosen to 
enter the species here under I,i;i)i;iu)t n's earliest name given to liie |)lanl peculiar to the 
interior of Asia. 

The species is pretty common in meadows and in copse wood on i.slels in the river 
Abakan, where I have collected it with young flowers at the end of .lune. It is also rather 
fre(pient about Kushabar, and in the subalpine tracts about Ihe I'jjpei' .Vmyl, moreover, 
in the Urjankai country, about the basins of the rivers Algiac, Sisti-kem, Kamsara, and 
Tara-kem, where, in places, covering glades,and the like, over large tracts. In the Altaian 
it ascends to about the tree limit. 

Distribution: Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to past 70 north lat., and 
eastwards to the Amoor Province. Kamtchatka. Turkestan and northei-n Mongolia, Sakha- 
lin, Japan, Corea and China. If. conformable to Komahow. 1. c. it is to be identified with 
H. lanalnm, there must .still be added to its geographical range: North America, south- 
wards to about Utah. 

Anthrisciis silveslris (L.) Hoffm. Gen. r;;(/)(7///'.(l<Sl 1) |). 10: Ledel). I'l. Ross. II, p. 
31(): Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. add. et emend. (1857) p. XXIX. no. 1431: Ki.bu. <I>.i. A.n. 
II (1903) p. 538. Chaerophtilliim sili'cslre L Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 369. 

Near Kushabar, in meadows, and at Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem and I'st Tara-kem. in 
brush-wood, near the river. I have found it flowering in the second half of July. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, and south-we.stern A.sia, Siberia, in the Yenisei 
valley northwards to al)out 70 north lat., eastwards to Kamtchatka, Manchooria, China, 
Japan, northern Mongolia, Cashmere. India. North .\frica. 

Pleurosperum austriacmn (L.). Holfm. Cnn. I'nrbellif. (1814) p. 8: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
368: Ledeh. Fl. Iloss. 11, p. 360; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur.(1844)p.753, no. 541. P. iiralcnsr 

335 



Hoffm. 1. c.; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 551; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 361; Kpbu. <l'j. A.it. II 
(1903) p. 542. P. kamlschaticiim Hoffm. 1. c: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 361. 

Common on islets in Ihe nver Abakan, in shady meadows and open brnsh-w ood, 
where it begins flowering in the last days of June. 1 have also found it in the Urjankai 
counti7, near the Sisti-kem, and on the Kamsara, on declivities near the river, neariy past 
flowering in the first half of August. 

Distribution: Central and eastern Europe, westwards roughly to Switzerland, nearly 
throughout Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 69K'° north lat., Kamtchatka, 
northern Mongolia, Manchooria, Sakhalin, Japan. 



C r n a e e a e Li>K. 

Cornus alba L. Mantissa (1767) p. 40; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 150; Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 556; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 379; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1845) p. 299, no. 544. C. 
sibirica C. A. Meyer, Mem. Acad. Petropol. V, p. 206: Kpbi.i. <I).i. A.tt. 11 (1903) p. 545. 

Very common on islets in the rivers V^enisei and Abakan, where forming copse 
wood to about 3 m. high, and where it begins flowering in the early days of June; more- 
over, found scattered near Kushabar, and on islets in the Bei-kem and Ulu-kem. and also 
on the river-banks, where I have collected it with fruits in the second half of August. 

Distribution: North-eastern Russia, throughout Siberia, northwards, about the river 
Ob, to 64^ north lat., nortnem Mongolia, northern China, Manchooria, Sakhalin. 



P y r I a c e a e DlMORT. 

Pyrola rotundifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 567; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 99; Bunge, 
Enum. Alt. p. 20; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 750; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 928; Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 505, no. 752; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 356, no. 54. P. rotun- 
difolia L a albi flora Kpti.i. Oa. A.Tr. Ill (1904) p. 796. 

Scattered in the Aniyl taiga, in coniferous forest. In full flower in the middle of 
July. 

siihspec. incarnata DC. Prodrom. YII, p. 773: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 928; Turczan. 
1. c. (1848) p. 506; Herder, 1. c. (1872) p. 357; Kptu. $j. A.tt. 1. c. (1904) p. 796. 

This subspecies, considered by some as a distinct species, much recalls the pre- 
ceding one, but differs by being more vigorous, further by having the thick coriaceous 
leaves, measuring 4—4,5 cm. in diameter, more or less distinctly cordately incised at 
the base, and the margin slightly and regularly serrulate. The scape is 30—35 cm. long, 
with scaly lanceolate — linear bracts, 1—1,5 cm. long, equalling or exceeding the pedicels. 
Flowers vei-y loose, 8—20 in number, on comparatively long pedicels, 1 — 1,5 cm. long. 
The sepals, as well as tlie petals, are of a i-eddish purple colour. The present subspecies 
is frequently to be met with in the subalpine coniferous forest, and also follows the spurs 

336 



ul Ihc laiga dowa iiiU) llie sloppi' rcf^ion. and i.s in llic Sayansk ilisUitl iiioie coiiimoii Hum 
the main sporios. I liavo collcclcd it in llic Aiinl valley, at L'st Algiac, Ust Sisli-kem, on 
Hie Kamsara. and al I si 'l'aia-l<cn). 

l)isliil)uli<)n: i'lic l\|iiini s|)(Hit'.s occurs in noilliciii and middle Europe, soulli- 
wards to middle Spain and Italy, Caucasia. Ihrouglioul Siberia, noilliwards to 70"' 30' 
noi'lli lat.. Turkestan, northern Mongolia. Hie Himalayas, northern CJiiiia. Manchooi'ia. 
Corea. .Ia])aii, North America, (irecniand. The suh.speeies iiiniriKild is c(jni'iiied to the 
eastern portion.s of Asia, roughly from the Sayansk mountains to Kamtchatka. north- 
ern Mongolia, ("diina. Manchooria, Japan, noi th-\\cslcrn .\nieiiea (Sitka Island), 

Pyrola media Swartz in Act. Holm. (1801) j). 257; Lcdeb. Fl. Ros.s. II. j), ',)2i); Herder, 
PI, Uadd. (1872) p. 3ti1, no. 57; Kpi.i.T. Hki. A.rr, III (1904) p. 790. 

In coniferous forest on the river Amyl, near Semiretska. In full flower in the middle 
of .luly. This |)lant seemed to be rare in Siberia. Thus, as late as in 1872. it was not 
known from Siberia at all, as Hi-:RnEH, 1. c, writes; „Ihr Vorkommen in Siliiria dagegen 
ist zwar sehr wahrscheinlich, abcr noch nicht nachgewiescn". Later on. however, it 
has been found in western Siberia, in the governments of Tobolsk and Tomsk, but not 
heretofore — as far as I know — in the government of Yeniseisk, where my finding- 
place on the river Amyl thus represents its most eastern locality as yet known in 
Siberia. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, Russia. Caucasia, Asia Minor, Sibe- 
ria, eastwards roughly to the Yenisei, Japan? 

Pyrola minor L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 567; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 99; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 749; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 930; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dabur. (1848) p. 506, 
no. 753; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 362. no. 5S; Kpi.i.T. <I>.i, A.it, II (1904) p. 797. 

Scattered in somewhat dry coniferous forest at Kushabar, near the river Algiac, and 
at Ust Sisti-kem. In full flower in the second half of July. 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, southwards to northein Spain, north- 
ern Italy and Bulgaria, Caucassia, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to past 70" 
north lal., and eastwards to Kamtchatka, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Japan, North Ame- 
rica, Greenland. 

Pyrola sccnnda L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 568: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 98; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 748; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 930; Turczan, Fl, Baical.-Dabur. (1848) p. 
507. no. 754; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 367, no. 61; Kpi,i.i. dM. A.n, HI (1904) p. 798. 

This species is pretty common near Ust Kamsara, where I have collected it witli half 
[•ipe fruits about the middle of August. It occurs on dry, mossy tussocks. 

Distribution: Europe, except the exti'eme south, Caucasia and south-western por- 
tions of Asia to the Thian-Shan, throughout Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 
past 70° north lal.. eastwards to Kamtchatka and the Amoor Province, northern Mongo- 
lia, Manchooria, Corea, Japan. North America, Greenland. 

337 



Pyrola iiniflora L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 568; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 98; Bunge, 
Enum. Alt p. 19; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 747. Moneses grcindi flora Salisb. in Gray 
Nat Arrang. II (1821) p. 403; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1848) p. 508, no. 755; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. II, p. 931; Herder, PL Radd. (1872) p. 369, no. 62; Kptiji. ^ji. Ajit. II (1904) p. 800. 

Pretty common in the Amyl valley, at Ust Algiac, and on the Sisti-kem, where I have 
collected it in spruce- and cedar-forest among mosses. In full flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme south, throughout Siberia, northwards 
to about 65° noilh lat, eastwards to the Tshuktsher Peninsula and the Amoor Pro- 
vince, the Thian-Shan, noilhern Mongolia, China, Manchooria, northern Japan, North 
America, Greenland. 

Ericaceae DC. 

Ledum palustre L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 561; Ledeb. Fl. Ah. II, p. 97; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 746; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 753; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. IL p. 923; Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 503, no. 751; Maxim. Rhododendr. Asiae Orient. 
(Mem. Acad. Imper. Sc. St Petersbourg Ser. VII, T. XVI, 1870) p. 49; Kpw.i. 4>.i. A.ir. Ill 
(19(U) p. 793; E. Bymi,, Ericaceae hi, Oj. Cnoii]i. ii ^a.ii,ii. Boct. II (1915) p. 3; KyaHeuoBt, 
BepecKOBBiH bb ^eA'icnKo, ^ji. Asiax. Pocciii 9 (191G) p. 6. 

This species occurs in Siberia in 4 rather distinct varieties, of which the following 
3 are found by me in the territory' traversed: 

var. vulgare Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 1. c; H Byun,. I.e. p. 7; KyaneiJ,oBi>. 1. c. p. 8. L. palustre 
a genuina Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 352, no. 52. 

This variety seemed to be the most common one, and is to be met with especially 
in moist and bogg}', frequently moss-grown places in subalpine coniferous woods. I have 
by the way, collected or observed this one in the following localities: Near Kalna, at Ust 
Algiac, where rather common in the turfy bogs, at Tshebertash, in moist, moss-grown 
ground in woods, near the Sisti-kem, at Ust Sisti-kem, and further on downwards along 
the banks of the Bei-kem, in the taiga territory to about the neighbourhood of Biiluk, 
where the forests of conifers cease, and the climate becomes drier. In this variety, and 
generally also in the following ones, the three youngest year's shoots are leaf-bearing; in 
branches 4 years old, however, the leaves have fallen off. The youngest year's shoots 
are densely felted, the older ones graduallj' becoming more glabrate. The length of the 
year's shoots in tliis variety is generally from about 8 to 12 cm. Taken flowering and with 
fruits in July and August. 

var. angustum E. Busch, I. c. (1915) p. 8. /.. palustre vai-. decumbens Maxim. Rhodo- 
denr. Asiae Orient (1870) p. 49. L. palustre /3 angustifoliuruUerder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 353. 

This one differs from the preceding variety in having the leaves narrower, with 
much revolute margins, and seemed mostly to occur in soil, drier and hotter as regards 
physiological conditions. I have, by tlie way. found it in the wooded steppe region at Ust 
Sisti-kem, in wood of pine and larch, on sandy heath, associated with Rhododendron 
parvifolium, Vaccinium vilis idaea, etc. 

338 



var. (li'ciiniheiis Aitoii. Hoil. Kcwcnsis II (178!t) p. (u. Ill (IMli p. I.S; K. r.yiiri., 
I. c. (1915) p. 8; i;y:iiicncMii., I. c. (1910) p. 8. 

Spcciinoiis holoiij^iiig to this vaiiely I liavc ((illocli-d in llic Allaiaii. al)ovc llic liinil 
of tree vegetation, at altitudes alH>ul 1900 to 2(HM) ni. above sea-level, on rocks and stony 
debris, wilii mosses and lichens. 




Kij;. tt<;. Ledum pahislve L. var. deciimbens Aiton from the Say- 
ansk district, about 2000 m. above .sea level. (' i . 

The stems are much ramified, low, 10 to 20 cm. long, creeping, only reaching up to 
about 10 cm. above the gi'ound. The year's shoots are short, generally only from 1 to 1,5 
cm. long. The leaves are very narrow, from 1 to 2 mm. broad, and from 10 to 14 mm. 
long, with the margin much revolute. The corymbs are rather few-flowered, generally 
from 3 or 4 to 8 or 10-flowered. The pedicels are comparatively short, 0,5 to 1 cm. long, 
hain' and glandular. The length of the petals is to about (i mm. Taken in full flower at 
the end of July. 

Distribution: Scandinavia, excepting the western parts. Germany. Austro-IIungary. 
Russia, except the extreme .south, throughout Siberia from the Ural to the Tshnktsher 



339 



Peninsula and Kanilcliatka, noilhwards to Taimur, 73° 30' north lat., northern Mongolia 
(the Sayansk district), Manchooria Corea, Sakhalin, Japan, North America, Greenland. 

Rhododendron chrysanthum Pallas. Reise Russ. Reich. Ill (1776) p. 318, 352, 369, 
449, Anh. p. 729. no. 87; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 744; Ledeh. Fl. Ross. II, p. 920; Turczan. 
Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 499, no. 748; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 345, no. 46; Maxim. 
Rhododendr. Asia.e Orient. (1870) p. 20; Kptu. (Jji. A.n. II (1904) p. 791: E.Bymi,, Ericaceae 
BT. (t>A. Ciioiip. II J[-AJihn. BocT. II (1915) p. 15; KyaHemiBT>, BepecKOBbia b-b ^e^ieHKo, $.1. AsiaT. 
PoccIh 9 (1916) p. IH. R. flavuin Pallas, 1. c. p. 320. 

This species I have met with in tlie Altaian, above the limit of tree vegetation, at 
altitudes of about 2000 to 2100 m. above sea-level. Especially gi'owing on 4ry and sunny 
decli^ities with a southern aspect, covered with mosses and lichens, associated with 
plants as Gentiana algida and G. altaica. Drijas octopeiala, Viola altaica, and others; in 
some places occurring so abundantly as to form a nearly impenetrable underwood to 1 
m. high. Specimens taken at the end of July are nearly past flowering, with ripe and 
partly ripe capsules. 

Distribution: From the Altai and the Sayansk district through soutliern Siberia and 
northern Mongolia to Kamtchatka, Sakhalin, North America. 

Rhododendron \nthopogon Don in Mem. Wern. Soc. Ill (1821) p. 409; Don, Pro- 
drom. Fl. Nepal. (1825) p. 153; E.Byun., Ericaceae B-h^^.x. Ciump. n ,T;a.ibn. Roct. II(191~5) p. 19; 
KysHeuoBT., BepecKOBi.ia wh Ocatohko, ^.1. Aniiix. Pucciii 9 (1915) p. 13. Osnwthanmus fragrans 
DC. Prodrom. VII (1839) p. 715; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 918. 0. pallidas DC. Prodrom. VII 
(1839) p. 715; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 918; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 498, no. 
747.- R. fragrans Maxim. Rhododendr. Asiae Orient. (1870) p. 16; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) 
p. 341, no. 44. Azalea pallida Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 745. 

var. fragrans (Maxim.) Kusnezow, 1. c. (1915) p. 15. 

In the Altaian, above the limit of tree vegetation, at an altitude of about 2000 m. 
above sea-level, in stony places, among mosses and lichens. Nearly past flowering at the 
end of July. 

Distribution: The species is distributed in north-eastern Russia (Petshora), the 
Sayansk district. Trans Baikal, scattered in north-eastern Siberia to Kamtchatka, north- 
ern Mongolia, the Himalayas. 

Rhododendron parvifolium Adams in Mem. Sdc. Natur. Moscou IX (1834) p. 237; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 743; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 921; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) 
p. 500, no. 749;- Maxim. Rhododendr. Asiae Orient. (1870) p. 17; E. Byun,, Ericaceae bt, 
$ji. Ciionp. n JIfl.nAi. 1!(h-t. II (1915) p. 22. R. lapponicnm (L.) Wahlenb. var. parvifolium 
(Adams) Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. ;U;3; Kyimcuoi!!.. 1>c|k'ci,(iiimii m> tlvjueuKu, (l>.i. A;^iuT. 
Poccin 9 (1916) p. 16. 

Scattered in pine- and larch-woods between Ust Sisti-kem and the Kamsara. Past 
flowering in the middle of August. 

340 



Disliiliulidu: Noilliiin Moiit^oli;! and .soiillinii SiliciKi. IVoiii llic govfrninoiil ol' 
Yeniseisk iiiul (msIwukIs Io llir I'sliuklslicr Pt'iiiiisul;! iiikI Kainlclialiva, China, Saldialin, 
Norlh Aniciica (Isl. IhialasliUa). 

Kliodo.loiulron clalnniciini I.. Spec. PI. cd. 11 (17(12) j). r)()2; Ledoi). Fi. All. II, p. 90; 
'ruir/iui. C.al. Baical. no. 712: Lfd.-h. Fl. Hos.s. 11. p. (J21; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahnr. C1848) 
p. .")()!. no. 700; Maxim. Rhadudendi: Asiac Uricnl. (1870) p. VM Herder. PI. Hadd. (1872) 
p. H47. no. 48; Ki»m.i. 'l>.i. A.it. 11 (1904) p. 7i)2; E. Byiin., Ericacenc in, 'l>.i. CiirMip. ii ,|a.ii.ii. 
liner. II O-"-') P- 2'.t; h'y.iiieuimi,, r.e|ieci,iiiii,i)i in, <l)e,i,'iei:i,(i, <l>.i. Aniai. i'dcciii '.t (I<.U(); p. 21. 

Some specimens of (his one I have collecled on cliffs, on (lie borders of a small lake 
in snbalpine woods of spruce and cedar in Ihe Altaian, on (he Uj)per Sisli-kem, about 
1400 m. above sea-level. Mostly past flowering and with npe fruits, only a few specimens 
in flower at the end of July. All of tlie specimens collected belong to var. dauricum 
Maxim. 1. c. (1870) p. U. 

Distribution: From the AUai region and ea.stwards through southern Siberia and 
northern Mongolia to Kamtchalka and Manchooria, Corea, northern China, Sakhalin, 
Japan. 

Phyllodoce cocrulea (L.) Babingt. Manual. Brit. Bol. ed. I (18415) p. 194; E. Byiin., 
Ericacea bb *Iki. C'liOnp. ii /I,u.ibH. Boer. II (lUloj p. 4<); Ivy;iiieii,oi!b, liejiecKoiibia Kb 9)c,;'ieiiKU, 
01.1. Aaiax. Poceiii 9 (1916) p. 33. P. taxifolia Salisb. Parad. Londin. 1 (1806) t. 56; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. II, p. 916; Maxim, lihododendr. Asiae Orient. (1870) p. 6; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1848) p. 497, no. 746; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 336, no. 40. 

Pretty common in the Altaian, on rocky debris, and the like, at altitudes of about 
2100 m. above sea-level, together with mosses and lichens, frequently associated with Saxi- 
fraga stellaris siihs\wc. comosa; in full flower at the end of July. The specimens agree 
rather perfectly with Scandina\ian material, with the exception of the corolla apparently 
being mostly somewhat shorter than in the Scandinavian ones, and not always so mark- 
edly nodding: moreover, the style is mostly somewhat longer, so that the pistil may fre- 
quently be seen in the orifice of the corolla, while it is generally from 1 to 2 mm. shorter 
in Scandinavian specimens. 

Distribution: Scandinavia, Scotland, the Pyrenees, northern Italy, northern Russia, 
the northern Ural, the Sayansk district (northern Mongolia), Baikal, Trans Baikal, the 
Amoor Province, the Tshuktsher Peninsula, Kamtchatka, Sakhalin, North America. 

Noto: Tlu> figrure ol' this spwicw to bo fouiiil iu tho work qiuvtod sibovo, l)y Mim; E Bl'SCll (1915) p. 
47, was mot likely to beloug to the typical Phyllodoce coeriilca. Thuis, it <lirfois distiiictly in haviu!!: t.lie 
flowere qiiirt« ©neot, not iioddinig diiriiiig: the aowering; tho corolla i.s cousiderablly shorter and wider, open- 
caiUipaiMikite, not constricted at the thi-oait, wide and oi>en, the 1oIm?s natJier larg«, subobtuise, being ospeeijilly 
di.sitinctly inclined backwards. Mortvover, it is distinisui.ylied by liavlng: tho stylo much pi-ojecting. These 
liusit characters may Ik> seen e-spwially distiaictly in itie inilerNOcted and niafrnified flower on the rijrht 
hand side of the figruro at tho bottom. 

Tliis specim'en, helonginig: to Ko.MAKOW's eoUoclions froui Kamtchatka, cannot be refeiTeti to the typi- 
cal Phyllodoce coerulea, but seoniod to be a sul>species, or perliaiJS still more pix)bably a distiuct species, 
precisely disitiugTiished trom tlie latter by the above-meintioned characters. llowev«a% as I have not seen 
tliese speciniems myself, I dare not give a full description of it, based ni>on a sinple figure only, which 
may possildy Ive innccnrato at some points. In only wisli beieby to draw atlemtion to those eireiimstances. 

341 



Andromeda polifolia L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 564; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 756; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 910; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (18-18) p. 493. no. 742; Herder, PI. 
Radd. (1872) p. 326, no. 30; Kpbu. <I>ji. A.it. Ill (1904) p. 789; E. Eyun., Ericaceae st «l>jr. 
Ciidnp. II /I,a.ibH. BocT. II (1915) p. 72; KysueuoBT., BepecKOBbiH bi. ^e^'iCHKO, 3>ji. Asiax. Pocciii 
9 (1916) p. 48. 

Scattered in peat-bogs, and the like, in the Amyl valley, at Ust Algiac, Ust Kamsara, 
and in the Altaian, where collected by me at altitudes of to about 20(X) m. above sea-level, 
with young flowers at the end of July. The specimens agree perfectly with var. li/pica E. 
BuscH, 1, c. 

Distribution: Noilliern and middle Europe, southwards to France, Switzei4and, and 
Austro-Hungary, Siberia, northwards to the mouths of the rivers Yenisei, Lena, and 
Kolyma, the Tshuktsher .Peninsula, Kamtchatka, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin, Japan, 
North America. Greenland. 

^ Arctostaphylos alpina Spreng. System. Vegetal. II (1825—1828) p. 287; Turczan. Cai 
Baical. no. 752; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 908; rurczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 491, no. 
740; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 323, no. 28; Kpti.!. «Dji. Ajit. II (1904) p. 788. Arctoiis 
alpina (L.) Niedenzu in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. XI (1889); KysHeuoB'B, BepecKOBbw bi. tPeA^emio, 
4)j. Aaiar. Pocciii 9 (1916) p. 61. 

Rather common in the Altaian, near the sources of the river Sisti-kem, at an alti- 
tude of about 2000 m. alcove sea-level, mostly on somewhat dry cliffs covered with mosses 
and lichens, where gathered by me with young fruits at the end of July. 

Distribution: Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, nortliei-n Siberia, approximately 
between 65° and 72° -noiUi lat., eastwards to Kamtchatka, the Thian-Shan, the Altai 
and the Sayansk districts, northern Mongolia. Baikal, Trans Baikal, the Amoor Province, 
Sakhalin, Japan, Noilh America. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 500; Ledeb. Fl. Alt II, p. 67; 

KysHeuoBt, Bepeei.oBbifi bi> ^JeA^enKo, <I>.t. Asiax. Pocciii 9 (1916) p. 64. Oxycoccos paliistris Pers. 
Synops. Plant I (1805) p. 419; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 761; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 905; 
Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 489, no. 739; Herder, PI. Radd. (1812) p. 321, no. 26; 
Kpbu. <I).i. A.1X. HI (1904) p. 786. 

Common in peat-bogs, and the like, in subalpine and alpine regions of the Sayansk 
district. I have collected and observed it in the following places: Kalna, Ust Algiac, in 
the Altaian up to the bare' mountains, near Tshebertash, and near Utinski porog. 

Besides the typical plant, /. viilgare A. Bl., there also commonly occur specimens 
of /. miciocarpum Tirczan. Both of these forms are frequently found growing togethej- 
and — in point of morpholog}' — they are not strictly separated, but connected together 
by intermediates. The species flowers in July. The specimens collected agree perfectly 
in structure with Scandinavian material of comparison. 

342 



I )islril)uli(m: Norllicni and middle luiiopo. soulli \v;ii(ls lo l"i-:mcc, Swilzcrlaiul 
and Ausli'o-I lunyaiy, Sil)i'iia, in llic ^'l■lli.s(■i valley iioilliwards lo (i'J north lal.. casl- 
wards lo KamlelialUa, 11(11 Iherii Mongolia, the Aiiiooi- Province, Sakhalin. .Ia])an, Norlli 
America, Greenland. 

Vaccinium Myrtilliis L. Spee. PI. cd. II (17(i2) p. 1<.I8; I.edeh. Fl. All. II. p. (j(i; liii- 
czan. Cat. Ikiieal. no. 758; Kaiel. el Kiril. Enuin. Pi. Kl. Alt. no. 571; Ledei). Fl. Ross. II, 
p. 902; TuiTzan. Fl. liaical.-Dahur. (1818) p. 488, no. 737; Herder, PI. Hadd. (1872) p. :51 1. 
no. !'.•; h" [11.1.1. <I>.i. .\.ii. Ill (1904) p. 7H4; KysHeuoBi., BepecKOiii.iu iii. 'I'e,i,'ieiii;u. 'I'.i. A;)iar. 
Pdc-ciu 9 0911J) p. (u. 

Common in the snbalpine taiga along the rivers Amyl, Sisti-kem, and Bci-kem. In 
the Altaian found by me at an altitude of about 1800 m. above sea-level, flowering and in 
part past flowering at the end of July. The fruit ripens in subalpine regions at the end of 
July and tlie beginning of August. 

Distiibution: Europe, except the soutliern parts, Caucasia, the north of Asia Minor, 
Siberia, in die Yenisei valley northwards to 68° 35' north lal., eastwards to Kamtchatka, 
northern Mongolia, NorOi America. 

Vaccinium uliginosum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 499; Turczan. Cat Baical. no. 7.59; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 904; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 488, no. 738; Herder, PI. 
Radd. (1872) p. 319, no. 25; Kptu. *j. Ajit. 111(1904) p. 785; KyaueuuB-b, bepecKuiii.ui irb 
•teftWHKO, $Ji. Aslax. Pocciii 9 (191(5) p. 70. 

The specimens collected by me in various localities in the Sayansk districl. dif- 
fer distinctly from the Scandinavian ones in having the branches completely glabrous, 
and always destitute of tlie fine, short hairs covering the year's shoots in the typical plant, 
By an exact examination of what is to be found of Nonvcgian and foreign material of 
this species in the herbarium of the University at Christiania, 1 have found the pubescence 
on the year's shoots to be an absolutely unalterable character for European specimens 
of Vaccinium uliginosum. These completely glabrous specimens from eastern Siberia arc 
separated by me as 

subspec. imberbe nov. subspec. 

Rcimuli nouelli semper omnino ijlabri. nilidi. numiutim ul m forma hjpica 
pubescenles: baccae breve slipihitae. pednnculi lanlum 1 — '? mm. hniji; folia cum 
ceteris comparaia angusla. 

The specimens at hand are, besides, distinguished by having the pedicels very short, 
only one to a few mm. long, and the leaves frequently somewhat broader, more equally 
broad, rather suddenly narrowed towards the base. This one is rather frequently to be 
met with in the taiga territory, and is also very common in the .Mtaian, in turfy bogs, 
etc., near the limit of tree vegetation. The fruits ripen at end of July and the beginning 
of August. The typical species does not occur in my collections from the Sayansk district 

Distribution: The species is distributed in northern and middle Europe, southwards 
lo middle Spain, middle Italy. Turkey, noithern and middle Russia. Caucasia, Siberia, in 

343 



the Yenisei valley northwards to 71" 20' norlii hit., eastwards to the Tshuktsher Peninsula, 
Kanitchatka and the Anioor Pro\ince, northern Mongolia, Sakhalin. Japan, North Ame- 
rica, Greenland. 

Vacciniuni vitis idaea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 500; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 67; Tur- 
czan. Gal. Baical. no. 760; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. II, p. 901; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1848) p. 
487, no. 736; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 312, no. IS; K|.hi.i. «D.i. A.it. Ill (1904) p. 783; 
Ky3HeuoBi>, BepccKOiiwH m (I>e;;'ieHKO, i'-T. AaiaT. Pocciii 'J (UUG) p. 75. 

Rather common in the Sayansk district, in coniferous forest. The specimens collected 
seemed, at least to judge from my material, generally to have the flowers somewhat smal- 
ler than the Scandinavian ones. The corolla is generally shorter, wider and more open; 
the length of the style in these specimens does not exceed 5 mm., while it is generally 7 
mm. or sometimes still more in the Scandinavian ones. For the rest, the plants seemed 
not to differ from Scandinavian material. Of pretty common occurrence in rather di-y 
situations about the Upper Amyl, on the Sisti-kem, and about the Kamsara. Taken in 
flower and partly past flowering about the middle of July. 

In the Altaian, above the limit of trees, at an altitude of about 2000 m. above sea- 
level, I have collected specimens belonging to a very small form, only attaining a height of 
2 to 3 cm. The leaves are broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, from 5 to 8 mm. long, 
nearly sessile. The flowers are also rather small, from 3 to 4 mm. long, and rather open. 
The raceme is few-flowered, only 2- or 3-flowered. The bracts are completely glabrous, 
wanting marginal hairs as well, which is partly also the case in the sepals. The pedicels 
are vei-y short, only about 1 mm. long. The year's shoots are very short, only about 
5 to 10 mm. long. To judge from the number of the year's shoots, these specimens may 
attain a pretty great age. I refer this form to /. piimiliiin Hornem., Lange, Gonsp. Fl. 
Groenl. p. 90 (Vacciniiim vitis idaea var. microphylliim Hekder, 1. c). 

Distribution: Northern and middle Europe, southwards to France, northern Italy 
and northern Turkey, Russia, from the Arctic Ocean southwards to Kiev and Orenbui-g, 
Novaya Zemlya, Siberia, from the Ural to the Pacific Ocean, northern Mongolia, Manchoo- 
ria, Sakhalin, Japan. North America, Greenland. 

P r i in u 1 a c e a e VEM. 

Primula patens Turczan. in Bull. Soc. Natural. Moscou (1838) p. 99. P. cortiisoides 
L. /J patens Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 291. P. sa.vatilis Komarow in Act. Hort. 
Petropol. XVIII (1901) p. 429; Pax et Knuth, Primiilac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV. 237, 
1905) p. 27. 

The specimens which I refer to this one, are large and vigoi'ous and distinguished by 
their comparatively short-petioled leaves, the petioles 4—9 cm. long, that is, once to twice 
as long as the blade. The shape of tlie blade is ovate, 4—6 cm. long, and 3'5— 5,5 cm. 
broad, always distinctly, not unfrequently even deeply cordately indented at the base. 

344 



I'lic itiaiL;in (iT tlic lc:it is slinlii|\ imflulnlc. mihI on cMfli side dissected into 6 broad, 
siiiii()il)icular lohcs. rounded al liii' lup, oacli of llieni 5. nirely '.]- or 7-loollu'd. Tlic scape 
is consi(liMai)ly lt)n^rr tiian Die loaves, from 20—35 cm. long, i)ui)esccnt, especially so at 
the base. The In acts are lanceolate, 6—7 mm. long, slightly nerved, with short, but rather 
dense iiairs. 'V\\v lloweis are 1 — 10, on raliier sliicl and siinliliy liaiiy pedicels, measuiing 
ahoul 2 cm. in ii'm^lji. ilie calyx is .i — 8 mm. long. It) about llie middle clef! into ianceo- 
lale lobes, Willi .scattered, short bairs,or at times nearly glabrous. The flowers are large, the 
lind) 1(S— 20 nun. in diameter; the petals rather deeply emarginale, reddish violet. The tube 
is ai)()ul 1 cm. long, projecting considerably beyond the calyx, its colour raliier varying, 
IVoni a dari< \\o\v\ lo a i)alli(l yellowisii i;recn. With regards to tiie margins of tlie petals, 
the species exliibils llie sanu' features as llie neaiiy aihed /'. roiliisoidps L.. being either 
entire or serrulate. 1 llicrefore sei)arle these respectively as /". inlcfjcniiud noiK /'.: ciirol- 
liic loin inlcf/ii and /'. (tciiticiiliild not>. /'.. corollac lobi (IcnlicuUtll. 

Ibis -species is rather connnon on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and .Abakan, where 
occm-ring in grass-grown places, in thickets, etc., in full flower at the beginning of June. 
Specimens taken in different knalities prove to be rather vaiying in i)uhescence. in the 
length of the scaj)e the length of the calyv-lobes. the shape of the limb and of the lube. 
P. patens 'I'riuv.AN. is undoubtedly very nearly allied to P. corhisoidesL., and 1 am 
inclined to look upon it as an eastern subspecies of the latter. Their geographical distri- 
bution also seemed to be indicative of this assumption being right. My specimens, col- 
lected in the transition zone between the geographical areas of the two said species, 
thus seemed, in many respects, lo constitute intermediates between them. 

Distribution: Priiiuild jxiirns occurs in eastern Asia, westwards to about the Altai 
region. In western Siberia it is replaced by Priiniila corlusoidrs I,. 

Primula officinalis (L.) Hill. Vegetable Syst. VIII (1765) p. 25; Pax et Knuth, Primii- 
hir in Kngl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV, 237, 1905) p. bi\- Kpi.u. <]).t. A.n. Ill (1904) p. 808. 

I'di: macrocalyx (Bunge) C. Kock in Linnaea X\'1I (1843) p. 307: Pax et Knuth. 1. c. 
p. nS. P. niaciondijx Hunge in Lcdeb. Fl. Alt. 1. p. 209: Karel. ct Kiril. Knum. PI. \'\. .Ml. 
no. 712. P. of/iriiKdis var inlhihi Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, ]). 8: Herder. PI. Hadd. (1872) p. 
385, no. 75. 

About Karatus and Kushabar. on bills and in small thickets. Past flowering al the 
beginning of July. 

Distribution: The variety is distributed from eastern Prussia, eastwards through the 
south-eastern portion of middle Europe, Caucasia and south-w estern Asia, southern Sibe- 
ria, eastwards to the government of Yeniseisk. 

Primula clatior (L.) Hill, Vegetable Syst. XIII (1765) p. 25; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
9: Pax et Knuth. Primitlac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV. 237. 190.5) p. 49: lt>i...i. <P.i. A.rr. 
Ill (1904) p. 809. 

31 345 



nor. Pallasii (Lehm.) Pax in Engl. Bol. Jahrb. X (1889) p. 179: Pax el Kiuilli. 1. c. 
(1905) p. 51; Kpbu. 1. c. (1904) p. 809. P. alkiica Pall, ex Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 20. 

This eastern variety of the species is distinguished from the typical plant by having 
the leaves less rugose, thinner, and tapering into the jietiole. The stem, the calyx, and the 
under sides of tlie leaves are covered with very short, soft glandular hairs. The limb of 
the corolla is flat. The variety is of rather common occurrence in the Sayansk district, 
in alpine and subalpine meadows, and in Uiickets. All the specimens in my collections 
are distinguished by being few-flowered, each scape bearing only .3— ti flowers, thus 
agreeing perfectly with Lehmann's record in Monogr, Gener. PninuUir (1817) p. 38. 
Ledeboih, however, expresses himself in the following way concerning this species: 
„Umbella multiflora: floribus non raro 15 (neque, ut vult cl. Lehm. 1. c. 3 — 6)." The calvx- 
lobes are slightly, but not distinctly recurved, and of the same length as Uie ripe capsules. 
KoRSHixsKY records the ripe capsules to be slightly shorter than the calyx. (Tent. Fl. 
Ross. p. 284 in Mem. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Petersbourg, 1898, Vol. VII). Specimens collected 
at the end of .luly are mostly past flowering, not unfrequently with the ripe capsules al- 
ready emptied. 

Distribution: The above variety is distributed in the Ural, south-western Asia, the 
Altai, the Sayansk district (northern Mongolia). 

Primula nivalis Pallas, Reise Russ. Reich. Ill (1772—73) p. 723; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
210; Bunge, Enum. Alt. p. 9: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 921; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. 
Alt. no. 713; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 10 ex parte; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 
292, no. 760; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 388, no. 76; Kpbi.i. <Ii.t. A.it. Ill (1904) p. 810; Pax 
et Knuth, Prinmlac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV. 237, 1905) p. 102. 

The specimens of this rather polymorphic plant are especially distinguished by the 
rather thick scape, at times drooping, only slightly projecting beyond the leaves, and 
bearing only 2 — 3 flowers — at least during the flowering — on rather short pedicels, onlv 
from 5—10 mm. long. The bracts are very narrow and acutish, nearly linear, 5—8 mm. 
long. The calyx is completely glabrous, about 6 — 7 mm. long, of an almost coal black 
colour (at any rate when dried), and about to the middle split into lobes, slightly acumi- 
nate at the top. The tube is about twice as long as the calyx, the limb about 1,5 cm. in 
diameter, of a dark purple hue. The whole plant is completely glabrous, and not mealy. 
The leaves are 1—2 cm., generally 1,5 cm. broad, and 5—8 cm. long, rather argute serru- 
late at the margin, gradually tapering and decuri-ent into the petiole. The specimens found 
are verj' nearly allied to the variety typica Regel in Acta Hort. Petropol. Ill (1874) p. 135, 
which are recorded, however, to have mostly broader leaves, and the calyx of a greenish 
purple colour, with considerably longer lobes. 

Distribution: The species is distiibuted in northern Asia Minor (the Pontus Moun- 
tains) and south-western Asia to the Himalayas, the Altai, the Sayansk district, the 
Yablonoi, Kamtchatka, China, North America (?). Var. typica Regel occurs in the Altai 
and the Sayansk districts (northern Mongolia). 

346 



Primula lariiu.sa L. Spec. IM. cd. II (1762) p. 205: Pii\ .■! Kiiiilii. Primiildv. in Eii^l. 

Plhuizciir. 11. 22 (IV. 237. 1903) p. 82; Tui-c/nn. Cat. Baicai. no. DIU: Lode!). V\. Hu.ss. 111. 

p. 13: TuiT/aii. Fl. BaicaL-Daluir. (18411) p. 295. no. 703: Herder. PI. Hadd. (1872) p. 390. 

no. 77. 

siibspec. eufarinosa Pax luir. i;i'iuiina Pax in I'ni^i. I'.dI. Jaliih. X (1889) p. 199; Pax 

cl Knuth. 1. e. (1905) p. 83. 

l>alhei' common in f^rassy place.s on the islels in llic iImts Yenisei and .KbaUan. 
w lieic collected i)y nie in full flower 
al (lie i)eL;innin.L; of .lunc. Tlie speci- 
mens are verv lari;e and well-mown. 
to 30 cm. high. Ihe cah'^-lol)es com- 
paratively short, only from '/•' to '/« of 
Ihe length of [he calyx, suhacutish 
al the top. The lui)e is of a deep 
yellow ct>lour. projecting 1 — 1.5 mm. 
beyond the calyx. 'Vhv petiole, tlu' 
under side of the leaves, the bracts, 
the pedicels, and the calyx are dense- 
ly mealy, of a yellowi.sh green. 

Distribution: Over the greater 
pari of lunope. southern Siberia, in 
the Altai and Baikal regions, north- 
ern Mongolia. North America. 

Primula loiigiscapa Ledeb. in 
Mem. Acad. St. Petersbourg V (1815) 
p. .520: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 212: Bunge. 
Enum. Alt. ]). 10: Karel. et Kiril. 
Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 715: Ledeb. Fl. 
Boss. Ill, p. 12: l,>i,u 'IM A.I I 111 
(1904) p. 812. P. fctiinosa var <l,'nii- 
(iutahedeh. Fl. Bos.s. Ill ]). 13: Her- 
der. PI. Radd. (1872) p. :592. P. fari- 
nosa subspec. diunirica (Sprcng.) 

Pax var. inlermi-din (Sims) Pax in Pax et Knuth, Primiildc. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 
(I\', 237, 1905) p. 8(i. P. altaica ^ Turczaii Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1819) p. 294. no. 7(V2. P. cxal- 
lala Lehm., Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 920. 

F. pedicellis c(ilijcibiis(iiir farinosis. 

The leaves in the specimens collected vary rather much. The common shape is 
oblong to spatulate-lanceolate, 5—8 cm. long, 1,2—2 cm. broad, with a subobtuse or 
subacute apex. The margin is mostly entire or only slightly serrulate. The scape is from 
30—45 cm. high, from 5—7 times as long as the leaves. The flowers numerous, 20— 

347 




Viii. 97. Primula nivalis 1'.\.ll.\s (,' i). 



30, oil shorl pinlicols. 0.5— U.H cm. long. I he l)r;icls are linear lo lanceolate. 3—5 
mm. long, with acute apices. The calyx is ahoiit 1 nnn. long, its upper lliird split into 
triangular lobes, subacute or subobtuse at the top. The tube is generally of a yellow colour. 
mostly projecting 1 nnn.. larely more, beyond the calyx. The limb is from ti— 7 mm. 
in diameter, of a pale violet, gradually darker tow-ards the throat, or through evei-y 
shade of colour to a nearly shining white. Khvlow (#.i. A.it. 111. p. 807 and p. 812) 
records the whole plant as completely glabrous, not mealy. In the specimens at hand 1 
have found, however, the pedicels and the calyx always to be markedly mealy, also tlie 
bi'acts and even the upper part of the stem generally more or less distinctly mealy, of a 
whitish hue. The young scapes, as yet only one inch high, are completely white-mealy. 
On the otlier hand, the leaves seemed always to be glabrous, at any rate when full-grown. 

Occurring on the Abakan Steppe, near I'st Kamuishto. in grass-grown, clayey, 
mostly saline soil, accompanj'ing Ranunculus planlaginifolius, Lepidium cordalum, Lepi- 
dium crussifolium. Pluntago mnriliinu sul)s|)cc. n7z«/o. and other halophilous plants. In 
full flower in the second half of June. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia. Caucasia, Turkestan, the Thian-Shan. southern 
Siberia, northern Mongolia. 

Primula sibirica Jacq. Mi.sc. Austr. I (1778) p. 161; Ledeb. Fl. All. I. p. 213; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 14; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 293. lU). 7(il: Herder. PI. Radd. 
(1872) p. 395, no. 78; KpM.i. <1).t. A.tt. Ill (1904) p. 812; Pax et Knuth. Primulac. in Engl. 
Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV, 237, 1905) p. 76. 

ixir. brevicalyx Trautv. Plant. Imag. Fl. Ross. (1844 — 46) p. 44: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. 
p. 14; Pax et Knuth, 1. c. (1905) p. 77. 

The specimens collected are distinguished by comparatively long petioles, about 
tAvice tlie length of the blade, the margin of which is entire. The calyx is 5—8 mm. long, 
its upper third or fourth cleft into rather l)lnnt lobes, rather densely ciliate. The 
length of the pedicels is much varying, 0,5—3 cm., the number of the flowers 1—3, 
mostly 2. The tube is yellowish green, 10—11 mm. long, from one third to twice as long 
as the calyx. The limb is 12—14 mm. in diameter. In full flower about the middle of 
June. 

The plant is of rather common occurrence on the Abakan Steppe, near Askys. 
where growing in moist, grass-grown cavities on the steppe, near the river, associated with 
plants such as Carex capillaris. Orchis spec. div.. Cijpripediluni njacranthum. Herniiniuni 
Monorchis. Trollius asialicus, Comarnm palustre, etc. 

Distribution: The main species is distributed over the arctic regions of Europe, .\sia 
and America, as well as on Greenland, and the mountain regions of central Asia. The 
variety brevicalyx occurs only in central Asia, from the Hindoo-Koosh to the north-western 
Himalayas, the Altai and Sayansk districts, Baikal, Trans Baikal, to China (Kan-su). 

Adrosace villosa L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 203; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 21'7; Turczan. 
Gat Baical. no. 927; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 719; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 17; 

348 



Inrc/aii. IL l^aical. Daliur. (I.SIII) p. 2'.),. iio./dl; llcrilci. I'l. I'.add. (1872) p. 398, iiu. Ki: 
l«>M.i. "I'.i Ah III (llKll) p. Nil: !'a\ r\ Kmilli. I'niinihir. in I'.iigl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV, 
2:57. HHIf)) J). I'.tO. 

pa/-, »liisy|)liylla (Buiif{c) Karel. el Kiril. in l'>ull. Soc. Natural. Moscoii XV (1842) j). 
21;): I'ax i'l Kiuilh, i. c. {VM)-^) p. 1<)2. A. (hisiiplujlln \\\\\\ii,v in Lcdcb. I'l. All. I. p. 218: 
lA'di'i). Fi. Hoss. III. p. 17: Kpi.i.i 1. v. (lUOl) p. 81.). 

Niuniici u\ liowiMh 1 ()!■ 2. on .sra])t's 1—1,5 cm. 
lii,L;li. i'lic llowci-.s U..J-4).8 cm. in diamclcr. 'I'lic 
wiiolc piani is lalhcr dcn.-cly liaii\. and llic scape 
also liiniislicd willi scallcrcd, glandular liairs. 'liic 
spo'cimcns ln^lon^ \.o J. (/cniiina l\ Kni rii, I. c. p. I'.Ki. 
Taken on dry. stony declivilics on llie sicppe. mai 
Karaliis. Most ol' Ihe s|)ccimcns wilh lipt' ca|)sulcs. 
some in flower in llic liisl half of Inly. 

Distriluition: The variety dusiiphijUa is dislii- 
hulcd in llie Pyrenees. Asia Minor, Caucasia and 
soulh-wcslcrn .Asia to Afghanistan and Pamir, south- 
ern Siberia, northern Mongolia. 




Fif<. 9.S. Ainlrosdcv I'illusii I^. MW.dusy 
phylla (Bunge) Karel. ct Kiril. (i/i\ 



Androsacc scplciilrionalis L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 203: Ledeh. Fl. Alt. I. j). 215; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 924: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 19: Tnrczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahm-. (1819) 
p. 300, no. 767; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) u. 402, no. 84: l.'pi.i.i. <!m. A.m. Ill (1904) p. 816; 
Pax cl Knulii, I'riinultir. in Engl. Pflanzenr. II. 22 (IV, 237. 1905) p. 214. 

var. typica Knulii. 1. c. (1905) p. 21.5. 

Agrees rather ])erfectly with Scandinavian specimens. The scapes, howewer, are as 
a rule numerons, generally 2 — I, only very rarelx' solitary; the petals also generally pro- 
ject about 1 mm. above the calyx. Scattered in dry, sandy meadows on islets in the rivers 
Yenisei and Abakan, and on llie steppes about Minusinsk. In full flower and in part past 
flowering in June and .Inly. In the Crjaniiai counliy I have found the sjjccies in dry, 
sandy woods, near I'st .Sisti-kem. 

Distribution: Europe, northwards to aijout 63 north lal., temperate and northern 
Asia (northwards, at Taimur, to 74° north lat., southwards to Tibet and Cashmere, east- 
wards to Kamtchatka and llic Amoor P)X)vince), Nortla America. 

Androsacc I'iliformis Relz. Obscrv. I5ol. II (1781) p. 10; Ledclj. Fl. All. I, p. 216: lur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 926: Kaicl. ct Kiiil. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 718; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, 
p. 21; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daluir. (1819) p. 301. no. 768; Herder. PI. Radd. (1872) p. 406, 
no. 87: Kpwj. <I).i. A.rr. HI (1904) p. 819; Pax ct Knulh. Piiniiildc. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 
22 (IV, 237, 1905) p. 217. 

V(ir. glaiidulosa Krylow. .Maiep. 1. 1. <l>.i. IlcpMii;. 1 yo. II. c. 174; Kpu.i. 1. c. (l'.M)4l p. ?<2U. 

On the road between Kaialus and Kushabar. frequently in .somewhat moist places, 
and jn the subalpinc laiga on llie river \myl. Nearly done flowering in the middle of .luly. 



349 



Distribution: Middle and eastern Russia, Siberia, eastwards as far as the Tshukt- 
sher Peninsula and Kamtchatka, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 69° 25' north lat.. 
northern Mongolia, eastern Asia, western part of North America. 

Androsace maxima L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 203; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 214; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 922; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 716; Ledeb. FI. Ross. Ill, 
p. 20; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 302, no. 770; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 405, 
no. 86; IVpti.i. <l>.i. A.rr. Ill (1904) p. 818; Pax el Knulh, PrimuUtc. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 
22 (IV, 237, 1905) p. 212. 

The .specimens collected are small, willi Ihe solitary scape 1 — 2, rarely to 3 cm. higli. 
The bracts of the involucre 3 — 7 mm. long, entire, as a rule somewhat longer than the 
pedicels. 

Scattered on dry, stony declivities on the steppe about the rivers Yenisei and Aba- 
kan. Most of the specimens already done flowering at the beginning of June, only some 
few with flowers of a light red. The capsule is of about the same size as the calyx, rarely 
projecting. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe, North Africa. Caucasia, Siberia, east- 
wards to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. » 

Androsace Gmcliui (Lam.) Gaertn., De Fruct. et Seni. PI. I (1788) p. 232; Ledeb. Fl. 
Alt. I. p. 217: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 928; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 21; Turczan. Fl. Bai- 
cal.-Dahur. (1849) p. 301, no. 769; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 407. no. 88; Kpi.i.i. fpji. A.it. 
Ill (1904) p. 820; Pax et Knuth, Prinnilac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV, 237, 1905) p. 179. 

This nice little plant is of rather common occurrence on the islets in the rivers 
Yenisei and Abakan, especially in somewhat moist meadows, where taken by me in full 
flower, and partly with ripe fruits, in the second half of June. The leaves are generally 
about 1 cm. or somewhat more in diameter. 

Distiibution: From the central and eastern Altai, through the southern portions of 
the governments of Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Ti-ans Baikal, western Manchooria, and western 
China. 

Corlusa Matlhioli L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 206; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 206; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 915; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 710; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, 
p. 22; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 303, no. 771; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 408, 
no. 89; Kpu.!. (I>.i. A.rr. Ill (1904) p. 821; Pax et Knuth, Primnlac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 
(IV, 237, 1905) p. 221. 

The leaves are orbicular-rcniform, 5—6 cm. wide, cordate at the base and character- 
istic in having the lobes i-ather deeply and sharply serrate. The petioles are 5—9 cm. long, 
and, like the veins on the under side of the leaves, distinctly winged. The specimens are 
glabrous, some, however, having a few, scattered hairs along the veins on the under side of 
the leaf; the upper side is always completely glabrous. The scape is of about- the same 
height as the leaves. The bracts are ovate to lanceolate, always distinctly and in part 

;^.50 



rather deeply and sluuply serrate. The pedicels are 1,5 — 2 cm. long, now and then sonie- 
wlial (h'()(ipiiii<. rile plaiils arc always comparatively Icw-i'lowered. only with 2 — 5 
flowers. The calw is 5 — nnn. lon^, to about the middle split into narrowly triangular 
lobes, iiointcd al llic lop. Tlie ])etals are large, 12 — 11 mm. long. 




l-'i}i !li). Andiosacc (inuliiti :L.\m. (Iaertn. i'/i). 



Of rather frequent occurrence in the Altaian, in mossy, shady places, along moun- 
tain rivulets, etc., in the subalpine region, near the tree limit. 1 full flower at the end 

of July. 

Distribution: Alpine regions of middle Euroi)e. norlliern lUissia, Novaya Zemlya. 



351 



Siberia, in the Yenisei valley uoithwards to 72 25' north lat.. and eastwards to the Sea 
of Okhotsk, the Altai and Sayansk districts. Trans Baikal to China. Sakhalin. Japan, 
south-western Asia to the Himalayas. 

Trientali.s eiiropaea L. Spec. PI. ed. 11(1762) p. 488: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 930: 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 24: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 30.5. no. 773: Herder, PI. 

Hadd. (1872) p. 413, no. 93: KpM.i. <Im. A.n. 
HI (1904) p. 823: Pax et Knuth. Prinuilac. 
in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV. 237, 1905) 
p. 313. 

Pretl\' coniuion in shady woods of 
conifers about the Upper Ainyl. on the 
Sisti-kem, at Ust Kam.sara. and in the 
.\ltaian, where collected b\' me to far 
above the tree limit, to about 2000 m. 
aljove sea-level. .Vll of the .specimens 
ijelong to the typical form. In full flower 
in .July. 

Distribution: Widely distributed over 
the northern and temperate regions of 
Eurasia. Geographical range in Scandi- 
na\ia northwards to 71 10' north ial.. in 
the Ural to about 67K>° north lat.. in 
western Siberia to about 64'' nortlr lat., in 
the Yenisei valley to about 66" 30' north 
lat., and eastwards as far as the Tshuktsher 
Peninsula and Kamtchatka, northern Mon- 
golia, Sakhalin. Japan. North .\merica. 

Lysimachia vulgaris L. Spec. PI. ed. 
II (1762) p. 209; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 207: 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 711: 

: Herder, PI. 




FijJ. 100. 



Le;if of Coiiiisa Matlhioli L. IVom the 
Sayansk mountains (VT. 



Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 



Radd. (1872) p. 417. no. 96: Kphi.i. *.i. A.n. 
Ill (1904) p. 825: Pax et Knuth. Prinuilac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV. 237, 1905) ]). .303. 

vcir. typica R. Knuth. 1. c. (1905) p. 304. 

In humid places on the river Abakan, and scattered in the tracts between Karatus 
and Kushabar, at Petropawlowsk on the Amyl, Semiretska and Kalna, where it begins 
flowering at the beginning of July. 

The leaves in this variety are generally verticillate in 3's, only in the upper part of the 
stem and in the panicle sometimes opposite. The leaves are large and broad, ovate to 



352 



ovale-hiiKcolalr. Ir((|iiiiilly hroadcsl in llif lower IkiH: llic l);isi' is rounded or al limes 
luaiiy cordalc. nol narrowed, llic api'X acute oi' atuiniiiale. I'liey are usually destitute of 
|)i'liol(s. coiii|)letely sessile, and distinguisiied liy heiui" eoni|)aratively more markedly 
hiaik-jiuiulale than is common in the Scandinavian specimens w illi which I have com- 
l)ared them. The leaves are to 3.5 cm. hroad, and to 8 cm. loni^; the margin is plane or 
rai-ely slightly revolute, entire or slightly and irregularly crennlale. 'I'here seemed to occur 
iulermediale.s Ixiween this varit'lx' and llie following one. 

Ddt. davuriea (Ledeh.) R. Knuth, 1. c. (190.^>) p. :><il. /,. (hnuiricd l.edel). in Mem. 
.\cad. Peiershonrg V (18M) p. .523; Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. I. ji. 207 in nola; Turc/an. Cat. I'.aical. 
no. '.11(1; Ledel). Fl. Hos.s. Ill, p. 27; Turezan. Fl. P>aieal.-i):i!inr. ( hSI'.l) |). :'>()7. no. 77."): Her- 
der. PI. Hadd. (1872) p. IKi, no. 95. 

This variety, being dislinguishcil by its mon- narrowly lanceolalc leases, generally 
onl\' 2 ojiposile ones. 1 have gathered on the islels in the Lower .\bakan. and in the I rjan- 
kai country, on the Sisli-kem. The shape and size of llie leaves are somew lial varying The 
lower ones are narrowest, very narrowly lanceolate, only from 5 — 6 nnn. broad, and 5 or 
7 times as long, broadest at the base, tapering towards the apex. The up])er ones gradually 
become broader, the upi)einiost broadly lanceolate, and. moreover, frequently also being 
verticillate in 3's. All Ihe leaves are sessile; llieir margin is slightly undulate and revo- 
lute. The lower stem-leaves are gradually reduced downwards lo scales. The s])ccimens 
collected are mostly more hirsule than the preceding one. especially so in Ihe upper parts of 
the plant, and on the under side of the leaves. In the structure of the flowers both varieties 
seemed to agree, but the latter always seemed lo have 3 rather distincl nerves on the sepals, 
the former, according lo my material, wanting distinct nerves. The universality of this 
character, however, cannot l)e definitely settled on accounl of Ihe scarcity of my material. 
The pedicels in bolli varieties, are. during the flowering season, of ai)out double the lenglb 
of the calyces. The variety davuvica seemed, for the rest, nol to be strictly dislingnished 
from the variety lijinca. but connected with intermediates. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most northern and soulluin parls. C,aucasia. 
Asia Minor, south-western Asia and Turkestan. Siberia, in Ihe governmenl of Tobolsk, 
northwards lo 62" 10' north lal.. and in the governmenl of Yenisi'isk lo (lO 10 norlh lal., 
eastern Asia. India. North Africa. The variety ihivunca especially occurs in the eastern 
geographical area of the species, from south-eastern Euiope. Ihrough Ihe \llai region, the 
Sayansk district. Baikal. Manchooria. to China and .lapan. 

Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. Spec. IM. ed. II (17H2) p. 209; Ledeb. Fl. All. I. \^. 207; lur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 917; Turezan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 3()(). no. 974; Herder. PI. 
Radd. (1872) p. 418. no. 97; Pax el Knuth. Primiilac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV. 237. 
1905) p. 302. Xaumbun/id Ihiirsijloni (L.) Duby in DC. ProdrcMn. VIII (1844) p. 60; 
Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 25: KpLu. 'D.i. A.n. Ill (1904) p. 824. 

The specimens collected are nearly completely glalnous. wanting tiie rusty-red, 
curly hairs generallv lo be found in Norwegian specimens. The raceme is comparalive- 

353 



Iv short, nearly ovoid, and very densely flowered: the leaves are comparatively long, 
equally narrow, to 12 tin. long, and 1,7 cm. broad. Of rathei- common occuiTence in 
swampy places, in still creelvs, etc.. along the rivers Abakan and Yenisei, near the Kam- 
sara. and on flood-plains at Ust Tara-kem. The species begins flowering in the first half of 
June. 

Distrilnition: Temperate regions of Euro])e, Siberia, nol■th^\ards to 62 10' noilh 
lat. in the government of Tobolsk, and to 66° 30' in the government of Yeniseisk, east- 
w ards to Kamtchatka, northern Mongolia. Manchooria, Sakhalin. Japan, North America. 

Glaux maritima L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 301: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 274; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 929: Karcl. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 720: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 23: Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 304, no. 772; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 411. no. 92; 
Kpbi.i. $.1. A.IT. Ill (1904) p. 822; Pax et Knuth, Primiilac. in Engl. Pflanzenr. H. 22 (IV, 
237. 1905) p. 319. 

subspec. peduiiciilata nun. siibspec. [Tab. XIV, Fig. 2]. 

Ah forma liipica di/fcrl lloribiis (lislincle stipitatis — pedunciili 1 — t?..) //)/?!. longi: 
capsiihie fere piiri/onues. (tpire prohirUie. (iciiminatde. nee (jlubusne. nialnrae 3~'i mm. 
longae. 

The specimens collected by me in southern Siberia, are generally of a rather slen- 
der growth, 18 — 20 cm. high, usually simple, more rarely branched, strict, sometimes 
decunibenl. according to the habitats. The leaves are comparatively narrow, nearly lan- 
ceolate, 10—12 mm. long, and the breadth from Yi — Vi of the length, generally with a 
short petiole, and furnished with a rather indistinct midvein. These specimens, however, 
are especially characteristic and differing in having the flowers pedicelled, usually com- 
paratively long-pedicelled. The j^edicels are genci'ally 1 — 2 mm. long; specimens with 
pedicels measuring even to 2,5 nnn. have ])een observed by me. The pedicel is, like 
the whole i)lant, glabrous, more or less striate. The length of the flowers is generally 
from 2,5 — 3,5 mm., not differing from the typical species. The stamens are of about the 
same length as the calyx. The capsule, however, is characteristic in having the top di- 
stinctly protruding, so as to give it a pyrifoi'm appearance; the length of the fruit is 3 
to 4 mm. 

In the tloras in most common use, this species is recorded to have sessile or nearly 
sessile flowers, as is also the" case in the work liy Pax et Kmth, quoted above, where is 
recorded: „Flores sessiles"; the fruits ai'e, moreover, I'eported to be globular, both of which 
characters also seemed to agree with the material of this species taken from various parts 
of the globe, and used by me for comparison. In KptuoBb. $.i. A.ixaji III (1904) p. 822, 
however, the flowers are recorded to have short pedicels, and the fruits to be globular, 
with protruding tops, a statement accordingly agreeing with my observations. It is therefore 
just possible that the subspecies pedunculata is widely distributed over Siberia- where 
forming an eastern race of the species Ghiii.v mfirilimd. 

:5o4 



OcciniiuL; oil llic Abakan Steppe, al Ust Kaniuislilu, uii llie borders of salt marshes, 
and ill salitcKius soil, wlicic il is very coniiiion. accompanying .S'r/;/;//.v /;ir//(7/;;);/.s-. Stiiicdd 
mariliiud. rrif/lochin iiuiriliiiKi. .Iiinciis (icniidi. Ildiniiiciilii.s phiiilttffini/olitis, l^epidiiim 




Fig. 101. Glaux marilimii L siibspec. pediinciilala nov. siil)S|)i'f. ii. ami 

b. Parts of stems, rcspeclivcly witli flowers and capsules. — c. Capsule 

with tlie pedicel (^.s/i). 



cntssifoliuiu. and other halophilous plants. In llowcr and willi ripe linit.s in the second 

lialf of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the extreme north, southwards to northern Spain and 

northern Italy, Caucasia, and south-western Asia to Dzungaria, Turkestan, Afghanistan. 

western Tibet, Pamir, southern Sibeiia, from the Ural to the Pacific Ocean, northern Mon- 

goUa, eastern Asia to northern China, Sakhalin, Japan, North America. 

'6bd 



1* I II 111 l» a u: i II a «■ (' a e LlNDL. 

Stalice spcciosa L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762; p. 395: Ledeb. F^l. All. I, p. 436; Tuiczan. 
Cal. 15aical. no. 934: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 727; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 465; 
lipi.i.i. <P.i. A.rr. IV (1907) p. 1077. (ionioliiuon s/icciosiim Boiss. in DC. Prodrom. XII. p. 
634; Turczan. Fl. Uaical.-Dahur. (1852) p. 394, no. 926; Herder, PI. Radd. (1887) p. 49, 
no. 603. 

uar. genuina Kiviow, 1. c. (1907) p. 1078. 

Scattered in dry, stony iield, on dry rocks, etc., on Lliu Abakan Sk'})pe, \\ here llower- 
ing in June. I have also collected it in the Urjankai country, on dry sunny declivities on 
the Bei-keni. near I'sl Sisti-kem, and in several places on the steppes between the Tapsa 
and Kenicliik-i)om. 

Distribution: South-eastern Russia, Turkestan. Siberia, eastwards roughly to Irkutsk, 
northern Mongolia. 

Stalice C.melini ^Villd. Spec. PI. ed. II. p. 1524; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 432: Tin-czan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 236; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 723; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 460: Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1852) p. 397. no. 929: Herder, PI. Radd. (1887) p. 52, no. 606; 
Kpti.T. «l'.i. A, IT. IV (1907) ]). 1076. 

On the steppes along the Ulu-kem, especially in soniewhal saliferous soil. 

Distribution: Middle and southern Europe from Hungary and eastwards, Caucasia, 
south-western Asia to Turkestan, southern Siberia, eastwards to Lake Baikal, northern 
Mongolia. 

ii e II 1 i a 11 a c e a e 1)1 MOIM. 

Gentiana Amarella L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 334; Ledel). Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 52; Tur- 
czan. FT Baical.-Dahur. ( 1849) p. 310, no. 778: Herder. PI. Radd. (1872) p. 427, no. 109; 
Kpw.i. «l).i. A.n, HI (1904) p. 835. G. pmlcnsis Froel., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 288; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 785; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. .588. 

In dry meadows, and in light, (>])eii larch forest on the Sisti-kem, near Tsheberlash. 
at Ust Kamsara, and I'st Tara-kem. In flower in the first half of August. 

Distribution: Europe, southwards roughly to the north of France, Switzerland, 
Austiia, northern Italy and Bulgaria, the Caucasus, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley north- 
wards to towards 66° north lat., and eastwards to Kamtchatka, northern Mongolia. North 
America. 

Gentiana detonsa Rotlb. Act. Hafn. X (1770) p. 254: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 59; Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 322, no. 787; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 439, no. 116. G. 
barbala ImocI. (icniiana Libell. (1796) p. 114; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 282; Turczan. Cat. Bai- 
cal. no. 780; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 581; Turczan. 1. c. p. 321. no. 783; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. III. p. .59: Kpti.,. <l).j. A.ii. Hi (1904) p. 841. 

356 



Prclty ('(11111111111 ill llic lr:i(ls nlioiil Iho l.owcr Sisli-keiii. rouf^lily IVom 'I'sliclici hisli. 
aiul (low ^^\;ll(l^. wlicic occui riiij; iicar Ilic rivcr-lianks. in woods and In ^rass-f^rowii 
places. Al I'sl Sisli-kcni. il is ("xccedingly l'it'(iii(nl in llic meadows, wIutc — together willi 
S(int/itis<irh(i nJliiiiKilis conslilnling one of . llic most eliaraclerislic plants. Collected 
n()\V( rini; nearly llironf^liont .\iiL;nsl. 1 have also oJDserved il scattered along llic hanUs ol 
llic i5ei-kem. IVom I'sl Tara-kcm lo I'st Kanisara. 

l)istrii)nli()n: l'".aslcrii Uussia. Silieria. in llic Yenisei valley iioilliwards lo ()9 
iioilh hit., and eastwards to the .\mooi- Province and northern China. Ihe Thian-Shan, 
i'amii'. luiilhcrn Mongolia, Norlh .\ineriea? 

(ieiitiana algida I'allas. Fl. Ho.ss. 11, p. 107; l.cdch. 1"1. All. i. p. 'JSl; 'i'mczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 7(37: Karcl. cl Kiiil. Imiuiu. IM. Fl. Alt. no. .378: Tuie/.an. hi. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1849) p. :530. no. 792; i;|,i,i.i (|>.i. A.n. Ill (1904) p. 845. (i. aUjidn I'allas « sihirini Kus 
ne/.ow. Suhgen. luii/riiliana in Act. Hort. Peliopol. XY (1891)- 1904) no. .'ilJ. (i. frujidd 
Haencke ;■ ahjida (Pallas) Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 65: Herder. PI. Radd. (1872) p. 4;'):i, 
no. 125. 

Rather common in the Altaian, al an altilnde of 1700—2000 m. above sea-level, in 
places covered with moss and lichen, together with Genliana (dlaiid. PhijUndoce coeiiilcd. 
Drijas oclopi'hdii Sdri/hu/d roiuosn. Hhododi'iulron rliriisdnliiiii. and others. Collected 
ill fnll flo^ver at llic end of July. 

Distribution: Alpine tracts of middle Europe, Siberia. Ihioiigh llic Altai and Sayansk 
regions and Trans Baikal lo Ihc I'shuklsher Peninsula and Kamlchalka. D/ungaiia. Ihe 
Thian-Shan. Mongolia, 4'ibcl, Ihc Himalayas, Cashmere, Japan, Norlh America. 

Genliana niaerophylla Pallas, Fl. Ross. II, p. 108; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 286: Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. ikj. 766: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. All. no. 587: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 69: 
Kusnez. Huncnl. no. 92: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. XX\. no. 795: Herder. PI. 
Radd. (1872) p. 461. no. 132: l,>i,i.i <l>.i. A.n. Ill (1904) p. 847. 

In dry steppe meadows, and in open, dry brush-wood of birch and other foliage trees 
about Karatus and Kushahar. Collected with young flower-buds in llic first half of July. 

Distribution: Dzungaria, Siberia, in the Yenisei vallcv luntliw ai (Is to about 60" north 
lat., through the Altai and Sayansk regions. Trans Baikal, and caslw;irds to the Amoor 
Province, Manchooiia, northern Mongolia, northern China. 

Genliana decumbcns L. Supj)!. p. 174: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 280: Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 773: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 577; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 64: Turczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 329. no. 791; Herder.PL Radd. (1842) p. 451. no. 124: Kusnez. 
Eiigent. no. 7S; K|,m.i. <l«.i. .\.u. Ill (1904) p. 848. 

On rockv slopes at Fst rara-kem: flowering and past flowering in the middle of 
August. 

357 



f)isliil»utuin: On llic 1'])1)cl Iral. soutlurii Silicri;!, I'a.stwiinis lo Maiuliooiia. aorlli- 
cni Mongolia. 

Gcntiana altaica Pallas. Fl. Ross. II. p. 109: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 283; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 774: Karcl. et Kiril. Enum. Pi. Fl. Alt. no. 583; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 61; Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 325. no. 786; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 444, no. 118; 
Kusnez. Eiiqeni. no. 100: Kpw.i. 'ki. A.tt. Ill (1904) p. 849. 

Rather frequent in the Altaian, at an altitude of 1700—2000 m. above sea-level, 
among mosses and lichens, generally on dry and warm decli^^ties facing south. In full 
flower at the end of .luly. The flowers in the specimens collected are of an azure colour. 

Distribution: Through the AUai and Sayansk regions to the western part af Trans 
Baikal, noilhern Mongolia. 

Gentiana huniilis Steven in Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou III, p. 258; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
285; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 777; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 63; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1849) p. 327, no. 786; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 448, no. 121: Kusnez. FAigenl. no. 112; 
K|,i,i.i. (Ki. A.iT. Ill (1904) p. 851. 

This pretty, litllc Geiilutna is scattered on the islets in the rivers Yenisei and Aba- 
kan, where occurring in grass-grown places. Specimens taken at the beginning of June 
bear fully opened flowers, specimens collected in the second half of the same month are 
nearly past flowering, most of them with ripe, partly emptied capsules already. 

Distribution: Caucasia, Asia Minor, and south-w estem Asia, southern Siberia, north- 
ern Mongolia, north-eastern Tibet, northern China, Noilh America. 

Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 285; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 64; Tuiczan. Fl. 
Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 328. no. 790; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 449, no. 122: Kusnez. 
Eiigent. no. 138: Kpbi.i. 'D.i. A.n. 111(1904) p. 853. 

In the territory ex])lored this species is of al)out the same distiibution as the preced- 
ing one, together \\\[h which it also sometimes occurs: it seemed, for the rest, to prefer 
somewhat drier localities. To judge from the material collected, it is somewhat rarer, and 
its flowering season also seemed to begin a little later than in the preceding species. On 
islets in the Yenisei, near Ust Abakansk. 

Distribution; Russian Turkestan, southern Siberia, in the Yenisei valley nortliwards 
to about 59° north lat., and eastwards to the Amoor Province, Manchooria, Mongolia, 
western Tibet, northern India, Corea, China, Japan. 

Gentiana verna L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 331. 

wir. angulosa Wahlenb., Kusnez. Eiigent. no. 154; Kpbi.i. <I>.t. A.tt. Ill (1904) p. 855. G. 
verna fi alala Griseb., Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 01; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 441, no. 117. 
G. angulosa Marsch-Bieb., Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 283; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 775'; Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 582: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 323, no. 785. 

358 



Ill liuinifl. ^rass-^row 11 phicrs in llic i;iii;;i on Ihc I'liiici Sisli-I<i'ivi; I'lnw crin^ :ni(l 
past llowt'iiiif^ al the end of .luly. 

Dislrihntion: Middle lMiro])e. Caucasia and sDnUi-western Asia, sonllieni Silieiia lo 

alioiil ^akiilsK. iiiiillicin Mi)nL'i>lia. 

Pleiir<tj;yiu' rotala (L.) (iiiscl). dcnlidn. (18;')',l) p. IKi'.t; I.cddi. I'l. Koss. ill. p. 71: Tin- 
e/an. l"i. BaicaL-Daiinr. ( 18 19) p. :5:M. no. 796: Herder. I'l. Hadd. (1872) p. W.i. no. 134; 
lipi.i.i. 'l>.i A.M. Ill (1901) p. 8.")(i. a. siilcniii Willd. I.edel). Fl. .Ml. I. p. 290; Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. I(i9. Smrrlin roldhi L. Spec. PI. cd. 11 ( 17(12) j). 328. 

Ill meadows near lagaisUi oscro, and in llie rrjanUai counlrv. rather conunon 
about the Upper Hei-kem. near the Dora Steppe, the Kuree, and at I'.sl Tara-Uem. where 
1 have collected it in grassy, soincliines slightly moist places in brush-wood, etc.. in full 
flower ill August. 

Distribution: North-eastern Euroiie, Siberia lo Kamtchatka and llie Ainoor Pro- 
vince, norlherii Mongolia, northern (".hina. .lapan. Noi (li .\meric;i. and Greenland. 

Anagallidiuin dichotomum (L.) Griseb. (ienlidii. (1839) p. 312: Karel. el Kiril. Enum. 
PI. Fl. Alt. no. 592: Ledeb. Fl. Ros.s. Ill, p. 72: Turczan. Fl. Haical.-I )aluir. (1849) p. 336, 
no. 798: Herder. PI. Radd. (1872) p. 466: no. 136; Im.m.i. 'Iu. A.n. Ill (1904) p. 8.")8. Sirrrlia 
(licholoma L. .\moen.Acad. II, p. 317: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1. p. 291: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 787. 

The material collected is rather varying, but seemed to be separable into 2 forms, of 
which one is distinguished by a \igorous, compact growth, much branched from the base, 
and with short internodes. The rather large leaves are 3- lo 5-nerved. and llic upper jiedi- 
cels generally so short that the flowers do not reach abo\ e the upper pair of leaves. The 
leaves are, like the branches, rather stiff and appressed-ascending. The petals are of a 
light, ncarlv white colour, with distinctly yellow, strongly marked veins. This form 
much recalls Pam.as's figure in Fl. Ross. t. II, fig. A. 

The other form is distinguished by a more slender and delicate grow th. with longer 
internodes, smaller and narrower. 1- to 3-ncrved leaves. The fine pedicels are long and 
drooping. The petals are of a greenish colour, with distinct nerves of a rather deep green. 
These specimens are suggestive of Pai.i..\s's illu.stralion I. c. fig. C. For the rest, as regards 
the colour of the flowers in this species, Pallas remarks: ,.F'lores multo minores quam 
praecedentis viridiores, interdum subrubentes. . ." As my material is rather scarce, I dare 
not express any opinion on the systematic value of these characters. 

The species is scattered in grass-grown places about the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, 
and on the islets, partly associated with Moehringia lateriflora, where collected by me in 
full flower in the middle and at the end of June. 

Distribution: Dzungaria, southern Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 58° 
north lat., and eastwards to Trans Baikal, northern Mongolia. 

Halenia sibirica Borkhausen, in Roemer, Archiv. I (1796) p. 25: Turczan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 788: Ledeb. Fl. Boss. III. p. 74; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 341, no. 801: 

359 



Ilcrdei-. IM. Haild. (KS72) p. KkS. ho. VM: K|,i.i.i 
ciildl'i L. Aiiioon. Acad. II, p. 317; Ledeh. Fl. -W 




Fiu. 1(12. 
360 



Siiwrlia obliisa Lkdeh. Iioiii the S;iyaiisk moun- 
tains (-'3). 



M. A.iT. Ill (1904) p. 859. Sinrrlid roriii- 

1. p. 292. 

Pretty common in moist 

meadows and in open brush-\\ ood 
on islets in the river Abakan, near 
Askys, and at Ust Kamuishto. On 
the inlets in the river Abakan, near 
Askys, I have collected a small- 
leaved form, in which the leaves 
are onlj' 4 — 6 mm. broad, and 5 — 
6 times as long, always 1-nerved 
only. Flowering in the middle of 
June. Near Ust Kamuishto I have 
collected some specimens of a 
more broad-leaved form, the lea- 
ves of which are 12—15 mm. 
broad, and about 3 times as long, 
always furnished with 3 distinct 
nerves. Of this one I have found 
young, not yet flowering speci- 
mens at the end of June. The spe- 
cies also occurs in the Urjankai 
countiy, where collected by me on 
flood-plains at Ust Tara-kcm. 

Disti-ibution: From the Ural 
eastwards through Siberia loKamt- 
chatka and the Amoor Province, 
northern Mongolia, Manchooria, 
northern (.iiina. Sakhalin. Japan. 

Swertia obtiisa Ledeb. in 
Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. V, p. 526; 
Ledeb. Fl. All. I, p. 290; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 786: Karel. et Kiril. 
Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 591; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ros.s. Ill, p. 75; Kjiw.!. $.1. A.iiT. 
Ill (1904) p. 861. .S. perennis Pal- 
las, Fl. Ross. II, p. 98. S. perennis 
i3 obtusa Griseb. in DC. Prodrom. 
IX, p. 132; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1849) p. 340, no. 800; Her- 
der, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 470, no. 141. 



Pretty fominnii in the Allaiiin. in somcwlial moist, alpine ^rass-ficlrls. In Inll flower 
al the end of July. 

Distribution: Caucasia, llic I'ral, Siberia, norihwartls in lin' Yenisei valley to about 
71 noilli lal.. Kanilciialka, northern Mongolia. 

Limnantheniuni iiyinplioides (L.) Iloflni. el Link, Fl. PoiIul;. 1 (180!)) p. lill: Ledcb. 
Fl. Ross. III. p. 77: Turezan. Fl. Haioal.-Dalmr. (1819) p. 311, no. 8(«: Ki.i.u. <l>.i. A.ir. Ill 
(1904) p. 864. Vilhnsiit mimphoides Vent, Ledeb. Fl. .Ml. 1. p. 221: Turezan. Cat. Uaieal. 
no. 790: Karel. el Kiril. Imhuu. I'I. Fl. .\lt. no. 591. L. pclhiltiii} C,:,iel.. Herder. I'l. I'.add. 
(1872) p. 473, no. 142. 

In .swamps at Fsl 'I'ara-kem. and on the Bei-kem. in jionds neai- the Dora Steppe. In 
flower at the end of Aut^usl. 

Distribution: Middle and southern I'lurope, .south-western .Vsia to Cashmere and 
the Himalayas, norllu i u India, soulliern Silieria lo the Amoor Province, Manehooria and 
China, northern Mongolia. .lapan. North America. 

Menyanthes trifoliata L. Spec. PI. ed. 11 (1762) p. 208: Ledeb. Fl. .^It. 1, p. 221; Tur- 
ezan. Cat. Baical. no. 789; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 76; Turezan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) 
p. 342, no. 802: Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 475, no. 144; Kphi.i. 1>.i A.m. Ill (1904) p. 862. 

In w et bogs and shallow ponds on the rivers Yenisei and Abaivan, about Karatus and 
Kushabar, and in the Amyl taiga; pretty common in the Urjankai country, where I have 
collected it in turfy swamps at Ust Algiac, on the Upper Bei-kem, near Ust Kamsara, at 
Ust 4'ara-kem. and in the swamps by the dwellings of PKriu)w and Mosg.m.kwski. 
In full flower in .July and August. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most south-western parts, south-westein and north- 
ern Asia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 69° nortJi lat., and eastwards to Kamtchatka, 
the Amoor Pro\dnce and Manehooria, southwards to the Himalayas, Ca.shmere, Mongo- 
lia, North America, Greenland. 

A s 1 e p i a (1 a c e a e LlMH- 

Vincetoxicum sibiricum (L.) Decaisne in DC. Prodrom. YIII, p. 525; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 
Ill, p. 46; Turezan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 310. no. 776; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 
424, no. 104; Kpw.i. O.i. A.rr. Ill (1904) p. 828. Cynanchiun sibiricum (L.) R. Br. in Mem. 
Wern. Soc. I, p. 48: Ledeb. Fl, Alt L p. 279; Turezan. Cat. Baical. no. 765; Karel. et Kiril. 
Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 575. 

Pretty common in diT steppe meadows, on stony declivities, among gravel, etc., in 
the tracts about the river Abakan, and in the neighbourhood of Minusinsk. In full flower 
in the second half of .June. 

Distribution; Southern Siberia, middle Mongolia, Manehooria, Corea, northern 

China. 

32 ^^^ 



CouTolTulaceae VEXT. 

Convolvulus aivensis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 218; Ledeh. Fl. Alt. I. p. 224: Ledeb. 
FI. Ross. Ill, p. 91; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 353, no. 809; Herder, PI. Radd. 
(1872) p. 490, no. 150; KpBU. O.i. A.aT. IV (1907) p. 868. 

Near the \'illage of Askys, on the Abakan Stejipe, where scattered along borders of 
fields, etc. With flowers and flower-buds in the middle of June. The specimens collected 
belong to the forms vulgaris Ledei!. 1. c. and angustatus Ledeh. 1. c. Withered remains of 
this species I have also observed on the steppes along the L'lu-keni, at the end of August. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most northern regions, south-western Asia, Sibe- 
ria, in the Yenisei valley northwards to about 57° north hit, North Africa. In the East this 
species is replaced by the veiy nearly allied Convoloiiliis sagiliifolius Fischer. 

Convolvulus Amniannii Desr. in Lamarck, Encycl. Method. III. p. .549; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
I, p. 226; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 798; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PL FI. Alt. no. 600; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. Ill, p. 90: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 352. no. 808: Herder. PI. Radd. 
(1872) p. 489, no. 149; Kpbi.i. d'.i. A.ix. IV (1907) p. 869. 

Ratlier common on the Abakan Steppe, especially in dry, sandy or stony places; with 
flowers in June. It also occurs in the Urjankai country, where I have observed it in seve- 
ral places on the steppes between Tapsa and Cha-kul, where past flowering at the end of 
August. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, northern Mongolia. Manchooria. China. 

Cufscutaeeae DUMORT. 

Cuscuta europaea L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 180: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 294: Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 357. no. 811; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 499, no. 154: 
KpM.1. <l)ji. A.1T. IV (1907) p. 874. 

Here and there on islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, where I have observed 
it on plants as Campanula. Urtica, Cacalia hastala, Artemisia vulgaris, and others. With 
young flower-buds in June. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Europe, except the most northern parts, Siberia, north- 
wards to about 6r north lat., Manchooria, south-western Asia, roughly to the north of 
India, North Africa. 

Cuscuta lupuliformis Krocker, Fl. Siles. I (1787) p. 261; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 
501, no. 156; Kpw.i. .kn. A.n-. IV (1907) p. 875. C monogyna Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 294; Tur- 
czan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1849) p. 358, no. 812; Herder, 1. c. (1872) p. 500, no. 155. 

var. asiatica Engelm., Kpw.i. 1. c. (1907) p. 875. 

The Asiatic specimens differ from the European ones in having the corolla-scales 
entire, ovate or broadly ovate, not 2-cleft. Of very common occurrence on low, sandy 
islets in the Bei-kem, near the mouth of the Tapsa, where it is parasitic on SaKv vimimi- 
lis. I have collected it in the last days of August with fruits of the size of a pea. 

362 



Disli-il)uti()ir. 'I'lie species occurs in middle and soulii-caslei ii Imii ope and adjaceiil 
|)arls of Asia. Sil)eiia. eastwards to Trans Baii<al, norliiein Mon<.;olia. 

r o I e III o II i ii (■ e ii e IK'. 

Polcnioniiini cocruleiim L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 2:50: Ledeb. Fl. All. I. p. 232; 
Turczan. t'.al. Haical. no. 791: Karel. et Kiril. luuun. PI. Fl. .Ml. no. .')*.)."): I.iddi. l'"l. i'loss. 
Ill, p. 83; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1819) p. 348, no. 805; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 
479, no. 14(i; Brand, Pvlnnonidcrae in Engl. Pflanzenr. II. 27 (lY, 250, 1907) p. 37: i;|,i,,.i, 
*ji. Axr. IV (1907) p. 866. 

The specinu'iis lollerlcd of Ihis rather varying species, arc cliaraclcrizcd hy having 
the upper parts of llic sicin. the pedicels, and the calyces woolly, and rather densely beset 
with long-slalkeii glaiuUilai hairs, by which character these spei'iniens much recall viii: 
rdinpdniildliiin 'Vi\. Vn. The specimens, however, are always very flowery, with a much 
branched fiower-tlusler: llu' loht's of the corolla arc Mibolusc al llic lo]). iiol (lisliiiclly 
aculisli. willi ijlaliralc margins. Tills margin of the petals is culirc, or only very slightly 
and irregularly serrate, only here and thei'e furnished with a single or some few scattered 
hairs. The flowers arc comparatively small, the f orolla 12 — 1.^) mm. long. 

Scattered in thickets in the subalpine wooded tracts about the Upper Amyl, on the 
Sisti-kem, and at Ust Kaiusara. In the Altaian I have found it uj) to the tree limit. In full 
flower in July. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most southern portions, northern and temperate 
parts of Asia, southwards to the Himalayas and northern TJiina. Sakhalin, .Tapan, North 
America (Alaska). 

H o r r a !; i II a c e a e LiNDL. 

Anchusa myosotidiflora Lehm. Asperifol. (1818) p. 234. 

yor. graiuiiflora DC. Prodrom. X, p. 50; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. HI. \). 121: h>i,i.i. 'I>.i. A.ix. 
IV (1907) p. 880. 

Scattered in humid, grass-grown places in the Amyl taiga: nearly jiast flowering 
about the middle of .luly. 

Distribution: Caucasia, western Siberia, eastwards to the government of Yeniseisk. 

Onosma echioides L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 196. 

Udi: C.melini (Ledeb.) Krylow, il>.i. A.rr. IV (1907) p. 881. O. Gmclini Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 
1, p. 184: Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 612; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 126; Herder, PI. 
Radd. (1872) p. .504, no. 159. 

Pretty common in the Minusinsk district and in the tracts along the rivers Yenisei 
and Abakan, where occuning on dry, stony steppes. Not observed anywhere in abun- 
dance bv me. Generally occurring singly, scattered on the steppes, where reaching con- 
siderably higher than the surrounding low steppe vegetation, and — being, besides, of a 

363 



characteristic j-ellowish green colour, partly due to the dense and stilf hairs, jjartly to the 
great number of large, yellow flowers — it is a verj' characteristic and easily recognizable 
plant on these steppes, where it stiikes the eye at a great distance. The root contains a 
blood-red pigment. In full flower in June. 

Distribution: The species occurs in southern Europe, from Spain and the south of 
France, eastwards through Switzerland, Austro-Hungary, the Mediterranean counti'ies, 
the Balkan Peninsula, southern Russia, south-western Asia, southern Siberia, eastwards 
roughly to tlie Yenisei. The above variety is restricted to its eastern range, from about the 
Thian-Shan and Alatau to the west. 

Onosma simplicissimum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1762) p. 196: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 183: 
Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 611; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 127; Kpi.i.i. <I).i. A.ix. IV 
(1907) p. 882. 

This plant has been found by me on stony decli%'ities on the steppes at Minusinsk, 
near Tagarski osero. In flower at the beginning of July. 

Distribution: South-eastei'n Europe, Russian Turkestan, southern Siberia, east- 
wards roughly to the Yenisei. 

Lithospernuini officinale L. Spec. PL ed. II (1762) p. 189: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 174; 
Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 802: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 130; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1850) p. 500, no. 814; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 504, no. 160; Kpto. $j. A.n. IV (1907) 
p. 884. 

On the Abakan Steppe, near Askys, with young flower-buds in the middle of June; 
scattered about Karatus and Kushabar. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most northern and south-western parts, Caucasia 
and south-western Asia, Siberia, eastwards to about Lake Baikal. 

Pulmonaria mollissinia Kerner, Monogr. Piilmon. (1878) p. 47; Kpbu. $j. A-tt. IV 
(1907) p. 886. P. mollis Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. p. 179; Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 807: Karel. et 
Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 610; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 137; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. 
(1850) p. 506, no. 819. P. angustifolia Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 515, no. 169. 

In moist and shady, grass-grown places in the Amyl taiga and in similar habitats, 
near Ust Sisti-kem. Past flowering in July. 

Distribution: Middle Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 
61K.° north lat., and eastwards to about the government of Yakutsk, northern Mongolia. 

Mysolis palustris (L.) Lamarck, Fl. Franc. II (1778) p. 283; Turczan. Fl. Baical.- 
Dahur. (1850) p. 509, no. 821; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 519, no. 172. 

var. nemorosa (Besser) Schmalh. O.i. C^tem- n K)h;h. Poccin II, p. 2.34; Kptu. $.i. A.it. 
J\' (1907) p. 889. M. nemorosa Besser, Enum. PI. Volhyn. (1822) p. 52, no. 1464; Ledeb. 
Fl. Ah. I, p. 188; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 616; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 143. 

This variety, the most frequent one in Siberia, is very characteristic in having the 

364 



upper parts of llie stem strigose. wliilr the lowxi parts of tlie stem are glabrous and shin- 
ing, and otttn finely striate. Tlie leaves are, on the ujjper as well as on the under sides, 
rather densely covered with tiiicU, appressed hairs, showing the peculiarity of being turned 
downwards on liie under sides of the lower leaves, while, on llie upjier sides of the same 
leaves as well as on both sides of all the leaves higher up. they ari' turned upwards. The 
style is about V, shorter than Hie ealyx. Specimens from the different localities show, for the 
resl. Ihal llu> species varies rallier niiieh in Hie size and nniuiiei of Hie flowers, in the 
shape and size of the leaves, etc. The lobes of Hie coiolhi may be entire and rounded at 
the top, or more or less indented. On the Lower .\bakan 1 have found a form with large, 
white jH'tals. /, liiclijluni. It occurs here together with specimens of the typical colour. 
A form wilh very small flowers, only about 4 mm. broad, has been collected by me at 
Askys. and a similar small-flowered form, wilh a more concave limb, occurs on the 
islets in Hie Yenisei, near fsl .\bakansk. In some specimen.s Hie lower parts of the sleni 
are spariuiify pubescenl, as it also appears from some specimens that the stem may be 
slightly winged. 

The species is of very common occurrence in the territory explored, where growing 
in marshy places, such as moist meadows and thickets, on river-banks, and the like. On 
the islets in the rivers Yenisei and Abakan, near Karatus, at Kushabar, in the Amyl val- 
ley, Ust Algiac, Ust Sisti-kem. on the Kamsara. and near the Tara-kem. In full flower in 
June and July. 

Distribution: All over Europe, except the southern part.s, souHi-western Asia. Sibe- 
ria, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 71' north lat, and eastwards to about the Lena, 
northern Mongolia. Madeira, North America. 

Myosotis caespitosa Schultz, Fl. Stargard. II. p. 11; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I. j). 188; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 812; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 144; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Daliur. (1850) 
p. 510, no. 822; Herder, PI. Radd. (1872) p. 522, no. 173; Ki.tu. Ivi. A.rr. IV (1907) p. 890. 

In moist, partly inundated, shady places on tlie banks of islets in the Yenisei, near 
Ust Abakansk. Young flowers at the end of June. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Europe, except the southern parts, Caucasia and south- 
western Asia to the Himalayas, Siberia, to southern Kamtchatka. the Amoor Province, 
Manchooria, North Africa. 

Myosotis silvalica llotfm. Deutschl. Fl. I, p. 65; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1850) 
p. 510. no. 823; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 145; Herder. PI. Radd. (1872) p. 529, no. 174; 
Kpti.1. itj. A.iT. IV (1907) p. 891. M. intermedia « (/rntuUlloru Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 187. 

Rather common in meadows on the islets in the Abakan, and in moist, grass-gi-own 
places on the steppe, near Ust Abakansk, in thickets of (Ainigona aihorescens. together 
wilh Aster alpirjiis. Stellnria graminea, Solidago Virgaiirea, Fragaria viridis. Iris riithe- 
nica. and others. In full flower at the beginning of June. 

uar. alpestris (Schmidt) Koch, Synops. p. 505; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 145; Herder, 

36o 



PI. Radd. (1872) p. 529, no. 175; KpBijr. 1. c. (1907) p. 891. .1/. alpesiris Schmidt, Fl. Boliem. 
Ill (1794) p. 26; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 189: Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 810; Karel. et Kiril. 
Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 615. 

This variety differs from the preceding one in being of a lower and more caespitose 
growth, and with a more congested, shorter and thicker raceme. The flowers are mostly 
larger, and the pedicels rather short, not longer than the calyx. The flowers are of a dark 
blue, slightly fragrant. Collected in the Amyl taiga and in the Altaian, in alpine and sub- 
alpine meadows, frequently in somewhat moist places, where T have collected it in full 
flower at the end of July. 

Distribution: Neai'ly all over Europe, Caucasia, south-western and northern Asia, 
southwards to Persia, Pamir and the Himalayas, eastei'n Asia, Sakhalin. 

Myosotis intermedia Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. I (1819) p. 164; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 187 
(excl. var. a); Ledeb. Fl. Ross. III. p. 146: K]iw.i. «I'.t. A.it. IV (1907) p. 892. M. ariH-nsis 
Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 187. 

In rather diy, sandy places on the islets in the Yenisei, on di^y steppe meadows and 
hills on the Abakan Steppe, and at Kushabar. Flowering in June and July. 

Distribution: Europe, Caucasia, south-western Asia, Siberia, eastwards to the Amoor 
Province, Corea, Japan, Africa, North America. 

Eritrichium pectinatum (Pall.) DC. Prodrom. X, p. 127; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 152: 
Herder. PI. Radd. (1872) p. 538, no. 179; Kptu. ^j. A.it. IV (1907) p. 896. E. incninim 
DC. 1. c, Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1850) p. 514, no. 827. Mijosolis incana Turczan. Cat. 
Baical. no. 816. M. ciliata Ledeb. Fl. Alt. L p. 191. (Inch E riipestre Bunge). 

Rather frequent on the Aliakan Steppe, especially on stony declivities and sandy, hot 
steppe meadows. Collected in full flower in June. I cannot find that E. nipeslre Blnge. 
of which I have examined a rich material in Petrograd, differs from the present species by 
characters of real, systematic value, and therefore I refer it as a synonym under E. pecti- 
natum (Pai.l ) DC. 

Distribution: Silieria and noiUiern Mongolia, Manchooria, Corea, China, Tibet. 

Echinospernuini Lappuia (L.) Lehm. Asperifol. (1818) p. 121: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 
198; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 155: Kpi.i.i. «l'.i. A.it. IV (1907) p. 900. 

ixir anisacanthum (Turczan.) Trautv., Kpu.i. 1. c. (1907). E. anisacanthum Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 824; Ledelj. Fl. Ross. III. p. 156: Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1850) p. 
520, no. 833; Herder. Pl. Radd. (1872) p. 551, no. 189. 

Along borders of fields, on slopes, and near habitations, on the Abakan Steppe, 
where rather frequent, and scattered in the cultivated tracts lietween Minusinsk and 
Kushabar. In full flower in June. Withering remains of this species I have, l)esi.dcs. found 
on the steppes about the Ulu-kem, at the end of August. 

.SB(i 



Dislrilnition: The species is distributed over the greater pjirt of Europe, except the 
most northern and soullurn ]);irls. soulli-w cslfni Asi;i. Siliciia. in the Yenisei valley 
northwards to about (32 nortii hit., and eastwards to tlie Sea of Ukliotsk, northern Mon- 
i^olia, Manchooria, Corea, northern Ciiina. North Africa. Tlie variety ninsnvnnlhiim occurs 
in the eastern ])art of the area, viz. from about the Yenisei througii 'lians liaikal and 
Dahuria Id Mancliooria, China and Corea. 

Cynoylossuin officinale L. Spec. Pi. ed. II (17()2) |). 192: Ledeb. FI. Alt. I. p. l'J5: 
Karcl. el Kiril. I'Junn. Pi. l"l. All. no. (i22: Ledeb. V\. Ros.s. 111. p. Ki.'r Herder. PI. P,add. 
(1872) p. .3.33, no. I'.ll; j;|,i,i.i. 'I'.i. A.n. IV ( I'.iOT) p. 'J()<». 

Scattered in dry. .sandy places on llie islets in llie rivci- .\l)akan. at Askys, and near 
liai>ilali()ns on llie steppe, at Csl Kamuishlo. In flower and in |>;nl done flowering in the 
second half of .June. 

Distribution: Kuro|)e, except the most northern and .sonlhern parts, south-western 
Asia, Siberia, northwards to GS.K north lat. in the Yenisei valley, and eastwards to Trans 
Baikal. North America (adventive from Europe). 

Labi a t a e Jl'SS. 

:Mentha arvensis L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 806: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. IL p. 400; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 897: Karei. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 689: Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
338: Turczan. Fk Baical.-Dahur. ( 18.31 ) p. 365, no. 893; Herder. Pi. Radd. (188.3) p. 119, 
no. 521: KpM.i. <I).i. A.n. IV (1907) p. 1006. .1/. camidensisTwrczAn. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851) 
p. 365, no. 891. ,1/ luisliincd Turczan. Cat. Baical. no. 898. 

Pretty common on islets in the river Abakan, and in moist places on the Amyl, near 
Kushabar. In the month of June, I have only collected young, flowerless plants. In the 
Urjankai country I have collected the species at Ust Sisti-kem and at I'st Tara-kem, near 
the liver. 

Specimens from the different localities vary rather nuuh in .stature, in hairiness, 
ramification, shape t)f the leaves, length of the petioles, etc. 

Distribution: Nearly all over Europe, except tlie most southern and northern parts, 
Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 67,'-^ north lat.. and eastwards to Kamt- 
cliatka. the Amoor Province and Manchooria, south-western Asia to the Himalayas, 
noiiJiern China, Sakhalin. Japan, Noilli Africa, and North America (adventive from 
Europe). 

Mentha aquatica L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 805: Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II. p. 399: Ledeb. 
Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 337; Kphu. lU.i. A.it. l\ (1907) p. 1007. 

In thickets on the banks of the river Abakan, near Askys, in humid. i)artly inundated 
places. Young, flowerless specimens collected in June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the exti'eme north, Caucasia and south-western Asia. 

;^67 



Siberia, except the extreme east. North and South Africa, America (naturalized from 
Europe). 

Lycopus I'uropaeus L. Spec. PI. cd. II (1762) p. 30; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. I, p. 18; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 911; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 704; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
341; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851) p. 267, no. 895; Herder, PI. Radd. (1885) p. 127, 
no. 554; Kjihu. *.i. Ajit. IV (1907) p. 1008. 

On the banks of the river x\bakan. near Ust Abakansk, in humid, grass-grown places. 
Only leaves in the last days of June. 

Distribution: Europe, except the northern parts, Caucasia and south-western Asia, 
roughly to the Himalayas, Siberia, eastwards to about Lake Baikal, northern China, North 
Africa, North America (introduced). 

Origanum vulgare L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 824; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 396; Turczan. 
Cat. Baical. no. 893; Karel. et Kiril. Enum. PI. Fl. Alt. no. 687; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 
343; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851) p. 369, no. 897; Herder, PI. Radd. (1885) p. 134, 
no. 557; KpF.i.i. <Dj. A.it. IV (1907) p. 1010. 

In thickets, on dry hills, etc., near Kushabar, and on dry, open declivities in theAmyl 
taiga. Collected with }oung flower-buds in the middle of July. In the Urjankai country 
at Ust Kamsara, on dry, open decli\ities, with ripe nutlets about the middle of August, 

Distribution: Europe, except the most northern parts, Caucasia and south-western 
Asia to the Himalayas, Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to about 61° north lat,,and 
eastw'ards to Trans Baikal, North America (introduced). 

Thymus Serpyllum L. Spec. PI. ed. II (1763) p. 815; Ledeb. Fl. Alt. II, p. 390; Tur- 
czan. Cat. Baical. no. 887; Ledeb. Fl. Ross. Ill, p. 345; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851) 
p. 371, no. 898; Herder PI. Radd. (1885) p. 141, no. 558; Kpbi.i. <I)jt. Ajit. IV (1907) p. 1011. 

Common on the Abakan Steppe, especially on di-y, sunny rocks, in gravel and sand, 
together with plants as Poirinia sibirica. Phelipuea lanuginosa. Campanula sihirica, etc. 
Collected in full flower in the month of June. This plant is used by the natives, the Mongo- 
lian Abakan Tatars, as incense, during tireir shaman feasts. The species is also rather 
frequent in the Urjankai country, especially in the wooded steppe region, where I have 
met with it at Ust Sisti-kem, Ust Kamsara, and at Ust Tara-kem, on open declivities, in 
dry, sandy larch forest, and the like. The specimens collected seem, at any rate partly, 
to belong to var. angustifolius Ledeb. 

Distribution: Europe, south-western and northern parts of Asia, northwards in the 
Yenisei valley to about 72*' north lat., and eastwards to Kamtchatka, the Amoor Pro- 
vince, Manchooria, Corea and northern China, southwards to Tibet, the Himalayas and 
the East Indies, Sakhalin, Japan, North Africa, Greenland, North America (introduced). 

Calaniintha Acinos (L.) Clairville in Gaud. Fl. Helv. IV (1829) p. 84; Ledeb. Fl. 
Ross. Ill, p. 353. 

368 



In my collections I liave only a single specimen of this one, Uiken near Kushabar, 
on ili\ hills, in lull flower in the middle of July. This plant does not seem to have been 
observed herelofore in Siberia, and lias not been entered in Ihe common enumerations 
of plants from Ihere, its distribution being j)reviously regarded as limited eastwards to 
about the Ural. The specimen collected fully agrees with the typical C Acinos. 

Distribution: Europe, except the most northern and southern jjarts, Caucasia, Sibe- 
ria, iiillurlo obseived oidy al)oul Kushabar. North .Vnicrica (introduced). 

Nepeta lavandulaeea L. til. Supjjlem. p. 272; Ledei). IT. \\[. 11. p. 10 1; I.edeb. Fl. 
Hoss. Ill, p. 372; Turczan. Fl. Baical.-Dahur. (1851) p. 374, no. "lOl; Herder, PL Kadd. 
(1887) p. 4, no. 567; K|m.i.i. -Im. A.ir. IV (1907) p. 1024. .V. mullijidd 4'urezan. Cat. Baical. 
no. 895. 

Pretty common on the Abakan Steppe and on the steppes about Minusinsk, where 
occurring on drv rocks, along dried up brook.s' coiuses. among .stones and gravel. Col- 
lected in full flower in June. 

Distribution: Southern Siberia, in the Yenisei valley northwards to 57' north laL, 
and eastwards to the Amoor Province and Manchooria, iiorliiern Mongolia. 

Nepeta nuda L. Sp